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 « ^ 4V 


W t^.SS 




History of London. 


W. J. L O F T I E, 

'memorials of THB SAVOV/ BTC. 



VOL. IL_, , -^ 


k  \'<^ 







w / r 




The Middle Saxons — The Hundreds — The population — The 
suburbs of London — Ecclesiastical estates — The boundaries of 
the county — South Mimms and the Frowyks — Gunnersbury — 
Stanwell — Old families— Old houses — Hampton Court — Syon — 
Osterley — Canons — Little Stanmore church — Chiswick — His- 
torical memories in Middlesex .. .. Page x 



Its antiquity — Thomey — OfTa's charter — £dgar*s charter — Boun- 
daries — Manor of Eia — Parish of St. Margaret— Westminster in 
Domesday — The Confessor's church — The Poets' Comer — St, 
Margaret's church — Caxton — Raleigh — Cowper — The palace — 
The Houses of Parliament— The Hall— The Abbey— The royal 
tombs — ^The triforium — The waxworks — The first dean — West- 
minster School — Ashbumham House — The government of the 
manor of Westminster Page 32 



The Decree of 1222 — Ludgate— Farringdon Without — St Clement 
Danes — Lincoln's Inn — Smaller inns — Fickett's Field — The New 
Law Courts — ^The Savoy — St. Mary-le-Strand — Somerset House 
— ^The riverside palaces — Covent Garden— St. Martin's-in-the 
Fields — Charing and the Cross — The National Gallery — St. 
James's, Piccadilly — St Anne's, Soho — St. George's, Hanover 
Square— The Westminster estate Page 68 




Whitehall — ^The king*s manor — The banqueting hall — Scotland 
Yard — Execution of Charles I. — St. Jameses palace and park — 
Buckingham Palace — Green Park— Hyde Park— Cumberland 
Gate — Tyburn — The Serpentine — The manor of Neyte — Kensing- 
ton Palace — Kensington Gardens — The Albert Memorial 

Page io8 



The Towers of Caesar— The parish of Stepney— The boundary of 
the Tower Precinct — The Tower in the Thirteenth Century — 
Queen Elizabeth at Traitors' Gate — Restoration of the Tower — 
The chapel of St Peter — The records — The lions— The manor 
of Stepney — Its disintegration — ^Whitechapel — Shadwell — St. 
Dunstan's — St. Philip's — St. George's-in-the-East — Limehouse — 

' Stepney, a centre of fashion — Bethnal Green— Parliament at 
Stepney — Colet — The Daniel and Tyssen estates — Hackney — 
The sixth earl of Northumberland — Lord's hold and king's 
land — Susannah Perwich .. Page 136 



Crown property — The prebendal manors of St Paul's — The 
Charterhouse— The two priories of Clerkenwell — St John's Gate 
—Hicks' Hall — The manor of Ishngton — Highbury — Lord 
Compton at Canonbury — Stoke Newington — Portpool and Gray's 
Inn — Ely Place — Sir Christopher Hatton — Bishop Wren — Lady 
Elizabeth Hatton — St Etheldred's chapel — Manor of Holbom — 
St George the Martyr — ^The Red Lion and the Blue Boar — 
Great Ormond Street and Lord Macaulay .. .. Page 165 



Rugmere— The Roman road— St Giles's pond— Bloomsbury — St. 
Giles's— Lincoln's-Inn-Fields— Lady Rachel Russell— The British 


Museum— St. George's church — St. Pancras — The old church 
and the new church— Tottenhall — Fitzroy Square — Tyburn — 
St. Marylebone — Stratford Place — The Conduit Mead — The 
Manor of Tyburn — Hobson — The duke of Newcastle — The 
Harleian library — The manor of Lylleston — The Portman 
estate — The Harrow estate— The church of St. Marylebone — 
All Souls, Langham Place — Chapels — St. Mary, Bryanston 
Square — Tyburn tree — Paddington — Westboume — Kensal 
Green — Queen Anne's son — The gravel pits — Kensington — 
Holland House — Campden House — Brompton — Cromwell — 
Chelsea — Sir Thomas More — The old church — Chelsea hospital 

Page 200 



Lambeth — The bishops and the archbishops — St. Thomas's hos- 
pital — Lambeth library — Stockwell and Vauxhall — Kennington 
— Battersea — A strange family — Bolingbroke — Newington — Ber- 
mondsey — Rotherhithe Page 266 


THE "metropolitan AREA." 

Growth of suburbs— Board of Works— Use of the name "metro- 
polis" — The definition of the area — The population and their 
food — The governing system — A common error — Conclusion. 

Page 292 


A. List of Mayors and Sheriffs Page 301 

B. Members of Parliament for the City „ 339 

C. Parishes in London ,, 3S9 

D. Wren's Churches and Public Buildings „ 361 

E. Prebendal Manors of St. Paul's „ 363 

F. Note on Wards and Parishes „ 367 

G. Members for Westminster ,1 371 

H. Members for Southwark „ 3'9 

L Members for Middlesex » 39^ 

INDEX „ 405 




24. The Tower in 1553 Frontispiece 

25. The Hundreds of Middlesex about 1756 .. .• i 

26. Westminster in 1658 34 

27. The Benedictine Abbey of Westminster .. .. 41 

28. Westminster Hall in the Eighteenth Century 54 

29. York Gate 87 

30. The City and Liberties of Westminster .. .. 106 

31. The Manor of Stepney •.. .. 149 

32. The Northern Suburbs 165 

33. The Western Suburbs 201 

34. The Marylebone Estate in 1708 223 

35. The Southern Suburbs 267 

36. London and the Suburbs, showing the area 

BUILT upon at different DATES 292 

37. Parish of St. Peter Cheap Appendix F. 

38. Cheap after the Conquest „ 





We know very little about the origin and first settlement 
of the Middle Saxons, though their name in itself tells 
us something. It shows us that the tribe which occupied 
the land between the river Brent and the walls of London 
was distinct from that which settled itself beyond the Lea- 
What its original name was we know not. Its situation, 
after the arrival of the tribe, between Essex and Wessex, 
the East Saxons and the West Saxons, caused it to 
assume the new appellation of the Middle Saxons. 
Beyond this meagre fact, for the Middle Saxons are not 
named in the Chronicle of the Conquest, we only know 
that they were very few in number, a mere handful, in a 
backward state as regards civilisation, chiefly settled 
along the line of the old Roman roads, and the banks of 
the Thames, their villages half hidden by the great forest 
which spread over all the hills from Hampstead to St. 
Albans. In name, at least, we have still the North Haw 
and the South Haw : we have still the Highgate and the 
Southgate, and the Hatch by the Coin : we recognise the 
oak in Acton and the ash in Ashford, and the thorn in 
Elthom. Hounslow and Willesden are in the woods, 



but there are cleared farms at Harmond's. Worth and 
Isleworth and Hanworth, and open fields at Enfield and 
Hadley and Finchley. Of the people we learn very 
little from the local names. The Saxon marks are very 
sparingly represented. When the " ing " does occur it is 
generally followed by " ton " or " don," town or down, 
as in Islington and Arlington, in Hillingdon and 
Newington, in Kensington and Teddington. Fields 
and fords and homes and greens are numerous, but 
Ealing, Yeading, and Charing are alone among the 
Middle Saxon family names. The population must 
have been extremely small, even down to the time of 
the Norman Conquest. If we may judge by the size of 
the parishes, it is clear that inhabitants were few and 
far between. 

The county was divided, at the time of the Domesday 
Survey, into six hundreds. Of these the smallest were 
along the river, namely, Iselworth and Spelthorn. But 
Ossulston, which extended round the west, north, and 
east sides of London, was of great size, as were Edmon- 
ton, Elthorn, and Gore. We may therefore safely con- 
clude that the population was greater by the river bank, 
and less to the north and north-west of the city, where 
the holdings were altogether inland. In modern lists of 
the hundreds of Middlesex Ossulston has no place. 
Kensington was an ancient division, formed when the 
suburbs became populous, with the three other districts 
of Holbom, Finsbury, and the Tower. The last-named, 
now the Tower Hamlets, comprised simply the great 
parish of Stepney, whose very size shows us how few 
were the inhabitants when parochial boundaries were 
fixed. The whole number of the tenants-in-chief in 
Middlesex in 1087 was only twenty-four, and the greater 
part of the county, in which the king had not a single 


manor,* was in the hands of the church, the bishop and 
canons of St Paul's, the abbeys of Westminster and 
Barking, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, being the 
chief landowners. 

If we go further and compare the condition of places 
near the river with places more inland, we find that in En- 
field and Isleworth there were exactly the same number 
of people, namely, 114; but Enfield is five times the size 
of Isleworth. Where the manors and parishes, for the 
manors and parishes are nearly always conterminous, are 
very large, we are justified in assuming that the local 
population was small. Such places as Harrow, Hanwell, 
Hendon, and Kingsbury, with a vast area, had little 
churches and little churchyards, but fed flocks of pigs of 
enormous size under the beeches and oaks of the ad> 
joining woods. Harrow and Enfield are recorded to 
have had pannage each for 2000 hogs, 500 were fed at 
Harmondsworth, and 400 at Hayes. When Fitzstephen 
writes, in the reign of Henry H., of the " immense forest " 
and the " densely-wooded thickets *' of Middlesex, he 
uses no exaggeration : and it is told us of Leofric, abbot 
of St Albans towards the close of the tenth century, 
that he caused the trees to be cut away for a distance of 
thirty feet on each side of the road from London that 
they should not conceal robbers. 

The suppression of the monasteries, which had so great 
an effect in the city, made little difference to the scat- 
tered inhabitants of the country. The priory of Clerk- 
enwell had great estates, but the knights probably had 
little contact with their farmers at Harefield or Cranford, 
except to receive their rents. The abbot of the Holy 
Trinity at Rouen built himself such a bam at Harmonds- 
worth as would enable him to store his tithes for several 

* See vol i. chapter It. 

B 2 


years at a time.* The archbishop seldom visited 
Harrow, and his mansion at Headstone was often or 
generally letf The villagers of Feltham were little 
benefited by their land being held from the hospital of 
St Giles. J There is not an old castle within the boun- 
daries of the county, if we except a part of the Tower of 
London. There is not a single manor house of the thir- 
teenth, fourteenth, or even the fifteenth century. The 
clerical and monastic landlords were mainly absentees, 
and the change of the dissolution was chiefly felt in an 
immediate extension of the suburbs near the city, and 
the transformation of the distant and unvisited farms of 
canons and abbots into the villas of wealthy aldermen. 
The king, too, acquired in Hampton Court a palace 
beyond the bounds of St. Margaret's, Westminster, and 
a few great noblemen came by degrees to form parks 
and build mansions, like Syon House, or Chiswick, or 
Canons. The nobility of Middlesex was, however, at 
first confined to the neighbourhood of London. The 
Russells have had Covent Garden since 1552, and are 
therefore the oldest landowners in the county. The 
Cecils come next, with their estates in the Strand, and 
after them the Howards, who inherited Arundel House 
and the surrounding land adjoining the Outer Temple 
from the Arundels in 1603. But these examples are 
taken from families who remain in the male line. The 
Newdegates trace a female descent from Roger de 
Bacheworth in 1284, whose estate at Harefield is still in 
their possession. Bordeston, or Boston House has 

* It is described aud figured by Mr. Hartshome in the ' Transactions ' of 
the London and Middlesex Society, iv. 417. It is 192 feet in length by 
36 feet 9 inches in width, and 39 feet in height. 

t There is another immense bam at Headstone, 147 feet 8 inches long 
by 38 feet 8 inches wide. ' Transactions,' iii. 188. 

X See below, chapter zxi. 


belonged to the Clitherows for two centuries, and they 
are therefore, outside the suburbs, the oldest of Middlesex 

The greatest overflow of the city population took place 
into the hundred of Ossulston. This hundred, the origin 
of whose name, Oswulf s Town, has long been forgotten, 
was very early divided into Kensington, Finsbury, Wen- 
lakesbarn or Holbom, and the Tower Hamlets, which 
last comprises simply the old parish of Stepney. Most 
of the " hamlets," such as Wapping, now Sl George's-in- 
the-East, Limehouse, Stratford-le-Bow, Hoxton, and 
Bethnal Green, have become separated parishes. Few 
remains of the green country have survived among them. 
Finsbury is not yet entirely built over. Finsbury-park 
is a remnant of the ancient hunting-ground of the 
bishop in Hornsey. Further west there is more open 
country, and in Willesden and Acton, Drayton and 
Ealing, there are still thorny hedges and shady lanes in 
abundance. But the division of Holborn is covered with 
houses, except where such artificial breathing spaces as 
the Regent's Park have been preserved. Many attempts 
were made to restrict the growth of suburbs. Three 
decrees at least were issued forbidding building in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth ; and her successors, down to 
Oliver Cromwell, made proclamations to the same effect 
but without avail. 

The first exodus from the city was due to the desire 
of the aristocracy to find sites for large houses. A survey 
of the successive migrations of fashion would afford us a 
complete history of the suburbs. The Belgravias of 
one age became in turn the St Giles's of another. A hun- 

* Mr. Shirley found no family in Middlesex to fit the requirements of 
admission to his Ust of ' Noble and Gentle Men of England,' all of whom 
held land before Bosworth. See further on in this chapter. 



dred years ago Soho began to decline ; learned rather than 
fashionable people occupied its decaying palaces. Less 
than thirty years ago the nomads of good society moved 
out to Pimlico. Thirty years hence, what will Pimlico 
be like ? Yet there is nothing capricious in this constant 
ebb and flow. Four hundred years ago the Strand be- 
came fashionable, and it was only in our own day that 
Northumberland House, the last of the long row of 
river-side mansions, was removed. The change began with 
Essex House and Arundel House, and went steadily on, 
but Somerset House still represents an ancient nobleman's 
residence. The beautiful gateway at the foot of Buck- 
ingham Street, designed by Inigo Jones and executed by 
Nicholas Stone, still tells of the existence of York Place, 
where Francis Bacon was bom. Within a very few 
years two immense districts of new houses have sprung 
up in Belgravia and Bayswater. Fifty years ago, or less, 
the Five Fields extended from Chelsea to Piccadilly, 
and hardly a house was to be seen from Millbank to 
Brompton. Portland Place and the terraces surrounding 
the Regent's Park, with all the streets between Portman 
Square and Langham Place, formed the refuge of the 
movable fashion. A centre which may be placed, accord- 
ing to Sydney Smith, in Grosvenor Square, existed then 
and exists still. A tract which was published anony- 
mously in 1826 affords some curious information on the 
alterations then going forward, and shows us how rapidly 
the town, and many other things with it, have grown 
since that time.* The writer, for instance, remarks with 
wonder upon the clumsy semaphore erected in 18 16 on 
the top of the Admiralty, upon " the illuminating power of 
smoke of coal," and upon the speedy conveyance between 

* * Short Remarks and Suggestions upon ImproYcments ' (by lord 
Famboroogh), published by Hatchards in Piccadilly, 1826. 


Dover and Calais " by means of a kettle of boiling water." 
But the interest of the tract lies in the opinions of the 
writer on questions, long since solved, of projected im- 
provement, such as the removal of the Exchequer from 
Palace Yard and of the stables which abutted on White- 
hall Chapel. The " ground lately occupied as the King's 
Mews is to be converted into a large square," and he 
suggests that in its centre should be placed an exact 
imitation of the Parthenon. Of old Buckingham House,* 
which has since been replaced by the overgrown lath 
and plaster palace of our own day, he says, " when the 
foreign princes visited this country in the year 1814, one 
of them, who had received from us very large sums of 
money for the prosecution of the revolutionary war, re- 
proached us very contemptuously with the meanness of 
our royal palaces ; it was observed in answer that * our 
magnificence was to be seen in our subsidies, not in our 
palaces.' " 

This delightful old anecdote, of what would now be 
called the real "Jingo" type, undoubtedly points to a 
feature of London scenery impossible to be overlooked. 
There is no French or German town whose suburbs have 
the mean appearance of the outskirts of London. Not 
our palaces only, but all our streets have the same aspect 
of genteel poverty, neat ugliness, so to speak, which 
is caused in great part by the smallness of each parti- 
cular tenement, the meanness of the materials, and a 
thoroughly English dislike of show unaccompanied by 
comfort, which, combined with the inclemency of the 
climate, make each family anxious, if adornment is 
thought of at all, to put it within, not without the house. 

Great palaces rapidly disappear before rows of small 
villas ; and the neighbourhood of London undergoes, in 

* Pine's * Royal Residences,' toL iL 


regular stages, three transformations. The open country 
is first enclosed in great parks, like those of Gunners- 
bury, or Stanwell, or Cranford. Next it is broken up 
into villas like those at Twickenham, or on the site of 
Belsize Park, or the sides of Highgate Hill. Lastly, it 
becomes streets and lanes, such as we have seen springing 
up in our own day at Kensington Gore, at Paddington, 
and in hundreds of other places. 

The park and palace stage in Middlesex was preceded 
by the ecclesiastical. A large proportion of the Middlesex 
manors belonged before the dissolution to the church. 
St. PauFs, with its bishop, its dean, and its canons,* 
owned Fulham, Homsey, Hampstead, Willesden, St. 
Pancras, Bloomsbury, Holborn, Islington, and the great 
lordship, as it was called, of Stepney. The abbot of 
Abingdon had Kensington ; the abbot of Westminster, 
Paddington, Hyde Park, Knightsbridge, half of Chelsea, 
besides the great parish of St. Margaret's, which origi- 
nally extended from near Kensington Church to Ludgate 
in one direction and from Kilbum to the Thames in 
another. Tyburn belonged to Barking Abbey and 
Lylleston to Clerkenwell Priory. 

In outlying places the influence of the church was not 
so strong, even though the land belonged in general to 
religious houses, regular or secular. Thus the arch- 
bishop had Harrow and the abbey of St Albans, 
Stanmore, but there were no great monasteries among 
the lonely villages of the great Middlesex forest, and it 
made, no doubt, little difference to the farmer at Hare- 
field whether his rent was paid to the prior of St John 
or to Master Robert Tyrwhit. The inhabitants of 
Feltham knew little of the hospital of St Giles, except 
that it received the tithes of their com. The Templars 

 For a list of the prebends of St. Paul's sec Appendix F. 


and Hospitallers were probably no better or worse as 
landlords to Cranford than the Astons and the Berkeleys. 
It was not until the new lords of the land went out to 
live on their estates that the change was felt, and a fresh 
era began for the London suburbs. 

In a very few cases the laity obtained property in 
Middlesex before the dissolution of the monasteries. 
The manor of Enfield, for instance, has descended from 
Geoffrey Mandeville to its present owner without going 
through the hands of any ecclesiastical proprietor. 
Mandeville's heiress married another Geoffrey, the son of 
Piers, and a prominent citizen of London.* Enfield went 
to him and his descendants till Maud Fitz Piers, other- 
wise Mandeville, married one of the many Humphrey de 
Bohuns who were successively earls of Hereford. This 
was early in the thirteenth century, and Enfield con- 
tinued to belong to the Bohuns till the end of the four- 
teenth, when it went, with other great estates, to Henry 
of Bolingbroke, with his wife, Mary, the mother of 
Henry V. It was then annexed by act of parliament 
to the duchy of Lancaster, and now belongs to the 
queen. Lysons f observes of the Newdegates of Hare- 
field that their estate has descended by intermarriages, 
with the exception of a temporary alienation, in regular 
succession through the families of Bacheworth, Swanland, 
and Newdegate since the year 1284, when by the verdict 
of a jury it appeared that Roger de Bacheworth and his 
ancestors had held it from time immemorial. It is 
curious to remark that this old family is not mentioned 
in Domesday. The estate was held under a lord, and 
was reckoned part of the honour of Clare, and so came, 
like Enfield, to the duchy of Lancaster, and it was only 
in 1790 that Sir Roger Newdegate obtained a release, 

 See above, vol. i. p. 129, t * Middlesex Parishes,' p. 107. 


under the great seal of the duchy, from the payment of 
an annual quit rent of 22s. * 

Geoffrey Mandeville had other estates in Middlesex, 
and his manor of Edmonton was held to include that of 
" Mimes," now called South Mimms, the further history 
of which is a very typical example of the descent of a 
manor in lay hands. When we look at a map of 
Middlesex we observe that the boundary lines of the 
county on three sides were fixed mainly by the course of 
three rivers, the Coin, the Thames, and the Lea. But 
the fourth, or northern boundary, is more irregular. The 
line leaves the Coin at Harefield, and zigzags first in an 
easterly direction, then north-west, and then turning east 
again, reaches the valley of the Lea just below Waltham 
Abbey. This double bend almost surrounds the Hert- 
fordshire parishes of Totteridge and two of the three 
Barnets, but leaves South Mimms within the limits of 
Middlesex. The irregularity is very interesting. It 
points to a time when no exact boundary had been drawn 
through the forest, and it shows how great was the in- 
fluence of the church in shaping the modem county. It 
seems probable that Hertfordshire was also inhabited by 
the small Middle Saxon tribe ; but it is impossible now 
to fix with certainty the date at which the boundary was 
made. Two things only we know. It must have been 
after the foundation of St. Albans Abbey, and therefore 
after the time of the great Offa of Mercia. And it was 
also after the foundation of Ely. This is plain, because 
the zigzag line is so drawn as to exclude High Barnet 
and East Barnet, which belonged to St Albans, and 
Totteridge, which was an outlying part of the manor of 

* Hoc manerium tenait Goda comitissa T.R.E. * Domesday Book.' 
Lysons goes on to say that this is the only instance of such remote 
possession in the county of Middlesex. In so speaking he may have over- 
looked Enfield. 


Hatfield, which king Edgar* is said to have given to 
Ely Abbey. This would bring the date to some time in 
the tenth century, but would not exclude the possibility 
of a much earlier date, as Hatfield may have belonged 
to some Hertfordshire owner before it went to Ely. But 
South Mimmsf belonged to the owner of Edmonton, 
and in the reign of Edward the Confessor this was no 
other than that Esgar or Ansgar, the Staller, of whom 
mention has been already made. { William gave the 
whole manor to Geoffrey, and in after years his descen- 
dants made grants in South Mimms to the abbey he had 
founded at Saffron Walden. From one of the docu- 
ments relating to these grants, which included the 
advowson of the church, we find an indication pointing 
to the time when the two Mimms had not been divided 
by the boundary of two counties, for part of the endow- 
ment of North Mimms, as late as the end of the thir- 
teenth century, lay in the southern division. So far the 
most northern district of Middlesex was but half culti- 
vated, but half reclaimed from the ancient forest, though 
the great highway ran from London to St. Albans 
through it § Most of the local names refer to the woods 

* The earliest mention of Hatfield in the ' Codex Diplomaticas ' is in a 
charter of queen i£lfgifu, 1012. 

t The meaning of the name escapes me. It may be personal. If so 
who was Mim ? North Mimms is called in Domesday " Minmiine.'* The 
surnames Minshew and Minshull — Mins-wood or hough — are not un- 
common. X i. 74- 

§ *' The ancient high waie to high Bemet,'' says Norden, as quoted by 
Mr. Cass in his paper on South Mimms, published by the London and 
Middlesex Society, '* from Porte-pool, now Grayes Inne, as also from 
Clerkenwell, was through a lane on the east of Pancras Church, called 
Longwich Lane, from thence, leaving Highgate on the west, it passed 
through Tallingdon Lane, and so to Crouch Ende, and thence through a 
Parke called Hamsey Great Parke to Muswill Hill, to Coanie Hatch, 
Fryame Bamet, and so to Whetstone, which is now the common highway 
to High Bemet" This was, of course, before a road was made over 
Highgate Hill. 


and their gates, the oaks and the beeches, the open com- 
mons and chases and hunts. But as public security in- 
creased, the richer folk in the city found it pleasant to 
come out here now and then. Fine- houses, more or less 
fortified, were built, and the wealthy merchant began to 
forget his merchandise, to marry into the noble and 
knightly families about him, and, gradually giving up all 
connection with the city, to become a wealthy country 
squire, perhaps a nobleman, himself. 

I have had, in my account of the city, frequent cause 
to speak of the Frowyks, or Frowykes, or Frowicks, who 
were so wealthy and powerful in the thirteenth century. 
One of them was warden during the memorable contest 
about Walter Hervey's election to the mayoralty at the 
time of the death of Henry III. * Another was reckoned 
among the founders of the Guildhall Chapel. The ward 
of Cheap was at one time called after Henry le Frowyk. 
Half a century later the Frowyks are seated as squires 
at Old Fold, within the parish of South Mimms. t They 
were not extinct in the male line in 1505, when one of 
them, Sir Thomas, left his estate in South Mimms to his 
daughter, Frideswide, who married Sir Thomas Cheyney, 
K.G. He was chief justice of the Common Pleas, and 
resided a little nearer town at Finchley. His cousin, 
Henry Frowyke, whose daughter and heiress married 
a Coningsby, was resident at Old Fold. There are 
descendants of the family among the highest nobility 
now. Old Fold stood near Hadley Green, where the 
moated site is still pointed out, now converted into a 

* See above, vol. L chapters v. and vi., and Aongier's ' French Chron.' 

ii. 13. 

t See pedigree and very full account, with a view of the Frowyke 
Chantry in South Mimms Church, in Mr. Cass's paper already mentioned. 
Their arms with twelve quarterlngs are there engraved. 


kitchen garden. The younger branches again and again 
returned to seek and find fortunes in the city, and at 
least one was distinguished as a lawyer. It was from his 
monument, which has long disappeared from its place in 
Finchley Church, that Norden copied the affecting little 
epitaph — 

"Joan la feme de Thomas Frowicke gets icy 
£t le dit Thomas pense de giser avec lay.*' 

Another branch of the family was seated at Gunners- 
bury, a place which has a history of its own. Lysons 
conjectures that the name is derived from that of Gunyld 
or Gunnilda, niece of king Canute. If so, Gunnersbury 
boasts of having belonged to two princesses, for Amelia, 
the aunt of George III., bought it in 1761, and lived here 
till her death. The Frowykes were not long seated at 
Gunnersbury, and the heiress of Sir Henry Frowyke, who 
died in 1505, carried it to the Spelmans, and it went 
through various hands before it came to baron Lionel 
Rothschild, its present owner, who has made the old 
house, originally built, it is believed, by Webb, the pupil 
of Inigo Jones, " one of the most sumptuous dwellings in 
the vicinity of London."* But, with the exception of the 
park and house, all the old manor is gradually but surely 
being covered with houses, and before long this hamlet 
of Ealing will have shared the fate of the other suburbs, 
and become a part of London. 

Among the other great houses built during this stage 
in the history of Middlesex, Stanwell claims more than a 
passing notice. The manor had belonged to the 
Windsors almost from the Conquest In an evil hour for 
lord Windsor, Henry VIII. took a fancy to it. He had 
entertained the king handsomely, and the king returned 
his hospitality by coveting his house. In vain lord 

* Thorne, ' Environs,' i. 160. 


Windsor pleaded that it had been the seat of his 
ancestors for many centuries : he begged the king not 
to take it from him. He tremblingly hoped his highness 
was not in earnest. Henry sternly referred him to the 
attorney-general, who showed him the deed of exchange 
already made out, and Bordesley Abbey, in Worcester- 
shire, was substituted for the ancient inheritance of the 
Windsors. The baron's Christmas fare was all laid in, 
his furniture prepared, his hall warmed, before he left, for 
he said before he left that the king should not at his 
coming find it " bare Stanwell." 

The strangest part of the story, perhaps, is that Henry 
never does seem to have come to Stanwell. He pro- 
bably, as Lysons suggests, only wanted to get rid of 
some monastic property by exchange, and had lord 
Windsor pointed out to him as a likely person on whom 
to try the experiment There was probably a disinclina- 
tion to buy lands of which the church had been despoiled, 
and we have all heard of the curse which for generations 
was supposed to attach to owners of estates which had 
belonged to religious fraternities. But the subsequent 
history of Stanwell showed that lay property was just as 
subject to vicissitudes under the Tudors and Stuarts. 
In 1603 James I. gave it to Sir Thomas Kn)rvet, and 
here the lady Mary, the king's daughter, died in 1607.* 
Knyvet made a curious will. He bequeathed Stanwell 
to his grandnephew, John Gary, and his grandniece, 
Elizabeth Leigh, and the family, to prevent the partition 
of the estate, obtained a decree from the Court of 

* See some remarks on the date of her death in Chester's ' Westminster 
Abbey Registers ' ; on her tomb and in the register it is " December " ; but 
CoL Chester shows that it should be " September." He is wrong, how- 
ever, in speaking of her "lying a corpse in the palace," during some 
court festivities. She died in a private house, StanwelL 


Chancery, delaying it, that the cousins might marry and 
unite their respective moieties. But Mistress Elizabeth 
Leigh, when she came to an age to choose a husband, 
chose, not John Cary, but Humphrey Tracy, who joined 
in a family arrangement by which the division was again 
postponed, and Stanwell became the property of Cary. 
Undeterred by the failure of his grand uncle to prescribe 
the marriages of his relatives, John Cary left Stanwell to 
his own grandniece, Elizabeth Willoughby, on condition 
that within three years after his death she should marry 
lord Guildford. In default it was to go to lord 
Falkland. But Elizabeth Willoughby, like her cousin, 
Elizabeth Leigh, had a mind of her own in such a matter 
as her marriage, and refused either to marry lord 
Guildford or to give up Stanwell. She preferred James 
Bertie,* and the case went up to the House of Lords, 
who decreed her a life interest in Stanwell. She lived 
till 1 716, when the estate went to lord Falkland, but he 
sold it within a few years, and it afterwards passed into 
the possession of a great West Indian family, named 
Gibbons, to whose representative it now belongs. In 
this case, therefore, we have within the space of a century 
and a half no fewer than six different families succes- 
sively in possession of a single estate. It is a curious 
fact that every family owning land in the county since 
the suppression of the monasteries, bought it or inherited 
it by a female line. 

The Clitherows of Boston, near Brentford, are usually 
accounted the oldest of Middlesex families. Boston was 
originally called Bordeston, and belonged to the priory 
of St Helens. One of the last prioresses leased it to a 
near relation.! But it came at last to the crown, and 

* Second son of the first earl of Abingdon, and father of Willoughby 
Bertie, third earl. t Sec vol. i. chapter x. 


was among the estates of the protector Somerset at his 
attainder. It next belonged to Elizabeth's favourite, 
Leicester, and was bought from him by the great Sir 
Thomas Gresham.* Although it was not until 1670 
that James Clitherow bought it, yet Lysons remarked in 
the last century that " this family is to be mentioned as 
one of the very few who have been resident upon the 
same estate for more than a century." Thome, quoting 
this sentence from Lysons, added : " another century has 
passed and Boston House is still the residence of a 
Clitherow." Two other families also, namely, the Woods 
of Littleton and the Taylors of Staines have held their 
respective estates for upwards of two centuries.t 

Perhaps the oldest inhabited house in England is in 
Middlesex. Yet the seeker for ancient architecture will 
be disappointed at Fulham. Like so many other 
ecclesiastical residences all over the country, it is at once 
new and old. The law of dilapidations destroys equally 
in a vicarage and an episcopal manor house the remains 
and appearance of antiquity. There is a gate in the 
garden which bears the arms of bishop Fitz James, who 
was appointed to the see by Henry VII. Very nearly 
as ancient is Hampton Court The manor belonged at 
the suppression to the knights of St. John, but had been 
for some years in the hands of cardinal Wolsey, who had 
obtained a lease from the lord prior in 1515. This 

* I^ysons, i. 29. It went to Gresham's stepson, Reade ; thence to lady 
Readers second husband, Spencer ; he left a widow who bought up the 
reversions of the Reade heirs, and left Boston to her cousin Gouldsmith, 
whose trustees sold it on his death. Here, therefore, are seven families 
before 1670 : Seymour, Dudley, Gresham, Reade, Spencer, Gouldsmith and 
Clitherow, besides the crown. 

t Richard Taylor bought Staines from Sir William Drake in 1678. 
Thomas Wood was owner of the advowson of Littleton in 1673 ; but 
neither Lysons nor Thorne succeeded in tracing the family further back. 
The Woods bought the manor only a hundred years ago. 


lease, which was for ninety-nine years at 50/. a year, and 
a payment of 21/. to a chaplain, was all he had as security 
when he commenced the sumptuous pile of which a 
considerable part is still standing.* 

Wolsey became a cardinal in the year he acquired 
Hampton Court, and he speedily made the house worthy 
of his exalted dignity. Stow mentions it as exciting 
" much envy "—envy shared by a personage who was not 
to be baulked of anything he desired. Wolsey was 
accustomed to watch the movements of Henry's mind. 
He was equal to the occasion, and when the king asked 
him why he had built so costly a house, unlike lord 
Windsor at Stanwell, he promptly replied, "To show 
how noble a palace a subject may offer to his sovereign." 
It is possible that as he had by this time enjoyed it for 
eleven years he was tired of it. He certainly knew the 
king too well to be able to fancy he would refuse the 
gift Henry showed no mock modesty or hesitation 
in accepting it ; he assigned to the cardinal instead a 
right to use the not very distant Richmond when he 
pleased. Henry was at Hampton when he heard of the 
fate of his discarded minister, and here queen Anne 
Boleyn presided " at superb banquetings, with masques, 
interludes, and sports." Here Surrey fell in love with 
the fair Geraldine : — 

" Hampton me taught to wish her first for mine." 

Henry employed much of his time in field sports in the 
neighbouring parks ; and as he grew old he augmented 
the estate by one of the most monstrous appropriations 
attempted by any English sovereign since the days of 
William the Norman. An Act was passed in 1538 

* The accounts of Hampton Court in Lysons and Thome are very iiill. 
There is also a prettily illustrated little volume devoted to it by Jesse. 



creating an " Honour of Hampton," to include in one 
royal hunting-ground not merely the adjacent Middlesex 
manors but also nine manors on the Surrey side of the 
Thames. The- whole territory, of which Nonsuch was 
the southern lodge, was surrounded by a wooden paling 
and stocked with deer, churches and houses were pulled 
down, villages depopulated, farms given up to wood, 
meadows and pastures covered with game. An order 
passed the Privy Council in the next reign by which an 
apology was tendered to outraged public opinion, and 
the Honour ** dechased." " His Highness," it was said, 
'* waxed heavy with sickness, age, and corpulence of 
body, and might not travel so readily abroad, but was 
constrained to seek to have his game and pleasure ready 
and at hand." It is curious to remark that, in spite of 
anything done under Edward VI. to mitigate the severity 
of the Act, it has never been formally repealed, and the 
Honour of Hampton is still a Royal Chase, controlled 
by a steward, the lieutenant and keeper of Hampton 

The palace continued for two centuries a favourite 
residence of our sovereigns. It was the birth-place of 
Edward VI., and here Jane Seymour, his mother, died. 
Here three Katharines* and two Annes followed each 
other as Henry's wives. Here the council was held in 
Elizabeth's reign which adjudged death to Mary Stuart ; 
and here, under her son, the abortive conference of 
presbyterians and bishops took place. • Charles I. passed 
some time at Hampton under the restraints imposed 
by the rebellious parliament, and made the attempt to 
escape which eventually led to his stricter imprison- 
ment at Carisbrooke. On a dark tempestuous evening in 

^ Katharine Howard "liaunts" the passage to the chapel. Law, 
* Pictures at Hampton Court,' p. 266. 


November, 1647, pretending to be indisposed, he retired 
early to his chamber, and passing through some vaulted 
passages reached the gardens, accompanied by three 
courtiers all in disguise. A private door admitted them 
to the Thames bank, and a boat which was in readiness 
conveyed them to the Surrey side. The ill-fated princess 
Elizabeth was at Hampton Court at the time, and it was 
in consequence of her complaining that the sentries dis- 
turbed her rest that they were removed to a greater 
distance, and thus greater facility afforded for the 
king's flight* A little later Cromwell lived much at 
Hampton Court, and was there stricken with his mortal 
fever. A fortnight before his death at Whitehall his 
favourite daughter, " Lady Elizabeth Claypole," as she 
is called in contemporary memoirs, was seized at Hampton 
Court ''of a disease in her inwards, and being taken 
frantic raved much against the bloody cruelties of her 
father," t She died on the 6th August, 1658, and her 
body was removed with great pomp to Henry VH.'s 
Chapel at Westminster, where it still lies. Charles H. 
resided occasionally at Hampton, where he remodelled 
the gardens, and sauntered in the " parterre which they 
call Paradise, in which is a pretty banquetting house set 
over a cave or cellar." % 

William HI. employed Wren to replace two of Wolsey's 
courts by a new building, which, although wholly incon- 
gruous, is a fine example of his palatial style. The 
staircases were especially grand. The gardens, newly 
laid out in a Dutch style, with vistas across the river, are 
still much as William left them, with a terrace half a mile 
in length and canaMike ponds. Queen Anne resided 

* Jesse*s 'Court of England,' ii. 49. 
t Heath, quoted by Jesse, ii. 377. 
X Evelyn's * Diary,' 9th June, 1662. 

C 2 


long at Hampton ; and here, in her reign, Pope laid the 
scene of his * Rape of the Lock.* For many years past 
it has boasted of no royal inhabitant. George III. is 
said to have disliked it. * Queen Victoria has made it a 
scene of happiness to many of her subjects, for not only are 
the state rooms with their noble pictures and the gardens 
open to the public, but the more private apartments 
are appropriated to the use of those whom the nation 
looks on as most deserving of a public recognition. 
Thus it came to pass that in his old age Michael Faraday 
was able, in the intervals of toil, to exchange the turmoil 
of a London street for these pleasant shades, and here, 
in 1867, he breathed his last. 

When Charles I. came to Hampton his children were 
not far off at Syon, in the charge of the earl of Northum- 
berland. Syon had been an abbey of the order of St. 
Bridget,t founded by Henry V., who separated the 
manor of Isleworth, within which the new house was 
situated, from the estates of the duchy of Cornwall, and 
conferred it upon the abbess. The name was a reference 
to the holy mount, and the number of inmates 
answered to the thirteen apostles, including St. Paul, 
and the seventy-two disciples. There were thirteen 
priests attached, and in the original statutes of St. 
Bridget all were to live together, but at Syon the 
sexes were cautiously and carefully separated, " for the 
avoiding of scandal.*' The abbess was ruler over both, 
and no sister was admitted under the age of eighteen, no 
brother under twenty-five. The manor of Isleworth in- 
cluded the whole hundred of that name, and the founda- 
tion, as time went on, became exceedingly wealthy. In 
the reign of Henry VIII. fifty-six nuns were in the house, 

* See Law*s ' Pictures at Hampton Court,' p. 102. 
t Aungier's ' History of Syon and I&leworth.' 


and as some of them were said to have been implicated 
with the supporters of the Maid of Kent,* this was one 
of the first religious houses suppressed. Charges of im- 
modest behaviour were freely made against the priests 
and nuns by the visitors under Thomas Cromwell, and 
in 1539 the abbey was surrendered into the king's hands, 
when the clear income was found to be no less than 
173 1 /. 8j. 4|</. Pensions were granted to fifty-six sisters 
and to eighteen brethren. The nuns, however, so far 
proved the sincerity of their profession that they con- 
tinued to live together elsewhere until queen Mary 
reinstated them at Syon, which had been kept in the 
possession of the crown. At their final suppression in 
the following reign they migrated in a body to Portugal, 
carrying with them the abbey keys, as the Arabs of 
Spain are said to have taken with them to Morocco the 
keys of their ancient dwellings on the slopes of the 
Sierras. When, centuries later, a duke of Northumber- 
land was at Lisbon he visited the Bridgettine convent, 
and the abbess told him that they still retained the keys 
brought from Syon by their predecessors. " I dare say," 
replied the duke ; " but we have altered the locks since 
then." During the French invasion of Portugal the nuns 
sought a refuge in England, and lived some time at 
Peckham. When the war was over the Lisbon house 
was revived, and in 1861 the community returned a 
second time to England^ and took up their abode in 

Meanwhile Syon underwent various vicissitudes. It 
was, with the neighbouring Osterley, a part of the estate 
of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset On his 
attainder both reverted to the Crown, and Syon was 
granted to the duke's rival, Northumberland. Here 

* See vol. i. chapter z. 


the ill-fated lady* Jane Dudley received the offer* of 
the throne. At the duke*s attainder, for the second or 
third time Syon went to the Crown ; it so remained 
during the reign of Elizabeth. James I. gave it to 
Heniy Percy, ninth earl of Northumberland, in 1604, and 
when, in 1682, the heiress of the Percies married the 
" proud duke of Somerset," it became a second time the 
property of a Seymour. Within sixty years, however, it 
went to a third family, that of Smithson, whose represen- 
tative, the duke of Northumberland, is its present owner* 
Though the modern house is mainly that built by the 
protector Somerset, it has been so often altered and re-« 
modelled that nothing is visible of the older building* 
A century ago, both Syon and Osterley underwent the 
finishing touches of the accomplished Robert Adam, on 
whose work Horace Walpole dilates with rapture* In 
our own day the famous lion from Northumberland 
House at Charing Cross migrated thither, and now looks 
down on the terraced lawns, with their vistas towards 
Kew Gardens, which appear almost as if they formed part 
of the domain. The interior of the house is famous for 
its magnificence and for the costly collections it contains* 
Columns of verde antique^ found in the Tiber, and pur- 
chased at an enormous price, mosaic tables, a vase of 
Irish crystal mounted in gold, portraits by Holbein and 
Reynolds, pictures by Snyders and Landseer, prints, 
drawings, and books, make it worthy of its owner's rank 
and wealth. 

Few such houses as Syon now remain in Middlesex, 
l)ut Osterley in some respects runs it close. Both were 
remodelled by Adam. The older Osterley was the 
scene of a well-known story. It belonged in the time 
of Elizabeth to Sir Thomas Gresham. " Her majesty/* 
says Fuller — ^himself at a later period rector of Cranford, 


not far off — " Her majesty found fault with the court of 
this house as too great, affirming that it would appear more 
handsome if divided with a wall in the middle. What 
doth Sir Thomas, but in the night time sends for workmen 
to London (money commands all things), who so speedily 
and silently apply their business that the next morning 
discovered that court double which the night had left 
single before." Fuller adds the opinion of some, with 
s|>ecial reference to disputes in the Gresham family, that 
any house is easier divided than united, and certainly 
Sir Thomas's was no exception. Osterley went, like 
Bordeston, of which I have already spoken, to lady 
Gresham's son by her first marriage, afterwards to Sir 
Edward Coke, then to a descendant of lady Gresham, 
the wife of George earl of Desmond, and finally, after 
several intermediate owners, to Francis Child, the 
banker.^ With the rest of his wealth it ultimately 
descended to the Jersey family. 

Another great Middlesex house has long disappeared. 
The glory of Canons was of brief duration, t but a black- 
smith's shop, hard by at Edgware, is associated still with 
the name of George Frederick Handel, who was organist 
to the duke of Chandos. He had been previously in the 
service of the earl of Burlington, and may have per- 
formed in the beautiful villa at Chiswick, which I have 
still to describe. At Whitchurch there are tangible 
memorials of the great musician. Tradition and some- 
thing more has commemorated William Powell, the har- 
monious blacksmith. He was parish clerk of Whitchurch, 
and died in 1780. The humble rail which marked his 
grave has lately given place to a substantial monument, 
which bears among the inscriptions a bar of Handel's 

* See vol. i. chapter xiii. 
t Thome, i. 72. 


immortal air.* Authentic history, and what is often 
more valuable, contemporary satire, are frequently con- 
cerned with Handel and Canons and the village church 
in which his organ may still be heard. Pope sneered at 
the duke and the musician alike, and prophesied but too 
exactly the rapid approach of a time when " deep har- 
vests" should "bury all his pride had planned, and 
laughing Ceres reassume the land." Three years after 
Pope's death his forebodings were fulfilled. The duke 
was ruined by the South Sea Bubble,! and the house was 
sold for the materials in 1747. The grand staircase went 
to Chesterfield House in Mayfair, where it still remains. 
A statue of king George % went to Leicester Square, and 
disappeared piecemeal in our own day. A new, but 
smaller and more economical house, was afterwards 
inhabited by colonel O'Kelly, who owned, besides a 
famous parrot, a racehorse which from its birth during 
an eclipse, made the word celebrated as the name of the 
swiftest horse that ever ran. Eclipse lies buried in the 
park of Canons. His master is buried in the church of 
Little Stanmore, or Whitchurch, in which there is still 
much to remind the visitor of Handel and his magnificent 
patron the duke. 

Without, the church is severely classical. It belies its 
name by being of red brick. Within, it is not only 
stately and convenient, but of an unusual design, a 
design, indeed, which an unprejudiced critic might be 
tempted to consider more suited to the requirements of 
modern worship than any adaptation of mediaeval 
gothic It consists of a nave without aisles, and a small 

* It is said to ha^e been traced to an old German melody, but Handel 
made it his own. 
t Vol. i. chapter xiii. 
X There is some uncertainty which " king George " was represented. 


chancel raised on three steps with richly carved oak 
columns to mark the separation. At the other end is a 
gallery, and behind the altar is the organ, Handel's 
organ. The most curious feature of Little Stanmore 
church is the decoration. As Pope scornfully and not 
quite accurately observes, — 

" On painted ceilings you devoutly stare, 
Where sprawl the saints of Verrio and Laguerre, 
Or gilded clouds in fair expansion lie, 
And bring all Paradise before your eye." 

Verrio had been dead for some years, but Bellucci's name 
would not fit into the line. There are figures of the evan- 
gelists and the apostles, of the cardinal virtues, and the law 
and gospel. The roof is blue, powdered with gold stars. 
On the north side is the chapel of the Chandos family, 
where the unfortunate duke, in Roman armour and a 
flowing wig, is supported by two of his wives — for he had 
three — on a magnificent tomb, recently repaired by the 
duke of Buckingham and Chandos, the heir of what was 
left of the family wealth. 

The villa of another duke in Middlesex has a longer 
history than Canons. I have had occasion more than 
once to mention the "architect earl" of Burlington.* 
The masterpiece of his art was a villa at Chiswick, 
which now belongs to his descendant, the duke of 

Chiswick is not mentioned in Domesday, but it is 
probable that a manor in Fulham, said to belong to the 
canons of St Paul's, may be identified with it It was 
early divided, and the duke of Devonshire has the lease 
of that part which used to be called Sutton. The other 
still nominally belongs to St Paul's, but in 1570 it hap- 

* Vol. i. chapter xii., and vol. ii. chapter xxi. 


pened that the stall of Chiswick was filled by Gabriel 
Goodman, who was dean of Westminster, and he leased 
it to the chapter of the abbey, who still, I believe, hold 
it, though the prebendary receives, or should receive, a 
small rent * 

Chiswick House was for some time the residence of 
Carr earl of Somerset, the disgraced favourite of James I. 
He mortgaged it heavily to provide a dowry for his 
daughter, who married the earl of Bedford, and so 
became mother of William, lord Russell, beheaded in 
1683. The house became the property of the mortgagee, 
and after various changes it was bought by Richard 
Boyle, earl of Burlington and Cork. His great grandson 
was the architect, and lies buried in Chiswick Church 
beside his friend and assistant, Kent. He pulled down 
the old house and built the new one, which, with the 
addition of wings, still stands. His heiress married the 
fourth duke of Devonshire. Lord Burlington was 
brought up in a beautiful old house on Campden Hill, f 
which may have stimulated his very remarkable architec- 
tural ability. He alone of modem classical builders 
seems to me to be worthy of comparison with Wren. % 
His dormitory at Westminster School is perhaps the 
only one of his works which has survived intact § Bur- 
lington House, in Piccadilly, has been defaced, and 
Chiswick has been added to, but enough remains to show 
how beautiful it must have been. The design was 

 In 1845, it was reported worth annually £Z9 2s. 6d, See Falkner, 
' Brentford, Ealing and Chiswick,' a book on which too much dependence 
must not be placed. 

t See below, chapter xxi. 

X See above, vol. i. chapter xii. 

§ One fears to call attention to the existence of anything worth admir> 
ing or preserving in the scholastic precincts. The design is believed to have 
been founded on a drawing by Inigo Jones. 


imitated with some directness from one by Palladio* 
The wits of the time made merry over it Various jests 
have been reported, and misreported, to the effect that, 
while it was too small to live in, it was too large to be 
hung on a watch chain.* 

By a curious coincidence, two very eminent statesmen 
died in the villa, though they were not owners or even 
tenants. Charles James Foxf went to stay there for 
change of air in 1806, and died in a fortnight Twenty- 
one years later George Canning came there with his wife 
for the same reason, and after three weeks also died* 
Fox's bed-chamber w?is on the ground floor, " a small 
but cheerful room," the walls covered with tapestry, and 
a portrait of Pope over the door. The bed had chintz 
curtains, with " a large and flowery pattern of green and 
red, upon a light ground." The wooden cornice was 
painted a light brown and green, and the fringe, tassels, 
and lining were also green. During the garden-parties 
for which in the last generation Chiswick was so 
famous, and at one of which Sir Walter Scott and an 
elephant assisted, this chamber was used as a refresh* 
ment-room. The room in which Canning died is up- 
stairs. Lord Dalling gave an account of it many years 
ago in a magazine, in which he characterised it as '' cheer* 
less." When his essays J were reprinted he altered the 
word to "simple." Near it was another into which Mrs. 
Canning was carried after all was over. Her life was at 

 This epigram, which may be fomid in Walpole's • Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing,' is attributed, with others, to lord Hervey, By Lysons it is assigned 
to lady Hervey. 

t These notes are quoted by Faulkner from lady Chatterton's * Home 
Sketches and Foreign Recollections,' published in 184 1. In lord Stan- 
hope's * Miscellanies,' Second Series, p. 79, the question whether the two 
statesmen died in the same room, as commonly reported, and asserted by 
Thome, i. no, is set at rest by a letter from the late duke of Devonshire. 

X * Historical Characters,' ii. 402. 


first despaired of, but she recovered, and, having been 
created a viscountess, she survived her husband nearlv 
ten years.* Their son was the great Viceroy of 

The grounds were beautifully laid out by Kent As 
an example of successful landscape gardening they are 
unrivalled. Sir Joseph Paxton was "discovered" by 
the late duke in the adjoining grounds of the Royal 
Horticultural Society, and soon, with such a patron, 
found means to distinguish himself, but the results of his 
labours are chiefly to be seen at Chatsworth.t Some of 
the statues are from the old Anjndel collection, others 
are skilful modem imitations of the antique. One relic 
of peculiar interest will be eagerly sought out by the 
visitor. It is the gate which Inigo Jones built at Chelsea, 
in the grounds which had once belonged to Sir Thomas 
More, and afterwards to Lionel Cran/ield, earl of Middle- 
sex, and to Henry, duke of Beaufort The site is now 
marked by Lawrence Street and other small rows of 
houses, and is bounded on the west by Beaufort Street, 
formerly the Lovers' Lane. The house was pulled down 
by Sir Hans Sloane a few years after he bought it, in 
1736 ; and this gate, which consists of a very simple 
portico with two doric columns, was given by him to the 

^ The duke's note is as follows : — '* Chiswick, March 18, 1854. My 
dear Lady Newburgh, Canning died in a room upstairs. I had a great 
foreboding when he came here, and would not allow of his living in the 
room below, where Fox had died. The other room above has been very 
much altered, and furnished differently since. I am not surprised at Lord 
Mahon wanting to know ; it was a sad and curious coincidence. Ever 
yours, &C., Devonshire.*' Lady Chatterton says: — "The housekeeper 
showed us a room downstairs, where he read prayers to the family each 

t It is said, on the authority of local gossip, that the sums spent by 
Paxton at Chatsworth would have ruined the duke had not lady Paxtoa 
developed financial powers of a remarkable character. 


architect earl ; who, no doubt, highly prized it* Pope 
is said to have written some lines on the occasion : — 

*^ Paisenger, 

gate how cam'st thou here ? 


1 was brought from Chelsea last year, 
Battered with wind and weather ; 
Inigo Jones pat me together, 

Sir Hans Sloane 
Let me alone, 
Burlington brought me hither." f 

The county has been represented in Parliament from 
the earliest time, and elections were held on Hampstead 
HeathJ before 1701, when Brentford became the " county 
town," and so continued till the beginning of the present 
reign, when polling places were opened at Bedfont, 
Edgware, Enfield, King's Cross, Hammersmith, Mile 
End, and Uxbridge, as well. Brentford has been the 
scene of some lively contests, and all the constitutional 
questions involved in the elections of Wilkes, and 
afterwards of Burdett, were fought out here. § 

It would be but too easy to make a volume about the 
outlying districts of Middlesex and their eminent inhabi- 
tants. I have said enough to show how interesting the 
subject might be if properly treated. || There are many 

^ Lord Burlington had already assisted Kent in publishing some of Inigo 
Jones's designs. 

t Faulkner, p. 434. 

X Strange to say neither Park in his * Perambulation of Hampstead * nor 
Howitt in his * Northern Heights,' gives any account of the Middlesex 
elections. A list of members elected at Brentford will be found in 
Faulkner's * Ealing,' p. 38. 

{ See vol i. chapter xiv. 

{ Students may be referred to Lysons, whose five volumes of * Environs * 
are models of topographical accuracy, and to Thome's ' Handbook,' filled 
with pleasant gossip. Of the shrievalty of Middlesex I have given some 
account in vol. i. chapter iv. 


temptations to prolixity. I have endeavoured to take a 
few typical examples only ; but there is scarcely a village 
in the county without its memories of some one who 
made himself famous in the great neighbouring city. 
Sometimes the same eminent person is found in different 
places, as Lamb at Enfield and Edmonton, Goldsmith at 
Dawley and at the Hyde on the Edgware Road, Pope 
at Chiswick and Twickenham, Dr. Johnson at Hampstead 
and at Topham Beauclerk's villa on Muswell HilL I 
have said nothing of Strawberry Hill and Horace Wal- 
pole, partly because so much has been written already 
on the subject, and partly because I do not concern my- 
self with mere records of fashion. For similar reasons I 
have omitted many other places. A connected history 
of the immediate suburbs is more to my purpose, and it 
must suffice here merely to recall a few of the great 
names which otherwise I pass over. We might stand 
with Keats where he composed his * Ode to a Nightin- 
gale,' though the view from Hampstead is so changed, 
especially in the last few years, that little remains to be 
seen as he saw it From " Byron's Tomb," as a nameless 
stone is called in the churchyard of Harrow, we can still 
look over as fair a vale as any either poet ever saw. It 
is interesting to visit the room in which queen Anne was 
born at York House, Twickenham. At Wrotham, near 
Bamet, we may see a house built by the ill-fated admiral 
Byng, who called it after the ancient seat of his ancestors 
in Kent. We may trace the footsteps of Monk from his 
last halting-place at Finchley. We may climb High- 
wood Hill, where William Wilberforce lived, and seek at 
Parson's Green the residence of Samuel Richardson. 
And we must beware of spurious imitations. John 
Gilpin's •* Bell at Edmonton " has disappeared, and 
another Bell since. The house at Highgate in which 


Bacon died was pulled down in 1825. Whittington's 
milestone has been moved about to different places, if, 
indeed, any of it remains. Pope's villa was built in the 
present century, and is not even on the original site. 
But more than enough remains. There is Bedfont, 
where Harvey discovered the immortal fish sauce. There 
is Laleham, where Arnold " coached " young collegians 
and prepared himself for the great work of his life. At 
Gladmore, near Monken Hadley, the " battle of Barnet " 
was fought in 147 1, on Easter Sunday. Lord Buckhurst, 
the poet, built a house at Teddington. Walter Map, the 
merry archdeacon of Henry H.'s court, lived at Mapesbury 
in Willesden. Good queen Adelaide died at Bentley 
Priory, in Great Stanmore, in 1849. Many of us are better 
acquainted with foreign countries than with our own. 
To some of us the environs of Cairo or Naples are more 
familiar than those of London. But, granted health, 
there is no place in the world which has the same interest 
for an Englishman as the county of Middlesex. 

( 32 ) 



It is not easy to define exactly what is Westminster at 
the present day. There is the city, there is the parlia- 
mentary borough, there is the outlying division near 
Kensington— in short, Westminster has undergone many 
vicissitudes and changes, and has been influenced in turn 
by kings, by monks, by bishops, by parliaments, by 
courts of law, until we are compelled, if we would find 
the original Westminster, to commence our inquiries by 
going back more than a thousand years. 

The name itself seems to tell us something. If we 
could be sure that it has always been " the West Minster," 
we might argue that the western monastery is later than 
St. Paul's, that St Paul's was in existence as the eastern 
minster when St. Peter's was founded. But the first 
charter in which it is mentioned gives it three different 
names. Offa, of Mercia, in 785,* making it a grant of 
land, calls it, first, St. Peter's ; secondly, Thomey ; 
thirdly, "Westminster." We cannot, therefore, found 
any argument or theory on this last form. St Peter's 
speaks for itself It is likely, on the whole, as we have 
seen in considering the dedications of city churches, that 
dedications to the apostles are older than dedications to 

* This charter (Kcmble, i. No. 149) is marked with a star, and is not, 
therefore, existing except in a copy which may not be genuine. At the 
same time there is nothing in it inconsistent with the fidelity of the copy, 
and Widmore (* Enquiiy,* p. 7) accepts it. 


Other saints. St Peter's is an old dedication ; in fact, it is 
difficult to understand how the cathedral church of St 
Paul can have preceded it This difficulty, no doubt, 
appeared insuperable to the medieval mind, and we have 
the legend of the superior antiquity of St Peter's upon 
Comhill, to account for it It is evident, therefore, that 
while we cannot claim for St Peter's an antiquity 
greater than that of St Paul's, we must allow that it 
may be very old, as old as any other foundation of the 

The second name is Thomey, and Thomey is spoken 
of as a " locus terribilis," a venerable place.* It must, 
therefore, have been considered sacred, perhaps by long 
custom, perhaps on account of association with some 
eminent person. A king Sebert f was invented later to 
account for this veneration. Widmore is very unwilling 
to put Sebert aside, but is obliged to conclude that the 
monastery was founded " about the time when Bede died, 
or between the years 730 and 740 ;" and he goes on to 
show that at first it was but a small place, and evidently 
altogether unconscious of its high destinies. 

Although the name of Thomey tells us nothing about 
the abbey, it tells us much about its site. The word 
" terribilis " in Offa's charter has indeed sometimes been 
supposed to refer to the nature of the place, a thorny 

• This interpretation has been suggested by Mr. Henry Middleton, F.S. A., 
and commends itself to oar common sense. The reader will recall the 
expression of Jacob (Genesis, xxviii. 17) "How dreadful is this place ! 
This is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven." 
Quam terribilis est locus iste^ are the words of the Vulgate. In a poem on 
the life of Edward the Confessor, published in the Rolls Series, there is a 
similar reference to Jacob's dream. " King Edward calls this holy place 
the gate of hearen-*'— P. 198. 

t There was a king called Sebert or Seberht, as already mentioned 
(chap, iii.), but his connection with Westminster was not thought of till 
tfter the Conquest, when the place had become important 



island* We must remember that in the eighth century 
the greater part of what is now Westminster was a 
tidal estuary, a marsh, or mud-flat, covered twice a day 
with the brackish water of the Thames. In the midst of 
this wilderness of mud rose a slight eminence, " the Tot- 
hill," upon which the old road, the Watling Street, ran to 
the water's edge. Thence travellers who wanted to cross 
the Thames had to wade as best they could — ^the first 
stepping-stone, so to speak, across the shallow river being 
the Thom-ey. Here, so far back as the time of the 
Romans, there stood some building, perhaps a post-house 
for the convenience of passengers, perhaps a villa. A 
portion of its pavement was recently discovered in the 
nave of the church. It is not unlikely that a causeway of 
some kind at a very early period connected Thomey and 
Tothill. When, by degrees, the river was banked out, 
and its channel narrowed and deepened, the ford gave 
place to a ferry, which is commemorated still in the name 
of Horseferry Road. The abbey which originally stood 
close by the water's edge was gradually separated from it 
by a narrow belt of land, foreshore at first, but afterwards 
wholly reclaimed, and now, as we shall see, the site of the 
palace of parliament The marshes to the north were 
drained by what became in process of time the orna- 
mental water in St James's Park, and half the divided 
stream of Tyburn passed through it, and by a narrowed 
channel, south of the site of the future Whitehall, into the 
Thames. On the southern side of the Thom-ey, too, the 
low lying lands were slowly reclaimed, part of the Tyburn 
being conducted into and through the abbey itself, and 
part being applied to grind the abbot's com before it ran 
out at Millbank, where there was a second mill and a 
slaughterhouse, belonging to the king's palace. 

* See Stanley, ' Memorials,' p. 9. 





Thomey, according to a well qualified authority,* was 
470 yards long and 370 broad, and was washed by the 
Thames on the east ; by a rivulet which ran down College 
Street on the south ; by a streamlet which crossed King 
Street on the north; and by a moat called the Long 
Ditch, which united the two streams and ran along the 
line of Prince's and Delahay Streets. Stone walls de- 
fended the whole precinct, pierced by handsome gates, 
one of which was in King Street, one near New Palace 
Yard, one opening on Tothill Street,! and one in College 
Street where stood the abbey mill. Bridges crossed the 
brooks, and are said to exist still, but far beneath the 
present streets, for Thomey has been raised about nine 
feet, on the average, above its ancient level. 

How early our kings had a palace here we have no 
means of knowing. It may have preceded the monastery, 
as Sl Margaret's may have preceded St Peter's, but 
neither supposition is probable. The earliest reference 
to a palace is in the story of Canute's rebuking the tide, 
which some of the chroniclers have made to take place 
at Westminster.} There is no contemporary evidence to 
go upon ; and whatever of palace or monastery existed 
before the middle of the ninth century, disappeared later, 
and for many years Westminster lay in ruins, deserted 
even by the monks. The Danes were at large in Middle- 
sex, and London Wall § kept them out, but there was 
nothing to withstand them on Thomey, and when Dunstan 
became powerful under Edgar, the abbey was re-founded 

* William Bardwell, * Westminster ImproTements,' p. 8, and Smith's 
' Westminster,' p. 27. 

t Bailt in the reign of Edward III., by Walter Warfield, the Abbot's 
bntler. — Bardwell, p. 11. 

X Southampton is nsnally the scene of this legend. See Stanley, 
* Memorials,' p. 7. 

§ See above, chap. iii. 

D 2 


and endowed with an estate, part of which is still in the 
possession of the monks' successors, the dean and chap- 
ter. The charter of Edgar contains an account of the 
boundaries of the great manor with which he endowed 
the abbey. They are the boundaries of the original 
parish of St Margaret, and are of the highest interest to 
the London topographer.* I therefore quote them in 
full :— 

" First up from Temese^ along Merfleotes^ to pollene- 
stocce so to Bulungafenn ; afterwards from ^^fenne along 
the old ditch to cuforde ; from cuforde up along Teoburn 
to the wide herestreet / along the herestreet to the old 
stoccene of St Andrew's Church, so into Lundenefenn ; 
along south on Tamese in midstream ; along the stream 

* be lande and be strande ' to Merfleotey 

I have given the Saxon names in their original spelling. 
It is a question if we can identify the places mentioned. 
If we take a map which shows the undivided parish of 
St. Margaret, we find it bounded on the west and south- 
west by Chelsea ; on the north by Oxford Street, as far as 
St. Giles's ; on the east by St Clement Danes. But from 
the evidence of this charter, there was apparently a time 
when all these boundaries were different The Merfleet 
must, from its name, have been a tidal creek. Pollenstock 
speaks of an osier bed, or something like it Bulunga Fen is 
a marshy place. All these conditions were fulfilled in the 
land which lies between Millbank and Chelsea, though the 
old names are lost From the reference to the Tyburn, 

* Widmore, p. 21.; Saunders, ' Ardueologia,' xxvL 223; KemUe, 

* Codex Diplomaticos,* No. 569. There are many marks about this charter 
to show that it is a copy, but an early one. The date, 951, should, as 
Kemble thinks, be 971 ; and there is a mistaken reference to Wulfred as 
being archbishop in the time of Ofia. But the definition of boundaries is 
in Anglo-Saxon, and even if it does not belong to Edgar's time is of 
antiquity before the Conquest, and in every way valuable. 


which we can here safely identify with the so-called King's 
Scholars' Pond Sewer, we may begin by placing the 
Merfleet at its outfall just east of Albion Terrace, on the 
Grosvenor Road. The word "fleet" points to a tidal 
estuary. The mention of PoUenstock and Cowford points 
to places at which the boundary does not run quite 
straight We shall not be far wrong therefore, if we place 
the pollard willow very near the Victoria Station. The 
second bend would be that marked by the mention of 
Bulunga Fen, which may be placed at Buckingham 
Palace in the Green Park. The Tyburn next crosses 
what must be a very ancient roadway, now represented 
by Piccadilly. Here, then, is the Cowford, as nearly as 
possible where Brick Street, formerly Engine Street,* 
opens on Piccadilly. Thence to Oxford Street the brook 
winds, and the boundary is defined as being along it ; and 
so we reach the wide herestreet^ t the military way which 
the Romans had made to bring the Watling Street into 
connection with London Bridge. Along this road it 
continued to " the old stock " of St Andrew's Church, 
perhaps an ancient tree in what is now Holbom. Thence 
it ran to the Fleet, here called " Lundene Fen," and " south 
on Thames in mid-stream." The abbot, by this expres- 
sion, " on midstream," no doubt intended to guard himself 
against any future royal claim to foreshore, but, as we 
shall see, the precaution was eminently unsuccessful. 

It will have been observed that with these boundaries 
the abbot had a larger tract eastward, and a smaller one 
westward than afterwards constituted the parish of St 
Mai^aret A great part of the city ward of Farringdon 
Without belonged to Westminster. There is no'taiention 

* See abore, chap. i. 

t Hare^ an army, expedition, host, legion, multitude, troop, chiefly of 
enemies, any number of men above thirty •&¥& — Bosworth's Dictionary. 


of St. Bride's or St Dunstan's and we may safely con- 
clude that they did not exist St Bride's would, almost 
certainly, have been mentioned like St Andrew's. St 
Dunstan was himself alive in 971. When these two 
churches were built and long afterwards we find the 
abbey of Westminster presenting to them. Henry III. 
appropriated St Dunstan's to his hospital for converted 
Jews,* but St Bride's is still in the gift of the dean and 

The other end of the parish was extended. We sawf 
that a second stream ran into the Thames to the west- 
ward of the Tyburn, the brook which is commemorated 
in the modern district of Westboume. Shortly after the 
conquest Geoffrey de Mandeville gave the abbot of 
Westminster the land which lay between the Tyburn and 
the Westboume, that is to say, all Hyde Park as far as 
the modem Serpentine and all the Thames bank between 
the modern King's Scholars* Pond Sewer, and the Rane- 
lagh Sewer : and the northem and southem parts of this 
great accession of territory were divided into Ebury, or 
Eybury and Hyde, both names being very likely derived 
from the same word Ey, or Eta by which the manor is 
distinguished in Domesday. Furthermore the abbot 
acquired three other estates. Of Paddington and West- 
bourne I shall speak in a subsequent chapter : but the 
manor of Neat, or Neyt, brought the boundary of St 
Margaret's up to that of Kensington. This manor com- 
prised all the land south and west of the Serpentine, most 
of Kensington Gardens, ^nd the south side of the Ken- 
sington Road into High Street Its boundaries are inter- 
esting. * If we begin in the Uxbridge or Bayswater Road, 
we find the line runs down the omamental water half- 
way to the bridge, thence passes westward through the 

 Now the Rolls. f Chapter i. 


trees till it almost reaches the Orangery. There it slopes 
northward and taking in all but the first five houses of 
Kensington Palace Gardens, runs south in a straight line 
to High Street, and including all the houses on the left 
hand of the way as we go towards London, crosses the 
road just after we pass what used to be called Gore Lane, 
but is now Queen's Gate or Prince Albert Road. Ken- 
sington Gore, the Albert Hall and the Horticultural Gar- 
dens are in Westminster, but the line runs so as to exclude 
the new Natural History and the South Kensington 
Museums, which are in Kensington, or rather in the Ken- 
sington hamlet of Brompton. Thence the boundary runs 
eastward, gradually approaching the main road, which is 
touched, just as we have passed the new Knightsbridge 
Barracks, where Kensington, Westminster and Chelsea 
meet at the point at which the Westboume used to cross 
the road. An old inn, the Fox & Bull, formerly stood 
by the bridge, and is mentioned as early as the reign of 
queen Elizabeth. The French Embassy in Albert Gate 
is on the site, and the brook runs under the roadway. 
A modem Fox 6r Bull close by is now in process of 

The notice of Westminster in the Domesday Book is 
apparently very precise, yet from the difficulty involved 
in all attempts to estimate exactly the modem value of 
a hide of land, it has caused much controversy among 
those leamed in such matters. The hide in Stepney, a 
holding fairly well defined, contained seventy-nine acres. 
But in Westminster which comprised sixteen hides and a 
half, it must, if our geography is right, have been only 
seventy hides. The discrepancy may be partially resolved 
by remembering that in Stepney there was more land 
than in Westminster occasionally, if not constantly sub- 
merged. Of the sixteen hides and a half which constituted 


the manor of Westminster, three were held by a tenant 
named Bainiard,or Baynard. It has usually been assumed 
that Baynard is the baron who built Castle Baynard in 
the city, and it has been conjectured that his three hides 
of land comprised the rising slope from the Fleet to 
Temple Bar which later on was the ward of Joce Fitz 
Peter, and was ultimately absorbed by the city as part of 
Farringdon Without There would be little objection to 
this assignment if we had any further mention of Baynard 
in connection with Fleet Street: but we have none. 
Another place, Bayswater, equally claims to have been 
the holding of Baynard, but this cannot be, for the 
simple reason that, as we have seen above, the abbot 
had no estate westward of the Tyburn, till he received 
Geoffrey's bequest* Baynard's holding has also been 
identified with Lincoln's Inn, but this is almost certainly 
an error. I only mention the question, in fact, to show 
how little is known, and how easy it is to make and 
defend theories which seem always the more plausible 
the less we really know. 

The abbot's manor contained all the elements of truly 
rural life. There were cottages and ploughs, cattle and 
hogs, meadow and woodland, but only twenty-five houses 
" of the abbot's knights and of other men." f 

Such was the estate which belonged to the abbey of 
Westminster at the beginning of the twelfth century. 
But disintegration was already in progress. In the 
eleventh century, at what exact date is not known, the 

* I am inclined to think another and much later Baynard will be fonnd 
to have been the abbot's tenant, and to have given his name to Bayswater. 

t It seems to me quite plain from this that either Fleet Street was no 
longer in the manor, a theory no one has ever started, or it was still 
unbuilt, which latter hypothesis will best square with known facts. For 
an opposite view, however, the reader is referred to Mr. Saunders's paper 
in Arcbseologia, xxvL, already mentioned. 

to /hee A #/. 

Soxnnf^fy GtP&f'Ofny £stuf^ 


king took up his abode either in the abbey, or close to it. 
Who was the first king to make a palace at Westminster 
we cannot tell. It may have been Canute or one of his 
unworthy sons : but it is more likely that Edward the 
Confessor, led by the strongly superstitious bent of his 
mind, fearing the Londoners more than he loved them, 
and thinking himself safer outside the walls than inside, 
considered the protection offered by the sacred character 
of the cloister of St Peter sufficient Certain it is that he 
passed the greater part of his reigrn at Westminster, and 
that he projected and built a church for the monks which 
in some respects was probably not inferior to what we 
see now. This is evident if we observe that the cloister 
still covers the same ground that it covered then. If 
there is one architectural feature of the church more 
familiar than another to Englishmen and all English- 
speaking people it is the " Poets' Comer." The Poets' 
Comer is formed in the south transept by the projection 
into it of a comer of the cloister. When Henry III. 
rebuilt church and cloister alike he did not disturb 
the Saxon ground plan, and thus the south transept 
has no westem aisle.* The Confessor's church ex- 
tended from the modem communion table westward 
to a door which opens into the westem walk of the 

Some fragments of his work may still be identified. 
Among them are the arches which lead from the cloister 
southward to the school, which have a series of very 
curious ancient chambers of the same period adjoining 
them. The passage into Little Dean's Yard is modem, 

* A glance at the accompanying plan will explain this. I have to thank 
Mr. J. Henry Middleton, F.S.A., for leave to use it. In conjunction with 
Mr. Micklethwaite, he has been engaged in researches in the abbey for 
many years, and it is probable that this plan will prove to be the most 
accurate hitherto publi^ed. 


but many traces of old work are to be seen, including 
the break in the vaulting, where a staircase used to lead 
up to the dormitory. There is a description of the abbey 
in an old manuscript volume in the Harleian collection, * 
which was written for queen Edith, therefore before 
1074, when she died. From it we gather that the church, 
which survived until a fire in the reign of Henry III., had 
an apse, a central tower, two towers at the western end, 
a cloister, a chapter house t on the present site, a refectory 
and a dormitory, with surrounding offices. Of these 
the crypt of the chapter house, the basement of the 
dormitory and the north wall of the refectory are still in 
existence. The abbey absorbed the parish church. For a 
time, at least, the few parishioners worshipped in the north 
aisle of the nave, but the first erection of St Margaret's 
is always attributed to the Confessor.J Two theories may 
be held on this subject It may be supposed that the 
parish church was dedicated to St Margaret § before the 
abbey was placed on Thomey, or it may be thought that 
the dedication was a new one. In favour of this second 
view must be put the absence of the name from early 
charters ; but we have no better evidence either way, 
and no contemporary record of the building of the 

There continued, however, an altar, called the " Jesus 
altar," for the parishioners in the abbey church. There 

 Printed in * Lives of Edward,' Rolls Series, p. 417. 

t See fall account in Scott's ' Gleanings,' p. 3. 

{ Widmore, p. 12. 

§ There are five saints of the name in Husenbeth's ' Emblems,' p. 109. 
Of these the dates exclade St Maigaret of Cortona, St Margaret of Scot- 
land, and B. Margaret of Hungary. B. Margaret of Castello is the fourth ; 
and the fifth, who must be identified with the church of Westminster, is 
St. Margaret, a virgin martyr in the fourth century. She is frequenUy 
represented in local sculpture as rising from a dragon which has her robe 
in his mouth. 


has been some misapprehension as to its position though 
it remained till the abolition of chantries. In fact there 
were two such altars. One of them stood at the eastern 
end of the nave, where is now the entrance to the choir. 
It was elevated on steps and shut in with side screens. 
Above it was a large rood screen, extending across the 
whole church, and to the eastward, at the same level as 
the rood screen, was an upstairs oratory, called, like the 
altar below, after our Saviour. To these two places the 
parishioners obtained access, as well as to their own 
church in the churchyard.* 

Although St Margaret's cannot compete with the 
abbey church in its interesting associations, there is yet 
much to record of it Restoration after restoration has 
removed every trace of antiquity from its walls. Even 
the churchyard, with its venerable gravestones, has been 
desecrated, the inscriptions obliterated or covered, and 
much that was curious or interesting destroyed It is sad 
to think that such vandalisms should have been carried 
out within the past two years, and under the name of 
improvements. The work, indeed, was begun at a time 
when there was, if possible, even less reverence than at 
present for antiquity, for one of the earliest parliamentary 
grants for the repair of St Margaret's was made the year 
after the execution of Charles I. f There were further 
repairs several times before 1780, which is the date on 
the leaden spouting; and in 1845 there was a vote of 

* I am much indebted to Mr. Middleton for this information. 

t Waloott, ' Westminster,' a compilation which must be referred to with 
caution, though it is the most accessible book on the subject. It is some- 
what unfortunate that both the modem historians of the abbey and of the 
adjacent church should have been so little characterised by historical 
accuracy that none of their assertions can be received without proof. I 
have avoided in this chapter as far as possible references to Dean Stanley's 
and Precentor Walcott's books. 


£1200 which produced most disastrous results. Since 
that time St Margaret's has been a new church, and 
seven years ago it was still further "restored." The 
House of Commons has, ever since the time of the 
great rebellion, looked on this church as its peculiar 
care, and when we see what has come of it, we cannot 
but rejoice that they extend their attention to no other 
London churches. 

There are a few names connected with St Margaret's, 
however, that even the omnipotence of an act of parlia- 
ment, or the marauding hand of the restorer, cannot quite 
obscure. It requires an effort of mind to remember in 
the new church such ancient worthies as Chaucer, Caxton, 
and Sir Walter Raleigh. Until last year there remained 
also a tangible memorial to William Cowper. There is now 
only a memory, and he is as unreal at St Margaret's as 
the other three. It would be curious to know if Caxton^ 
when he wrote with such warm admiration of Chaucer, 
was aware that the great poet lived close to St Mar- 
garet's, in a house on the site of Henry VH.'s chapel, 
while he was clerk of the works at the abbey. It was in 
St Margaret's that the heralds held their inquiry as to 
the Scrope and Grosvenor arms, in 1386, when Chaucer 
gave the evidence before them which has proved of such 
importance to his biographers.* Caxton lived near the 
western end of the abbey, in a house called the " Reed 
Pale," which may be translated, perhaps, by " red paling," 
which stood very near the spot marked now by the 
Crimean memorial column — a " pale " of red granite. He 
probably died in 1491, as, though registers had not yet been 
invented, the churchwarden's accounts record the expen- 
diture, midway between 1490 and 1492, of 6s, Sd for 
torches, and 6d. for bell ringing at the "bureyng of 

* It is noticed above, chap. iz. p. 257. 


William Caxton/** He well deserved this favour from 
the parish, to which he had bequeathed some copies of 
his 'Golden Legend/ which were sold by the church- 
wardens for the benefit of the poor. In 1496, for instance, 
we have the entry of the receipt of dr. 8^ for " oone of 
thoo printed bokes that were bequothen to the churche 
behove by William Caxton." That Caxton was buried 
within and not without the church was a matter of faith 
with Dr. Dibdin and the bibliographers of his time ; and 
in 1820 the Roxburgh Society put up a tablet to his 
memory in the south aisle, near the east end 

Although the probable site of his house is that which 
I have indicated, it must be remembered that before this 
quarter of the town was rased to the ground, the building 
which was locally called by his name, and which stood 
here, was not two hundred years old. It may, of course, 
have occupied an older site. The house of Caxton was 
in the Almonry. The Almonry was just here. There- 
fore, to put the matter in logical form, one of the houses 
on this site was his. Caxton was a member of the 
mercers' company, as we saw above.t There were many 
houses in Westminster held by the company from the 
abbot, and he may, as Mr. Blades, his latest and best 
biographer asserts, have hired one of them. This is by 
no means certain.^ Nor is it as certain as Mr. Blades 
would wish us to believe that this was Caxton's only 
connection with the abbot. At the same time, in the 
absence of trustworthy information to the contrary, we 
had best withhold our final judgment, and agreeing that 

* The volume in which the entry occurs was shown in the Caxton 
Exhibition at South Kensington in 1877. 

t Chap. ix. p. 267. 

X The mercers have a good many houses in and about Long Acre, 
adjoining the Convent, or Covent Garden. Their badge is still to be 
seen in St. Martin's 1 ane and Long Acre. 


Caxton lived very near the Crimean memorial, and that 
Stow is wrong in making abbot Islip his patron, since 
Caxton died before Islip was elected, we may accept the 
little that we do know and see how far it connects him 
with Westminster and Westminster Abbey. In one of 
his prologues he mentions the fact that abbot Esteney 
" did do shewe " him certain evidences : that is, abbot 
Esteney allowed them to be shown to him. There is 
nothing in this to prove that the abbot and the printer 
ever came into personal contact When we consider 
that the lord abbot of such an establishment not only 
held a high social rank, but also belonged to a society of 
monks, more or less recluse in their habits, it is possible 
that Caxton never so much as saw an abbot of West- 
minster in his life. He was, in fact, while he lived at the 
Red Pale, in the position of a retired wool stapler of 
moderate means, who had returned from the Low 
Countries, after long dealings with the merchants whom 
the commercially minded Edward IV. had established 
so near his own palace, and had naturally gravitated to 
the neighbourhood of the market place where his fortune 
had been founded. He had been thirty-five years abroad, 
and had imbibed at Bruges some of the artistic tastes 
which fostered the contemporary genius of Van Eyck 
and Memling. His literary ability had been stimu- 
lated by communication with Colard Mansion and other 
learned men, and when he came home and settled in the 
Almonry, he took to printing as he had learned it 
abroad, to fill up his leisure, to give himself an oppor- 
tunity of publishing his own voluminous works, and, 
possibly, to add to the small savings he had brought 
home with him. He conducted the business, if, indeed, 
it can be called a business, which must have been much 
more of an amusement, with the same instinctive skill 


and care which had characterised his mercantile work at 
Bruges : and the result leaves him in a high rank among 
the founders of the selection of words from various 
sources which we call the English language. Caxton, 
as Mr. Green * well remarks, stood between two schools 
of translation, that of French affectation and that of 
English pedantry. He only took to printing as the 
employment of his declining years. He survived his 
return home only fifteen years. But during the time he 
lived in the Almonry he must have worked with pro- 
digious energy, both at the press and in the study, and 
he certainly contrived before his death to make printing 
popular among his countrymen. He printed and pub- 
lished -during that time about a hundred different volumes 
and tracts, of which some ninety-four have been identi- 
fied. Several of them have been found made into paste- 
board for bindings, the greatest discovery of the kind 
having been at St Albans a few years ago. The. British 
Museum preserves eighty volumes from his press. Thirty- 
three of his books are only known by a single example 
or by imperfect copies, and the greatest number of copies 
of any one work is only twenty-nine. The modem 
bibliomaniac thinks with longing of the time when a 
churchwarden of St Margaret's could sell the * Golden 
Legend ' for 6s, 8d, 

The woollen market, or wool staple, at Westminster 
was looked upon with jealous eyes by the neighbouring 
citizens of London. The market house stood just where 
the modem Westminster Bridge springs from its abut- 
ments. It was destroyed in 1741, being then surrounded 
by other buildings, for all of which the sum of ;^840 was 
paid by authority of an act of parliamentt A new place 
on which to hold a market was obtained from the dean 

 ii. 56. t Smith, p. 261. 


and chapter in the Broad Sanctuary, but the only building 
of a civic character that remains is the so-called '' Guild- 
hall." It stands on the site of a tower in which, before 
the western end of the abbey church was completed, the 
bells were hung. The staple owed its origin to one of 
the periodical fits of anger against the Londoners in 
which Henry III. used to indulge. He ordered the city 
shops to be closed for fifteen days in October, 1248, and 
held a fair in Westminster. This fair became an annual 
occurrence, and was under the immediate control of the 
abbot, who appointed a vacant space in Tothill Fields 
for its celebration. The privilege of holding it was one 
among the many causes of the quarrel between the abbot 
and the citizens which Simon de Montfort in vain 
endeavoured to settle.* A more regular market was 
established by statute in 1353, when, to encourage the 
trade in wool, its headquarters were fixed at Westminster, 
and a " mayor of the staple " was appointed to super- 
intend it Edward IV. had extensive dealings in wool, 
and the Westminster staple flourished for many gener- 
ations. It is possibly owing to its existence on this spot 
that the mercers' company rented houses from the dean 
and chapter. The principal scene of operations was 
north of Bridge Street, then the Weighhouse Lane, 
at the foot of which was a floating pier, or "bridge," 
marked in many old maps and views. In the eighteenth 
century an attempt was also made to set up a fish 
market, but it failed, owing as was said to the opposi- 
tion of the city fishmongers and the merchants of 

Although Raleigh's headless body was laid in the 
chancel more than a century after Caxton's death, the 
appearance of Westminster had not, in spite of the sup- 

* See above, vol. i. chap. v. 


pression of the monasteries, undergone a very great 
change. The alterations of the last two hundred years 
have been far greater. Hollar, who, according to one 
account, was himself buried near the north-western comer 
of the tower, has preserved for us much of the look of 
the place fifty years later. When the wide roadway 
which now passes between the east ends of the two 
churches and the condemned law courts, was known as 
St Margaret's Lane, and was full of houses ; when a 
gateway stood where lord Derby's statue stands now, 
and another close to the chapel of Henry VII. ; when 
other gateways marked the end of King Street, and the 
entrance of the Sanctuary ; when the busy comer where 
Parliament Street now opens into Bridge Street was part 
of a continuous row of houses reaching to the water gate 
at the river's edge, Westminster presented an aspect very 
different from that open expanse of grass and flower 
beds which we now see, and the ungraceful tower of 
St Margaret's came into no competition, either with the 
abbey towers, which were not built till 1720, or with the 
•* pagoda " clock tower or the other omamental features 
of the new palace of parliament A network of govem- 
ment offices, narrow gardens, canons' houses, gothic 
archways, almonries, and chapels filled all the space now 
cleared and green. The buildings encroached on the 
churchyard and even on the abbey. Many of us can 
easily remember, before Victoria Street was thought of, 
that the Dean's yard was only one of a number of 
miserable little squares and narrow lanes of squalid 
houses, a nest of fever and vice, the despair of reformers 
and the delight of antiquaries.* Now only the hall and 

* Smith, in his ' Antiquities of Westminster,' and Archer in his *■ Old 
London,' have preserved many of the picturesque features left standing in 
the present century. 



some minor parts of the old palace can be found King 
Street has nearly disappeared and is no longer a principal 
thoroughfare. The clock tower near the hall, the 
abbot's prison and the conduit, close to which Raleigh's 
scaffold stood, have all departed, and left not a "rack 
behind." The time of William Cowper seems now, so far 
as Westminster is concerned, equally remote as that of 
Raleigh. It was in the churchyard of St. Margaret's, 
while he was a scholar at Westminster, that he re- 
ceived one of those impressions which had so strong an 
effect on his after life. Crossing the burial ground one 
dark evening towards his home in the school, he saw the 
glimmering lantern of a grave-digger at work. He ap- 
proached to look on, with a boyish craving for horrors, 
and was struck by a skull heedlessly thrown out of the 
crowded earth. To the mind of William Cowper such an 
accident had an extraordinary significance. In after life 
he remembered it as the occasion of religious emotions not 
readily suppressed. On the south side of the church, until 
the recent " restoration," there was a stone, the inscription 
on which suggests the less gloomy view of Cowper's 
character. It marked "The Burial Place of Mr. John 
Gilpin " ; the date was not to be made out, but it must 
have been fresh when Cowper was at school : and it would 
be absurd to doubt that the future poet had seen it, and 
perhaps unconsciously adopted from it the name of his 

The domestic buildings of Westminster Abbey have 
been so effectually disguised and altered that it is 
almost if not quite impossible to make any complete 
plan of what they were. Mr. Middleton's map gives 
the results of the latest investigations. Though, as I have 
said, there is not much in proportion of the Confessor's 
work still to be seen, its remains are -in reality more 
extensive than is generally supposed. Many people were 


lately anxious as tx> the fate of a building standing in the 
so-called "Little Dean's Yard," a square on the south 
side of the cloister. Ashbumham House, which is reason- 
ably believed to have been built by Inigo Jones, has, like 
a kind of backbone running along the whole building from 
end to en d, a thick wall of very ancient masonry, pierced 
here and there with modem doorways, in which its 
immense solidity is apparent. This was the southern 
side of the " Misericorde," or place of indulgence, an 
adjunct to the refectory, where the monks who, for any 
special reason had obtained leave, ate and drank the cakes 
and beer provided out of some charitable fund for their 
benefit Across the garden of the house is seen another 
great wall, pierced with round arched openings. Here 
stood the refectory. The dormitory has suffered even 
more ; it is now in part a school-room, and has been so 
much altered and defaced that its very form is made out 
with difficulty. All these buildings are survivals, more 
or less complete, of the Confessor's work. His own 
palace stood eastward of the monastery, yet in places 
connected with it So completely has everything been 
changed by the building of the houses of parliament, that 
it is difficult to identify even the ground on which the 
older buildings stood But after the disastrous fire of 
1834, it was found that the Confessor's work was greater 
than had been supposed, and that very little of Henry 
in.'s palace took up fresh ground. 

Two buildings stood at right angles to each other, the 
chapel of St Stephen and the so-called Painted Chamber. 
The house of commons sat in the chapel, the house of 
lords in the painted chamber, which was also sometimes 
described as the white hall* and the court of requests. 

* A name which misled Brayley into confounding it with Whitehall, 
otherwise York Place, 'Ancient Palace,' p. 357. There was a "white 
chamber " in the palace, as welL 

£ 2 


This was the principal feature of Edward's palace, and 
if we could replace it as it was, we should find it covering 
the statue of Richard I., which now stands in the angle 
formed by the south front of Westminster Hall and 
the modem buildings. The windows to the east of the 
great hall window light St Stephen's Gallery, which 
occupies the site of the chapel. It is believed that Sir 
Charles Barry might have saved and restored the chapel * 
badly as it was damaged by the fire; but, to judge by 
the " restoration " of its crypt, we should not have been 
much the better. 

There is evidence that the southern end, at least, of 
Westminster Hall is of very early work. But the present 
hall is due to Richard H., and the previous building was 
that of William Rufus, and must have been smaller. We 
can therefore say nothing of what the Confessor built 
here. When the cloister court was formed on the east 
side, the buildings came to the river's edge, and the site 
afterwards occupied by the Speaker's Garden, and now 
by the principal buildings of the houses of parliament, was 
under water. The Speaker's house stood almost where 
the lobby of the House of Commons is now, having been 
formed out of a row of lodgings for the priests connected 
with the collegiate chapel of St. Stephen. 

Henry HI. added much to the palace. When we con- 
sider the magnitude of this king's architectural schemes, 
we need not seek further for any explanation of his con- 
stant want of money, and the endless demands he made 
upon the citizens of London. In a future chapter I shall 
have something to say of his buildings at the Tower. At 
Westminster he not only almost rebuilt the Confessor's 
church, but spent lavish sums on his own palace. Some 
of his chambers were fancifully named, perhaps from the 

• Fergusson. 


character of their decorations : as the Antioch chamber, 
from a picture of the siege of Antioch by the crusaders. 
In the deanery to this day there is a " chamber called 
Jerusalem," now generally misnamed the Jerusalem 
chamber, and another called Jericho. In the old palace 
there was Heaven, Paradise, Purgatory, and even Hell.* 
The last named was as nearly as possible the judges' re- 
tiring room in the modem Court of Queen's Bench, now 
condemned to destruction. This comer, in Tudor times, 
was the royal nursery.f 

Of the law courts at Westminster we have heard much 
in late years. The king's judges used to travel with 
him, but many of our early sovereigns sat as a matter of 
course to hear cases. Henry III. sat in the Court of Ex- 
chequer in 1248 and 1256. James I. is the last king who 
** came to judgment" Westminster Hall very gradually 
became the head quarters of the law courts, but that they 
were at least occasionally fixed here appears from a 
report of pleas as early as 1200. They were not, how- 
ever, absolved from travelling after the king till 1224, 
when the judges commenced to sit in the hall, as they 
have, nominally at least, sat ever since until now. There 
are some curious views extant of the different courts,} 
and various chambers were at different times appropriated 
to them. Edward I., however, took the judges to Shrews- 
bury in 1277 to assist in trying Llewellyn, Prince of 
Wales. In 1289 he made inquiries into the administra- 
tion of justice at Westminster and punished nearly all 
his judges for taking bribes. It is said that a bell tower, 

* In one of the canons' houses at Canterbury there b still an ancient 
room called Paradise. 

t The reader is referred to Smith's * Westminster,' and to Brayley and 
Britton's ' Ancient Palace of Parliament,' for full and accurate accounts 
of the old buildings. 

X See some fine plates in ' Archaeologia,' vol. auucix. 


opposite the entrance of Westminster Hall was erected 
with the proceeds of the fines, but, if so, it was com- 
pletely rebuilt by Edward III., and subsequently became 
a clock tower, and as such is figured in some of Hollar's 
views. There was also a bell tower within the palace, 
and it is not easy to unravel the intricacy of the accounts 
as to which of them is meant by the record. 

Of the modem houses of parliament much might be 
said did space and time permit The new palace is the 
result of a long series of more or less stupid mistakes, 
and more or less ignorant experiments. That it is so 
satisfactory can only be accounted for by the enormous 
amount of money spent. Seen from the river the front 
has a symmetry not wholly unpleasing ; but marred 
by the comparative lowness of the central part of 
the fagade, which deprives it of dignity. The landward 
side is wanting in unity and seems to straggle. Much 
the most picturesque parts of the building are the little 
known courts, where no attempt at ornament or symme- 
try was made, and where the irregular beauties of the 
style assert themselves rather in spite of the architect 
than with his help. The ground plan looks well on paper. 
The way in which Westminster Hall was worked into the 
design, the octagon, with the four passages leading to it and 
the simplicity of the lobby arrangements, account for the 
ease with which a stranger can find his way about The 
royal entrance under the southern tower, by an archway 
sixty feet high, and a wide staircase leading to the splendid 
but meaningless royal gallery, is very fine and grand. It 
is but too easy to find fault The decorations are oppres- 
sive in their number and monotony. The architect knew 
little about the Tudor style, and could give no variety. 
On the exterior the pannelling is simply tiresome, while 
only the central tower can be considered beautiful. The 


great Victoria tower might have been one of Wren's 
gothic efforts, and differs chiefly in size from the tower of 
St Mary Aldermary. Of the clock tower it is more than 
sufficient condemnation to say one is constantly tempted 
to call it the " clock case," so exactly does it resemble a 
common or domestic article of furniture. It still bears 
.the mark of recent completion ; for Barry hoped to have 
been allowed to make New Palace Yard a quadrangle, 
and to have erected a great gateway, the design of which 
with its high pitched roof is well known, and more nearly 
approaches picturesqueness than anything else he did in 
this style. In short, the palace is what might have been 
expected when we forced the greatest master of the 
Italian style we had in England to build in gothic ; just 
as, a little later we compelled our greatest gothic architect 
to build the new government offices in an Italian style. 
The offices in St James's Park are, however, among Sir 
Gilbert Scott's most picturesque works, while it cannot 
be said that anything except the ground plan at the 
palace of Westminster is worthy of the artist who 
designed Bridgewater House and the Reform Club in 
Pall Mall. 

Westminster hall was, practically, renewed by Barry, 
who removed the southern end, placed the window a few 
feet back, and made room for a broad platform or landing 
for the staircase which opens from the western side, 
facing Henry VII.'s chapel. It is difficult to realise now 
the old appearance of the hall.* The little shops, as 
archbishop Laud notes in his diary,t took fire in 163 1, 
but the damage was insignificant : and the noble oak 
roof was spared. It was found to be in a very rickety 

* A copy of a view made early in the eighteenth century is among the 
accompanying plates, 
t Quoted by Timbs, p. 829. 


state in 1820, and forty loads of old ship's timbers were 
brought from Portsmouth to repair it, and to complete 
the northern end, which had never been quite finished. 
A somewhat similar restoration had been made of the 
curious frieze of the badges and crests of Richard IL 
which surrounds the whole building, a few years earlier. 
Some relics of Norman work were obliterated under. 
Barry*; and as the whole has been refaced, a great 
arch erected in the eastern wall to form a members' 
entrance to the cloisters, a wide flight of steps built at 
the southern end, and some not very interesting statues 
of English kings and queens set up on the east side, it 
would not be easy, but for the roof, to find anything in 
the Westminster hall of to-day which was there when 
the estates of the realm met here to choose a new king. 
The walls "were hung and trimmed sumptuously," and 
a vacant throne stood in the midst. Near it sat the 
duke of Lancaster, ready to ascend it as soon as the 
voice of the assembly had declared him Richard's suc- 
cessor. This was the first great pageant in the new hall. 
Since then it has seen many another. Here Oldcastle 
was tried and condemned. Edward Seymour, duke of 
Somerset, and sometime lord protector of the realm, was 
tried in Westminster Hall, before his peers, the marquis 
of Winchester, lord treasurer, sitting as high stewardf 
Not long after, his great enemy, John Dudley, duke of 
Northumberland, was sentenced to death in the same 
hall. The duke of Norfolk, under queen Elizabeth, was 
tried in Westminster hall, the earl of Shrewsbury being 
high steward. Here Strafford and his unhappy master 
met for the last time, when Charles and his queen at- 
tended the trial. Here Charles himself encountered 

 See view in Brayley and Britton, plate viii. 

t See several of these trials in Mr. Bell's ' Chapel in the Tower.' 


Bradshaw and his assessors, and bore himself in more 
royal wise than at any other conjuncture of his reign. 
Here the seven bishops were acquitted, and the Scots 
lords condemned The trial of Warren Hastings was 
opened in Westminster hall, a trial which is rendered the 
more memorable by lord Macaulay's eloquent description 
of its commencement* 

The palace of Westminster was occasionally inhabited 
by Henry VHI. : but after he had taken Whitehall from 
Wolsey, and St James's from the nuns of the hospital, 
it ceased to be a royal residence. It had been much 
damaged by fire in the early part of Henry's reign, and 
when he obtained or seized Whitehall, he must have been 
very poorly lodged at Westminster, which may account 
for his love of Bridewell. When the papal ascendancy 
had been thrown off, and the monks had been banished 
from St Peter's abbey, the king can have had little object 
in residing among some ruinous buildings, disendowed 
chapels, desecrated shrines, and — if Henry had anything 
like sentiment or superstition left in his selfish mind — the 
graves of his father and his mother, which he had de- 
prived of the services they had thought so needful to their 
repose, and had tried to secure by so many safeguards. 
I^ was but a few years before the final suppression that 
Henry Vn I. received the renewed oath of an abbot of 
Westminster, to provide the accustomed masses in the 
chapel of Henry VH.T Some of the ancient observances 
continued to be celebrated in the chapel of Henry VII. 
till the end of his son's reign : but ceased immediately on 

* It is often asserted that queen Anne Boleyn was tried in Westminster 
hall. Mr. Bell has shown that the high steward and his court sat in the 
•• King's hall " in the White Tower, p. loi. 

t Syllabus of Rymer's * Foedera,* p. 773, 12 May, 1533. Abbot Benson, 
or Boston, surrendered on the 1 6th January, 1540, and was appointed first 


the accession of Edward VI. : who was himself buried 
under the altar of the chapel, an altar of beautiful renas- 
cence work, portions of which have lately been recovered 
and replaced.* 

Since Henry III. had consecrated the mound of 
holy earth he had obtained from Palestine, by the trans- 
lation of the body of Edward the Confessor, most of his 
descendants had chosen the chapel behind the high altar 
for their tombs. Many of Henry VII.'s descendants were 
buried in his chapel, but the body of George III. was 
laid beside those of Charles I., Henry VIIL, Edward IV., 
and Henry VI. in the chapel of St George, adjoining 
the royal palace at Windsor. Henry III. reserved the 
Confessor's ancient coffin for himself and the bones of the 
saint were laid in a magnificent shrine, the mere remains of 
which are all we can now see. It is even doubtful, if any 
of the " holy relics " are still in the tomb, which was 
renewed by queen Mary and again by James II. At 
the north side is the monument with its effigy of Henry 
III., completed ten years after his death by the piety of 
Edward I., whose own tomb is as plain and solid as if it 
had been hewn out of one of the Welsh or Scottish hills 
among which he wrought his mighty deeds. The plain- 
ness of Edward's tomb is the more remarkable because of 
the magnificence he bestowed on the tombs of his father 
and of his wife, whose figure, if it be indeed a portrait, is 
the first we have of any English sovereign, since it was 
completed before that of her father-in-law, Henry III. 
The cross Edward made in her honour at Charing 
remains there still in name, though the statue of Charles 
I. occupies the site ; but the modem cross which so un- 
meaningly decorates the approach to the neighbouring 

* Mr. Middleton obtained the Testitution of a portion of the altar from a 
museum at Oxford in 1^79. 


railway station, is probably as faithful a reproduction as 
can be expected in the nineteenth century of the sculpture 
and architecture of the thirteenth. Edward also com- 
pleted his father's design for rebuilding the abbey church, 
and added the four westernmost bays to the nave. When 
Edward himself was dying in 1307, at Burgh-on-the- 
Sands in Cumberland, he desired them to boil down his 
body in a cauldron, and to carry the bones against the 
rebels to " the very extremity of Scotland." But Edward 
II. was not the man to fulfil such directions. The body 
was embalmed and brought to Westminster, wrapped in 
cerecloth, and at intervals the tomb was opened, and a 
fresh winding sheet placed about it The last of these 
renewals took place as late as the time of Henry V. In 
1774 the tomb was again opened. A black marble coffin 
was found within the rough sarcophagus. The cerecloth 
was intact, and showed how carefully it had been applied 
for even each finger had its bandage. The body wore 
over its shroud the royal robes, with gilt crown and 
sceptre, and in this state it still lies. 

It has several times been found easy to fill a volume 
with accounts of the tombs and monuments of Westmin- 
ster Abbey. I shall notice here only a few. Edward III. 
rests near his grandfather, and close to him his wife. 
Near them is their unfortunate grandson Richard II. and 
his first wife, Anne of Bohemia. The effigy of the king 
was placed beside that of his consort in his own lifetime 
his hand clasping hers. Below was formerly the touching 
inscription, " I have been most happy and most miserable," 
the effect of which must have been somewhat marred by 
other lines of the epitaph, and in particular by the rhym- 
ing hexameters.* 
One more royal tomb must be mentioned. The chantry 

* Noticed above, voL L p. 251. 


of Henry V. is not open to the public, and is seldom fully 
described It consists of a kind of stone platform erected 
over the tomb, which is well known, with its headless oaken 
^^^. The western side of the screen consists of two 
slender staircases, so arranged that with the floor of the 
platform they assume the shape of the letter H. Over it 
is a cross beam on which were suspended the helmet, 
saddle, and shield, supplied by the undertakers for his state 
funeral* The shield, according to the engraving of it by 
Sandford, represented France. There may have been 
another for England, but it has disappeared. The chantry 
itself is a wide space surrounded by low walls from which 
excellent bird's eye views may be obtained all over the 
church. No doubt, the people, far down in the nave 
at the Jesus altar were able to see the elevation of the 
host as the daily mass was performed in the chantry 

Scarcely less important than the tombs of kings are those 
of their greatest ministers. Though lord Beaconsfield, who 
knew how the mighty dead jostle each other, so to speak, 
in Westminster Abbey, and how one's feelings of reverence 
at seeing the grave of one remarkable man, are imme- 
diately diverted to see another, chose rather to be buried 
in a country churchyard, yet few of his predecessors 
escaped the questionable honour. It comes to pass from 
their number, that one overlooks even the tombs of such 
men as the Pitts, whereas the solitary monument of lord 
Melbourne, in St Paul's, is always conspicuous. But it 
may be safely said that of the thousands of altar tombs, 
tablets, cenotaphs, statues, busts, and other memorials, in 
the abbey, there is not one so simple, so mournful, so 
beautiful that it is not excelled by the black doorway in 

* Dean Stanley seems to have thought they were his veritable arms, 


St Paul's, and the pale angels that guard it* The 
citizens of London would fain have buried Chatham in 
their cathedral. We have seen how he was loved in the 
city,t and are not surprised that they would, as Walpole 
sneeringly observes, " have robbed Peter to pay Paul." 
The statue, which was eventually placed in the abbey, 
would unquestionably have looked better in the cathedral. 
Bacon set an example in modelling the figure in modem 
dress and parliamentary robes, and, strange to say, not 
only designed the monument, but wrote the inscription. 
No inscription was ever placed on the monument of 

Of late years, with a view to economising space and 
fees, it has been the custom to put up little busts on brac- 
kets in all sorts of comers. The effect is intolerable. 
We talk of the incongruous monuments of General Wolfe 
or Mrs. Nightingale, but at least they are fine works of 
art A naked quarter length of the late Mr. John Keble 
on a Greek pedestal, is fifty times more incongruous, and 
bad, besides, in itself. It is impossible not to regret that 
Dickens's dying wish was disregarded and that his body 
does not rest among the scenes he loved best, and where 
it would have been in a sense, an honour to the place. 
Here it is lost In fact, the monuments} have become so 
numerous and so often commemorate people whom 
futurity will consider entitled to be called eminent chiefly 
because they have their memorials here, that a visit to the 
church is not what it was in the days of Addison and 
Sir Roger de Coverley, or Johnson and Goldsmith. 

* Had Marochetti never executed any work but this he would have 
been reckoned a ^eat sculptor. But he also made the statue of Richard I. 
in Old Palace Yard« 

t Chapter xiv. 

X The best account of the illustrious dead here interred is in the lamented 
Colonel Chester's book on the ' Registers of Westminster Abbey.' 



The triforlum of Westminster Abbey is just as full of 
objects of interest as every other part of the church. 
Yet it is not altogether a pleasant place to visit One 
does not always wish to get behind, or, as in this case, 
above, the scenes. Even ancient abbeys have their seamy 
side. It is not at first possible to realise the value of every 
little heap of dust and rubbish which has accumulated 
here during so many centuries. A bundle of broken 
boards was once the canopy of a great king's tomb, re- 
moved to make way for the tomb of a greater than he. 
A heap of red fragments of terra-cotta were once the 
priceless images with which Torregiano decorated the 
high altar of Henry's sumptous chapel. A magnificently 
modelled " torso," worthy of Michael Angelo, is among 
them, and some pedestals which still bear the "beau- 
tiful feet " of little angels. Tied up into faggots are the 
iron rails that bore the pall which concealed the plain- 
ness of the tomb of Edward I. In one corner is the sole 
remaining cope chest In another are the curious little 
wooden obelisks which stood at either side of the choir 
gate when Dart made his view. Perched high up on 
beams are more than a hundred helmets, some of them 
still bearing their crests, which like that of Henry V. have 
come into the abbey with funerals. At the western end 
of the south side is a room which Bradshaw occupied in 
the days of the commonwealth. It communicates with 
the deanery which was granted to him, and here it is said 
by tradition he died. His ghost haunts the gloomy 
chamber still, and walks the triforium on the nights of the 
30th January and the 22nd November. 

In a chantry over the Islip chapel is the very curious 
and interesting collection of waxworks. For some reason 
the later deans have not been anxious that the public 
should see these characteristic figures, and some of the 


more ancient are believed to have been locked away out 
of sight* The commanding figure of Chatham in his 
robes, the imperious face of Elizabeth, the dingy image 
of Charles 11. in its splendid point lace, the ghastly duke 
of Buckingham lying dead on his bier, but above all 
little William III. propped on a footstool beside his tall 
wife, both evidently portraits, and by no mean artist, 
should be visible to all who care to see them. 

The transfer of Westminster from the abbot and his 
monks to the dean and his canons was made gentle by 
two circumstances. There were only 17 monks in the 
house at the suppression : and the last abbot became 
the first dean. The short-lived bishopric which made 
Westminster a city, and the "collegiate church" or royal 
chapel, a cathedral, helped also to keep alive the old 
feeling of the greatness of the place, for though a dean 
was nothing in comparison with a lord abbot, controlling 
an income which would now be reckoned at about 
60,000/. a year, a bishop was a peer of Parliament, and 
bishop Thurlby turned the late abbot, now dean, out of 
the abbot's house and made it his palace. The dean 
made a house of the old Misericorde, already mentioned. 
Dean Benson, who had reigned for a brief period as 
abbot Boston, a name he derived from- his birthplace, was 
one of these implements which kings like Henry, and 
ministers like Thomas Cromwell, always find ready to 
hand. He lived to repent of his misdeeds, and died, it 
was reported of "taking care." In 1533, the lord abbot's 
chair being vacant by the death of Islip,t Boston was 

* Dean Stanley is careful to say very little about them, and excludes the 
word " waxwork " from his index. 

t One of Newcourt*s very rare mistakes is in his list of abbots, i. 717, 
where he says Islip was abbot from 1483 to 1510 : thus wholly omitting 
Fascet Islip became abbot in 1500, and died in May 1532. (Stanley, 



brought from Burton-upon-Trent, to fill it About the 
same time three manors which belonged to the abbey were 
pledged, or mortgaged, for 500/., a large sum of money 
in those days. It was paid to Sir William Pawlet and to 
one Thomas Cromwell, not yet so well known to fame 
as he afterwards became. The new abbot was the first 
for three centuries who had not belonged to the house, 
and he played to perfection the part of the hireling shep- 
herd. At the suppression he descended from his lofty 
station and became, as we have seen, the first dean, and 
Thurlby became first and last bishop of Westminster. 
Meanwhile Benson exerted himself to save some of the 
abbey estates for the new chapter, and partially succeeded, 
his exertions, it is probable, rather than his conscience, 
causing his death in 1 549. He could not save the abbot's 
house, which on the suppression of the new see was given 
to the omnivorous lord Wentworth, who died in it 
immediately afterwards and was buried among the 
abbots. A second dean, Cox, inhabited the altered 
Misericorde, and on his flight a third, Weston, who had 
to make way for queen Mary's restored abbot It was 
this Feckenham, so called from his birthplace in Suffolk, 
his family name being Howman, to whom the modem 
deans should be grateful for having obtained the abbot's 
house for them, as he effected an exchange with the new 
lord Wentworth, giving up to him instead the manor of 
Canonbury. It was this second lord Wentworth whose 
loss of Calais so deeply grieved queen Mary, and with 
Mary's life practically ended the rule of the last abbot 
But the new deanery house was never again inhabited by 
a dean, and its subsequent history, which has been the 
subject of so much controversy of late, ends by discon- 
necting it from the abbey. 

Queen Elizabeth founded Westminster School, and it 


has often, without foundation, been asserted that Francis 
Bacon was among the early scholars. The queen is said, 
at one of her visits, to have asked him how often he had 
been fledged, on which the precocious boy replied in a 
line from Virgil — 

" Infandum, regina, jubes renoyare dolorem."* 

At first the school and the abbey were very closely con- 
nected. Dean Goodman was a kind of headmaster, and 
even took boarders into the deanery. This connection 
subsists no longer. The encroachments of the school 
have long been viewed with disfavour by the chapter ; 
and when just before the death of the lamented dean 
Stanley, the unwilling fulfilment of a " promise to their 
loss " deprived them of the original deanery, which had 
long been a canon's residence, under the name of Ash- 
bumham House, it was felt that the circumstances deli- 
cately described by the dean had been reversed. He 
spoke of the interests of the school having been occasion- 
ally overshadowed by those of the chapter. If so the 
cession of Ashbumham House, in 1881, and since then 
that of the organist's house close by show that it is now 
the turn of the school. 

Ashbumham House requires more than a passing 
mention. It stands as I have said, across the very wall 
of the Misericorde, and its garden looked on the little 
that is left of the Refectory. How far the school will 
injure it I know not, but visitors who remember its 
delicate carved panelling and the fragile stucco work, 
will tremble for its fate. There seems to be no authentic 
proof that it was designed by Inigo Jones : but the 
negative proof that he only could have designed it is very 

^ It is the opening of the speech of i£neas to Dido. " Thou dost desire 
me, O queen, to recall unspeakable woe." Book ii., line 3. * 



strong. It was unquestionably built in his time for the 
lessee or grantee whose name it has since borne, and 
with an ordinary but not unpleasing exterior, is arranged 
and decorated within in a style which justifies what was 
said of it by one of the objectors to the transfer : — it 
stands to modem domestic architecture as St Stephen's 
Wallbrook stands to ecclesiastical, as showing the power 
of a master to produce in a moderate space and with 
ordinary materials an effect perfectly satisfactory.* I 
have already spoken of the beautiful dormitory of 
Westminster School, built by Lord Burlington, which is 
usually said to be slightly modified from a drawing by 
Inigo Jones, and which is certainly well worthy of that 
great man. 

In 1536 Westminster is described in an act of parlia- 
ment as a " town." When the short lived bishopric was 
established in 1 540, the town became a " city," and after 
the suppression of the see ten years later, the title still 
stuck to it. In an act passed in 1604 it is called the 
"manor and city of Westminster." Whether between 
1550 and 1604 it was really a city may be questioned. 
It stands now alone among cities in possessing only the 
humbler attributes of a manor. Just as completely as if 
it was situated in a rural part of Wiltshire or Kent, it 
has its manorial officers, its lord, its steward, its bailiff: 
and it differs from London in having neither mayor, nor 
corporation, nor cathedral. It stands alone too among 
the Middlesex manors which have been absorbed into 
London, in the wider sense of that name, for not only 
does it preserve its manor house, but the lord of the 

* Ashbomham House is figured in Smith's ' Additional Plates,' and in 
' Edifices of London ' by Briiton and Pugin, ii. 90, where there are two 
engravings showing the staircase, from drawings by Gwilt Sir John 
Soane made a series of drawings of it, which are, presumably, in his 
Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


manor lives in it The manor houses of Rugmere and 
Stepney, of Tyburn and Kensington, of Finsbury and 
St Pancras have disappeared. The manor house of 
Lylleston is a hospital. Of the manor house of Chelsea 
the very site is disputed. But at Westminster the lord 
of the manor of the church of St Peter resides in his 
manor house in the reign of queen Victoria as he 
resided " tempore Regis Edwardi." 

The modem government of Westminster remains very 
much as it was when first organised by dean Goodman. 
" He was the virtual founder of the corporation of West- 
minster, of which the shadow still remains in the twelve 
burgesses and the high steward of Westminster — the 
last relic of the * temporal power ' of the ancient abbots 
His high steward was no less a person than lord Bur- 
leigh."* It may be added that the present high bailiff is 
the duke of Buccleugh, and that the burgesses and 
assistants are appointed annually on Thursday in Easter 
Week by the high steward or his deputy. The high 
bailiff is a kind of sheriff, performs the duties of returning 
ofHcer, and executes warrants issued by the court of the 

* Stanley, p. 432. 

F 2 

( 68 ) 



In tracing the gradual disintegration of the great 
parish of which I spoke in the last chapter, it would be 
very satisfactory if we could pursue a strictly chrono- 
l(^ical method. But no such method is possible. There 
are great blanks and chasms in the records. It is likely 
that St Clement Danes is as old as St Bride's or St 
Dunstan's, but we have no proof of the fact St Martin's- 
in-the-Fields first appears on the page of history as the 
chapel of a hamlet of St Margaret's, but the others are 
full-fledged parish churches as soon as we hear of them. 
Of the various precincts, the Rolls, the Inns, and the 
Savoy, we have some historical information.* Of the 
later and more modem parishes of St James, St Anne, 
and St George, the whole origin and formation is 
perfectly well known, and almost within living memory. 

The first glimpse we obtain of a change in the great 
parish of St Margaret is afforded by a decree made in 
1222, in which we have again a definition of boundaries. 
Before we consider it, we may try to form an idea of the 
eastern part of the parish before that date. It extended, 
as we read in the last chapter, to the " London Fen," by 
which expression all authorities are agreed that the Fleet 

* I have perhaps devoted too much attention to what may be called the 
theoretical as opposed to the strictly topographical part of this chapter : 
but while there are innumerable books about the one, no intelligible 
account of the early state of the district has hitherto, so far as I know, been 


river is intended But it must be something more than 
the Fleet The word " fen " implies a wider tract than 
that actually occupied by the stream. In 95 1 there had 
probably been little change in the geography of this part 
of London since the time of the Romans. We know 
nothing of a gate at Ludgate. We do know of a gate at 
Newgate and of a " broad military road " from it. I have 
already mentioned the difficulty presented by the name 
of Ludgate. Some have endeavoured to connect it with 
the meeting of the folkmote within it : but that would 
make it "Leetgate," or "Ledgate," not Ludgate. The 
difficulty of deriving it from the Fleet or Flood is equally 
great — indeed, an eminent authority whom I have con- 
sulted, considers such a derivation '' philologically im- 
possible." I am driven, therefore, strange as it may 
seem, to fall back upon king Lud. If we ask when the 
legendary history of the ancient kings, Lud and Belin 
and so on, first became popular, we find it was just in 
this very interval of which I have been speaking, namely, 
between the end of the tenth century and the end of the 
twelfth. I have already said that Billingsgate points to 
the name of a Saxon family. The people of the eleventh 
century had forgotten this. The easternmost Watergate 
was naturally assigned therefore to the mythical Belin, 
and almost as naturally, it was argued, if such a process 
can be called argument, that if the eastern Watergate 
belonged to Belin, the western one must belong to Lud. 
I have no means of knowing whether there was any gate 
here before that time : a small postern may have opened 
on the steep bank : on the whole I should be inclined to 
reject even this but for the probability that the outer 
slope was a Roman military burial place, a reason by no 
means conclusive. 
Before the twelfth century, however, the Fen began to 


be dried up. A piece of foreshore extending from the 
river half-way up the slope towards what is now called 
Temple Bar began to appear, and the city took possession 
of it, opened the "Ludgate," and eventually made a 
bridge to reach it The abbot naturally objected. A 
compromise left the abbot the advowson of the new 
church of St Bride, but gave up the new colony other- 
wise to the city, and before the beginning of the thirteenth 
century the aldermanry, we might almost say the manor, 
of Joce Fitz Peter,* was formed, and eventually became 
part of the ward of Farringdon Without It has been 
suggested that the three hides held from the abbot by 
Bainiard at the time of the Domesday Survey were 
situated here. It is very possible, and we know that 
they cannot have been at Bayswater, where they are 
usually placed, because the land there did not belong to 
the abbot till some years latent 

Meanwhile another invasion of the abbot's land had 
taken place. The highest ground on the road between 
Ludgate and St Mary le Strand is still just outside 
Temple Bar. Here a ridge or spur of the great central 
hill of Rugmere,J came down towards the Thames. On 
its eastern side was a little brook, marked still by the 
name of Milford Lane. At its extremity, on a kind of 
promontory, long marked by a landing-stage known as 
the Strand Bridge, were the remains of some Roman 
buildings of which the masonry of a cistern or bath may 
still be recognised. These remains are the more in- 
teresting because, with the pavement discovered last 
year in Westminster Abbey, they are the only traces of 
Roman occupation yet found in the parish. On the hill 
above the Roman bath was the parish church of St 

* See above, Chap. vi. f See above, chap. xvi. 

X See below, chap. xxL 


Clement, called " Danes," either, it is said, on account of 
the settlement here of a colony of christianised invaders 
under Sweyn and Canute, or on account of the number 
of Danes, including Harold Harefoot, who were buried 
in it Stow reports a tradition that some marauders 
were slain here on their way home to iDenmark with 
their booty. No doubt, detached companies of Danes 
were intercepted and slain in several places ; and colonies 
of their nation existed all over the country. The churches 
of St Olave and of St Magnus — perhaps the church of 
St Bride — are evidences of their strength in London. 
The mere irruption, so to speak, of this parish, into St. 
Margaret's is significant The Danish soldiers came 
along the old Roman war path, the " Heere Street," and 
poured down from it wherever the firmer ground of a 
grassy knoll enabled them to reach the Thames and 
their boats without risk of entanglement among the fens 
which surrounded the city walls. The little creek and 
promontory by the Roman bath added to the attractions 
of the situation. The Aldwych Road — which still as 
Wych Street survives — may in its name contain an 
allusion to the ancient settlement, and certainly points 
the way by which the colonists, whether Roman or 
Saxon, or Dane, swept down from the ridge to the river. 
The church is in what was originally the south-eastern 
comer of the parish which stretches northward to the 
still open Lincoln's-Inn-Fields, and westward to the 
crowded purlieus of Drury Lane. Two outlying districts 
may mark the settlements of isolated families. One of 
them is now occupied by the Lyceum Theatre,* the 

* Pexiiaps some historian of the future may hazard the opinion that the 
name of St Clement '* Danes" refers to the long run of Hamlet at this 
theatre. I have had to notice and refute much wilder guesses than this. 
It would not be so absurd to hint that *' Danes *' is a reference to the 
dene or hollow by Milford Lane. 


other on the site of Beaufort House, once the residence 
of the scientific marquis of Worcester, whose ' Century of 
Inventions/ printed in 1663, contains the germ of the 
steam engine, is recognised in Beaufort Buildings. 

The decree of 1222 formally deprived the abbot of 
Westminster of this parish. The boundary line no 
longer runs to the " old stock of St Andrew's church " 
and down the fen to the Thames. It stops at the garden 
of St. Giles's Hospital, turns south-eastward, and reaches 
the Strand near the " church of the Innocents " at the 
house of one Simon, a weaver.* It does not even touch 
the Thames. The south side of the Strand is excluded, 
for a reason which will be apparent further on, and the 
boundary returns along the king's highway to West- 
minster. We have here, then, already, mention of 
another church, and a few lines further on there is a 
third. St. Clement Danes, St Mary-le-Strand, then 
called the Holy Innocents, and St Martin's — away in 
the open fields by Charing — were all in existence, and 
St Margaret's was rapidly dwindling. 

It is common for people who do not know the facts of 
the case to throw blame upon the city authorities for not 
extending their "wards without," so as gradually to take 
in what is now so often called the metropolitan area. I 
do not know that the city ever wished to do this. But 
it is quite easy to see that it could not have been done, 
and I have given special prominence to this matter of 
the archbishop's decree of 1222, because it shows that 
the lords of manors, not the mayor and commonalty, 
prevented the extension of the ward system. To make 
Joce Fitz Peter alderman of that part of Farringdon 
Without which is comprised in the district west of the 
Fleet, and Anketel de Auvergne after him, was distinctly 

* See ' Archaeologia,' xxvi. 227. 


to invade the rights of the lord of the manor, the abbot 
of Westminster. In the same way it was not, as we 
have seen, till the reign of queen Mary that South wark 
became a ward without, though in this case it is known 
that the city ardently desired further jurisdiction, and 
had begun to take steps more than a century before to 
that end. But we shall see presently that even on 
Holbom Hill the city jurisdiction was disputed, and we 
can have no doubt that every ward without was keenly 
fought over ; while the device of taking a lease from the 
lord of the manor had to be resorted to in one case, that 
of Finsbury.* 

In addition to the new parishes carved out of St 
Margaret's, some extra-parochial "precincts" had also 
arisen. When the Blackfriars had laboriously pieced 
together an estate at the north-western comer of the 
new ward of Joce Fitz Peter, the munificence of certain 
eminent citizens and the favour of the kingt enabled 
them to migrate to the spot which has ever since borne 
their name. The older house, with its gardens, passed 
into the possession of Henry Lacy, earl of Lincoln, " a 
person well affected to the study of the laws," X ^^^ h^ 
granted it, before his death in 1310, we know not on 
what terms, to the legal students and professors. They 
soon by renewable leases obtained virtual possession of 
the adjoining mansion of the bishop of Chichester ; and 
forced the bishop to remove certain bars at the foot of 
"Chancellor's Lane," now Chancery Lane, which Sir 
John le Breton, during one of- his wardenships § of the 
city, had allowed to be set up on account of the constant 
passage of traffic and the consequently muddy state 
of the lane. The chief buildings were erected from 

* See chap, vii., p. 207. t Chap. viii. 

X Herbert's * Ixms of Court,' p. 289. § See aboTe, chap. vL 


bricks made in what had been the bishop's "coney 
garth," the western part of the garden, now almost 
surrounded by houses. Before the reign of Henry VIII. 
the society flourished exceedingly, and reckoned among 
its members many eminent men, including Sir Thomas 
More. A little later, according to Fuller, Ben Jonson 
worked at the buildings, " when having a trowel in one 
hand, he had a book in the other," and it may very well 
be that he pursued his occupation under the orders of 
Inigo Jones, who built a curious, but thoroughly gothic 
chapel on tall arches, which was consecrated in 1623.* 

Of all the buildings at Lincoln's Inn, the gateway, now" 
that the chapel has been historically-speaking destroyed, 
is the most interesting : being late gothic work, some- 
what like St John's Gate and some parts of St James's 
Palace. Naturally, it is very obnoxious to improvers,, 
and is even now, it is reported, under condemnation. 
The new hall,t situated in the northern part of the old 
" Coney garth," is very conspicuous from Lincoln's-Inn- 
Fields, and is one of the first buildings made under the 
influence of the gothic revival which can be pronounced 
a success. The architect was chosen according to the 
usual English method. Having, we are informed, " given 
evidence of talents of a superior order in the erection of 
the noble Doric propylaeum at the railway terminus in 
Euston Square," he was selected as a fit and proper 
person to erect a hall which was to be as like a piece of 
genuine Tudor architecture as it could be made. Philip 

* It might have been hoped that such a sacred conjunction would hare 
ensured the safety of this chapel : but as I write it is being added to and 
altered, and that, incredible as it may seem, under the direction, not of an 
architect, but of a lawyer. An architect would probably have thought 
himself unworthy to touch the work of Jones, though at Cambridge Scott 
" improved " the work of Wren. 

t There is an account of it in Spilsbury's ' Lincoln's Inn,' p. 88. 


Hardwick showed a versatility denied on similar occa- 
sions to Barry and to Scott, and abandoning the Grecian 
style erected in red banded brick the very handsome 
new hall, on which his initials and the date 1843, prevent 
the visitor from falling into error. 

The smaller inns are almost too numerous to mention : 
yet I would like to pause a moment over the smallest. 
Barnard's Inn, Holbom, is entered from the street by a 
narrow doorway, and the visitor immediately and without 
notice finds himself transported into another century, 
and sees what might be the actual scenery of one of De 
Hooghe's pictures.* Very similar, but on a larger scale, 
was the old FumivaFs Inn, the design of which was 
reasonably attributed to Inigo Jones.t But it has long 
perished. There is much to admire in Staples Inn, and 
there is a refreshment in plunging into its quiet courts 
from the din and bustle of Holbom Bars, which the tired 
Londoner can best enjoy. In the whole of this quarter, 
from Fetter Lane westward to Chancery Lane, and from 
Holbom to the Rolls, an observant saunterer will find 
innumerable fragments of ancient glory. Sometimes it is 
only a heavy comice. Sometimes it is a red brick pilaster. 
Sometimes it is only a " shell " hall-door. But such relics 
are rapidly disappearing before the improving hands of 
connoisseur treasurers : and one mentions them almost 
with bated breath.^ 

Most of these institutions, however small, have at one 
period or another claimed exemption from parochial 
rates. Some of these claims have been successful. In 
others the parish has triumphed. These exemptions 

• There is a good view in Herbert, p. 349. 

t See views in Wilkinson, ii. 15 ; Herbert, p. 324, &c. ; and Ireland's 
* Picturesque Views,* p. 163. 
X See chap. viii. for brief notices of the Temple and the Rolls. 


must have been very numerous at one time. The district 
on which Ely Place once stood, made such a claim, as we 
shall see further on, and besides Lincoln's Inn and the 
Rolls,* and the Temple, we have the example of the 
Savoy, of Norton Folgate, of the Artillery Ground, of 
the Tower, of St Katherine's, some of them furnished 
with chapels of their own, and some strictly speaking 
attached to parishes.! Few of them remain unassailed, 
but from the strictly historical point of view they are 
well worthy of notice. 

A large open space once existed between the southern 
side of Lincoln's Inn and the thoroughfare of the Strand. 
It was early known as Pickett's Field, and by its side close 
to the city boundary there was a blacksmith's, possibly 
an armourer's shop. Fickett's Field was the jousting 
ground of the Templars, and the forge was, no doubt, 
fully employed for shoeing horses and riveting maiL 
But the knights and their days passed away. The city 
took particular interest in this comer of its dominions. 
The boundary was somewhat indefinite and unprotected* 
The Inns of Court were a constant cause of strife as to 
jurisdiction, and so the forge, lest it should fall into other 
hands, was rented of the king, and is rented still, though 
the building, whatever it was, disappeared in the blaze of 

* It is said that a certain insurance office, erected in Chancery Lane, was 
foond to be neither in London nor in Westminster, but in the Rolls, and 
had some difficulty with its license. 

t The following are "unrepresented extra-parochial places," in schedule 
C of the map of the Metropolitan Board of Works : — Charter House, 
Gray's Inn, the Close of the Collegiate Church of St. Peter (Westminster 
Abbey), Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, Staple Inn, and 
Fumival's Inn. The following "precincts" are represented : — Liberty of 
Saffi'on Hill (comprising Hatton Garden, Ely Rents, and Ely Place), 
Liberty of Glasshouse Yard, Liberty of the Rolls, Precinct of the Savoy, 
Liberty of Norton Folgate, Liberty of Old Artillery Ground, Liberty of 
St Botolph without Aldgate, District of the Tower, and Precinct of 
St Katharine. 


Wat Tyler's rebellion. Year by year, when the sheriffs 
went to Westminster to be presented at the court of 
exchequer, six horseshoes and "sixty-one nails, good 
number," were presented for the rent of " the foi^e in the 
county of Middlesex." Within the past year the law 
courts have themselves migrated from Westminster to 
the new buildings provided for them, and, for aught we 
can tell to the contrary, the court of exchequer, or what 
answers to it now, may actually sit on this very site.* 
The whole of Pickett's Fields f having for centuries been 
covered with a labyrinth consisting of some of the most 
wretched tenements in London, was once more cleared in 
1 87 1, and is now covered anew with the magnificent 
palace of justice, the most complete result, in these king- 
doms, at least, of the movement known as the gothic 
revival — a movement which has, on the whole, been 
wonderfully barren of fine buildings, and chiefly distin- 
guished by the destruction of vestiges of antiquity under 
the false name of restoration. A survey of the main 
characteristics of the new law courts brings out two 
principal facts ; one is that the architect's design was 
pruned by the authorities in a manner which would 
have ruined anything less meritorious ; and the other, 
that lopped and limited as it is, we have here a building 
worthy of the nation. 

The new law courts stand partially within the city 
boundary, a fact which renders it possible to transfer 
business to them from the Guildhall as well as from 

* In accordance with an act termed ''The Queen's Remembrancer's 
Act," passed in 1859, the service of this " jocular tenure " is performed by 
the city solicitor, who annually attends at the Remembrancer's office for 
the purpose. 

t Among the local names were two Horse Shoe Courts. The new 
buildings are in St Clement's parish and the Rolls precinct, and in the 
parish of St. Dunstan, which is within the city. 


The Strand front in the original design was to have 
had a record tower, which, as the design is in exist- 
ence, may yet possibly be built and which would have 
formed a very conspicuous and ornamental feature of the 
entrance to the city. This and many other parts of Mr. 
Street's original drawing were removed by superior 
authority, while the architect himself was wearied by con- 
tradictory orders, and by changes of site ; for one minister 
was anxious to place the new building on the embank- 
ment and had a design prepared with that intentioa In 
1 871, however, all obstacles were removed, and the 
ground of Fickett's Field was cleared. The front is 290 
feet in width, its central feature being the gable of the 
great hall, 140 feet in height This is recessed from the 
line of the roadway some 80 feet, a staircase turret being 
on either side. The hall is superior to that of West- 
minster in one respect for it is vaulted with stone. It is 
230 feet in length, and only 48 in width, so that the 
appearance of length is greatly enhanced. There are 
sixteen windows at the sides, each 36 feet high. The 
eighteen courts all open from the hall. It is greatly to 
be regretted that when her majesty, in December 1882, 
opened this magnificent building, the artist who had con- 
ceived it was no more.* 

I have mentioned in passing the parish of St Mary, or 
the Holy Innocents, which in 1222 had already been 
severed from Westminster. It lay for the most part on 

* I remember on one occasion standing with Mr. Street on the site of 
the porch, before a single stone had been laid. I asked him if he could see 
the building in his mind's eye. He said he could, distinctly : and pointing 
to a tall house on the opposite side of the Strand, he added, *' That building 
is fifty-four feet high." Then he turned round, and looked up in the air, 
" My gable is more than twice as high." The anecdote is trivial but shows 
how clearly he had thought the matter out I have no doubt he could 
have directed the building without any drawn design, as Wren directed 
St. Paul's. 


the south side of the Strand, and comprised a small part 
of the manor of the Savoy — that part namely, which was 
outside the immediate precincts of the duke of Lan- 
caster's palace. It is perhaps hardly correct to say that 
SL Mary's was taken out of SL Margaret's. It would be 
more correct to describe it as taken out of the Thames. 
The Savoy was put together by degrees, but the main 
part of it, there can be no doubt, was at some remote time 
foreshore. Remote as it was, that time may be fixed 
within certain limits. The Strand, and consequently the 
southern side of it, with its steep little lanes leading down 
to the water's edge, did not exist in 971. In the decree 
of 1222 the church is mentioned; and in 1246, Henry III. 
made a grant of the land lying between ** la Strande " and 
the river's edge, to his wife's uncle, Peter of Savoy. The 
boundaries of the estate which comprised the parish of 
the Holy Innocents, were defined a little later. **To 
understand them now we must remember that west of 
Wych Street, then or soon afterwards known as the old 
Wych Road or Aid Wych Road, there was an open green 
with a maypole, and just beyond it a cemetery, which 
lay rather below the level of the present line of street, and 
on a part of the site now occupied by Somerset House."* 
The Innocents' church was very near the present chapel 
of King's College. It was eventually destroyed by 
the protector Somerset, to make way for his new 
palace, and the rapidly increasing population of the 
parish was left absolutely without any place of worship, 
After some delay the chapel of St. John in the Savoy 
was assigned to them, on certain terms, and it was 
not until 17 17, when their new church in the Strand 
was built, that they ceased to be thus dependent 

* 'Memorials of the Savoy,' p. 11, to which I must refer for a more 
complete account of the district 


It was owing to their tenancy that the chapel, now a 
chapel royal, became commonly known as St Mary's. 
The parishioners brought with them their old church bell, 
and took it away again when they left ; and there is no 
bell in the chapel tower to this day. 

The artificial nature of the manor is apparent from the 
map,* for instead of being in any way conterminous with 
a parish it is partly in St Clement's and partly in St 
Mary's, resembling in this respect a city wardf It was 
in fact made up by purchase as well as by the exercise 
of the king's not very scrupulous authority. By the 
bequest of Peter, the first owner, it went to the friars 
of Mountjoy, who sold it to queen Eleanor for 300 
marks. She granted it in 1284 to her son Edmund, earl 
of Lancaster, and it went eventually to the first wife 
of John of Gaunt, who was created duke of Lan* 
caster. His son settled the whole of the estates of 
the duchy on the Sovereigjn for the time being: and 
the manor of the Savoy is still the property of her 

The house was burnt by Wat Tyler's followers, and 
never rebuilt : and the ground was made over by Henry 
VIII. to a hospital founded under his father's will and 
completed in i S 1 7. But it never prospered. The estates 
were given away by Edward VI. to Bridewell, resumed 
by queen Mary, and finally frittered away by careless- 
ness and mismanagement, until, in 1702, lord keeper 
Wright, by what authority I know not, dissolved and sup- 
pressed it finally. George HI. made the chapel "royal," 
and it has been kept in good repair, a fire in 1864, by 
which the old roof was destroyed, having led to its 
thorough and satisfactory restoration. It is interesting 
apart from its associations as the only old church between 

* Memorials, p. 230. f See Appendix E. 


St Margaret's and St. Olave's, Hart Street, with the 
exception of the renovated chapel of the Temple. 

St. Mary-le-Strand is one of the prettiest of Gibbs's 
works. It is wholly wanting in dignity, and we cannot 
but wish the tower had been to one side, as it presents an 
extremely formal appearance facing the street It has, 
of course, been objected to the design of the church that 
seeming outside to consist of two storeys, there is but one 
within : an objection which applies equally to Whitehall 
chapel and many other buildings in the style, including 
Sl Paul's. 

The front of Somerset House has been admired by 
many good judges of architecture. It is in part a copy 
of the old building which was designed by Inigo Jones : 
but both here, and on the south front towards Lancaster 
place, the effect is much marred by two storeys of windows 
showing through one order of columns or pilasters. Every 
one must agree that the river front is not quite worthy 
of its conspicuous situation. Sir William Chambers 
was not equal to the task he undertook. The almost 
adjoining Adelphi, called after the brothers Adam, is 
much better, though by no means so magnificent either 
in size or costliness. The " dark arches " of the Adelphi 
mark the site of old streets, some of which remain near 
them but at a lower level than that of Salisbury Street 
and Adam Street 

There is no part of London in which the local names are 
more significant than the Strand. They tell of the former 
existence of a row of river-side palaces, of which Somer- 
set House only can be said in any sense to remain, and 
of which the Savoy chapel is the only contemporary relic. 
At first the great houses belonged to bishops. Nine are 
said to have lived in the Strand at one time, but very few 
are commemorated by street names. The Outer Temple 



was in the reign of Elizabeth the town house of the earl 
of Essex, and both Devereux Court, and Essex Street 
remain. But previously it had been the house, or one of 
the houses of the bishop of Exeter.* The adjoining site 
was occupied by the bishops of Bath, whose rights were 
usurped by Seymour, the brother of the protector Somer- 
set. At his tragical death, Henry Fitz Alan, earl of 
Arundel, bought it for £\\ 6s, Sd., and in 1 579 it devolved 
on the Howard family, and the land has belonged, like 
Arundel Castle itself, to the dukes of Norfolk ever since. 
Their name and titles define the locality of their estate. 
The vast area of Somerset House covers the site of the 
residences of the bishops of Chester and of Worcester, as 
well as of the church and churchyard already mentioned, 
while the wall of the south front, but very little more, is 
in the precinct of the Savoy. The site of Beaufort 
House has already been noticed. Here the bishops 
of Carlisle had a house, spoken of in some of the docu- 
ments connected with the Savoy, which is described as 
lying between the houses of this bishop, to the westward, 
and of the bishop of Worcester to the eastward. The 
bishops of Llandaff also lived in the Strand and on the 
Savoy estate, but I have failed to identify the place with 
certainty. It may have been the small plot on the north 
side which is now marked by Exeter Hall, and by 
Burleigh Street, where the great lord Burleigh lived in 
the reign of James I. It was close to the house of the 
junior branch of the Cecil family, and Cecil Street with 
Salisbury Street are on the ground, which still belongs to 
lord Salisbury. The houses at the lower end of Salisbury 
Street were built and decorated by Payne or the Adams, 

* See above, chap. ix. Bishop Stapleton seems to have had two town 
houses, one here and one in Old Dean's Lane, now Warwick Lane, 


and some of the most charming rooms in London are in 
the last house on the right-hand side, now an hotel. This 
street is supported like the adjacent Adelphi on arches, 
and a miserable village of tumble-down houses remains 
between it and the Embankment gardens, at a lower 
leveL The boundary between the Savoy and St 
Martin's passes down the centre of Cecil Street. Before 
houses covered the spot a little brook ran here into the 
Thames, and no doubt marked the boundary. The road- 
way of the Strand crossed it by the Ivy Bridge.* 

Of the ancient connection of the convent of West- 
minster with this part of London the most prominent 
modem evidence is afforded by the land on the slope 
north of the manor of the Savoy. Here a large district 
is still known as Covent Garden.t Long Acre was once 
the Seven Acres, and in 161 2 a long pathway is men- 
tioned as traversing them. A little parish, one of the 
smallest in London, lies between Long Acre and the 
Strand. The church of St. Paul is often, but rather 
vaguely said to have been the earliest specially built for 
Protestant worship. The parish was divided from St. 
Martin's by the first act of a local nature passed after the 
accession of Charles IL The whole parish belonged to 
the Russell family, having been granted in 1552 to John, 
earl of Bedford, whose descendant the duke of Bedford 
owns it now. Southampton Street marks the site of 
their house of residence, but until it was built they had 
the old house of the bishop of Carlisle, at the opposite 
side of the Strand, adjoining the Savoy. Francis, fourth 

• Described as Ulebrig in some of the Savoy records. ** Ule *' is Anglo- 
SsLxon for '* owl," which in itself tells a tale of the rural state of the 
district when the roadway was first made. 

t There was another Covent Garden at Bishopsgate, probably that of 
St. Helen's priory. 

G 2 


earl, laid out 4500/. in building the church, and is 
said * to have told Inigo Jones he wished for nothing 
"much better than a bam." "Well then," said Jones, 
"you shall have the handsomest bam in the world." 
The church was of brick with a tiled roof, and must have 
differed much in appearance from the present church, 
which was built by Hardwick, after a fire in 1795. The 
general lines of the old design were followed, and with 
the help of a little imagination we can realise its original 
features.! " It is built in the Tuscan order as described 
by Vitruvius," says Brayley, who adds that " it may be 
regarded as the most complete specimen of that order in 
the world, as no ancient building of the kind is now 
remaining." The portico faces the flower market, and 
is one of the best known features of London : and it has 
often been cited as an example of the fact " that it is 
taste and not expense, which is the parent of beauty." 
The knowledge, or genius, or calculation by which Jones 
contrived even in such a plain building to obtain a 
picturesque effect is certainly a strong proof of the folly 
of architects who imagine that any amount of showy 
carving, or granite columns, will form a substitute for the 
study of proportion and the expenditure, not of money, 
but of thought. The rest of the square was also origin- 
ally designed by Jones, of whose work but slight traces 
remain. He lived it is said close by in Chandos Street, 
and a modernised house there has still portions of a 
magnificently carved staircase which may well have been 
designed by him. 

I have abandoned for a moment the chronologfical 
arrangement in order to place Covent Garden in its 

* By Horace Walpole : see Cunningham, ii. 63S. 

t There is a very complete account of both parish and church in Britton 
and Pttgin's * Edifices,' L 107, written by £. W. Brayley. 


topographical position with respect to the Strand. St 
Paul's, as I have said, was taken out of St Martin's. We 
have now to see how it was that the ground was in St 
Martin's and not in St. Margaret's. When, in the oft- 
mentioned year 1222, the archbishop pronounced his 
award in the matter of the Westminster boundaries, he 
specially excepted a church and cemetery of St Martin.* 
No parish appears to have been attached to it A 
century later a vicar is mentioned. Before the end of 
the fourteenth century "the parish of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields is described by name as being in the franchise of 
Westminster." It is not easy to decide what were its 
boundaries at this period, but it probably included what 
are now the separate parishes of St James and St 
George, while St Anne, Soho, remained to St. Margaret's. 
When Henry VIII. had annexed St James's Park to his 
new palace,t he issued a patent, dated in 1542, by which 
he transferred to St Martin's all the district which 
remained to Westminster north and west of WhitehalLt 
He found it inconvenient that funerals should pass 
through the palace to the churchyard of St Margaret's. 
Thenceforth a line was drawn at the northern gate of 
Whitehall, and only what lay to the south of it was to be 
included in St Margaret's. Thus the old parish was 
once more diminished, but St Martin's remains, like 
St Clement's, and the other divisions, part of West- 
minster as respects parliamentary elections. In 1680 it 
was considered "the greatest cure in England," and 
Richard Baxter is reported to have complained that it 

 • St Martin's in the Fields,* by W. G. Humphry, B.D,, vicar of the 

t See next chapter. 

X This royal decree was read at the trial about the rates of St Margaret's 
in 1833, reported by Walsh and printed by Nicholls in 1834. 


contained forty thousand people more than could be 
accommodated in its church. In 1684 St James's, West- 
minster — which we generally style St. James's, Piccadilly, 
— was taken out of it Four years later St Anne's, 
Soho, was also separated, and when in 1725 Sir Richard 
Grosvenor built his new quarter about Grosvenor Square, 
St. George's was also divided from it 

St Martin's may be looked upon as the centre of 
modem London. Charing Cross is in the parish, in fact 
one of the earliest notices of the church describes it as 
" juxta Charring " ; this was in the reign of Edward I., 
who having been informed that treasure was buried in 
St Martin's desired a search to be made for it. The 
result is unknown.* Edward erected Charing Cross, 
which was completed in 1296, and cost what must then 
have been thought a large sum, namely 450/. The 
statues were by an artist who is described as Alexander 
the Imaginator, of Abingdon.t 

The site of the Eleanor Cross is marked by Le Soeur's 
fine statue of king Charles I., on a pedestal by Grinling 
Gibbons. Here the regicides were put to death with 
every detail of cruelty in 1660, and Pepys has recorded 
that it was his chance "to see the king beheaded at 
Whitehall, and to see the first blood shed in revenge 
for the king at Charing Cross," This expression, "in 
revenge," is curious as showing the ideas of the objects 
of punishment then current At this time Charing Cross 
was a narrow spot where three streets met Where the 
Nelson Column stands now there was a row of houses, 

* Hompluy, p. 10. This mention of *' Charring " b the more interesting 
as this was the king who erected the cross. It is one of the three " ings *' 
of Middlesex. See above, chap. xv. p. 2. 

t 'Memorials of queen Eleanor,' by John AbeL Mr. Humphry puts 
the cost at 65o{. 


and the king's mews behind On the south side stood 
Northumberland House, destroyed without much reason, 
but at an enormous cost, in 1874, the last of the great 
riverside palaces. York House, which had been just 
within the parish boundary, and next to Salisbury House, 
was the residence of those archbishops of York who suc- 
ceeded Wolsey, having been bought for them, instead of an 
inconvenient house in Southwark, given by queen Mary. 
But only one archbishop seems to have actually lived in 
it, Heath, the first who held it, and who was Mary*s 
chancellor. It became a kind of official residence for 
chancellors, several of whom, and keepers of the great 
seal, rented it successively,* and here the great Francis 
Bacon was bom. The first duke of Buckingham per- 
suaded James I. to give the archbishop other lands for 
York House, and having obtained possession began to 
build a new palace for himself. It never proceeded 
beyond the water gate, which was designed by Inigo 
Jones, and carved by Nicholas Stone, and which still 
remains in its old place, showing both where York House 
was, and the old level, before the embankment was 
made.t It bears his badge of an anchor, as lord high 
admiral. A temporary house was inhabited by the duke 
and his successor, and was furnished in a style which 
astonished contemporary writers. 

Gibbs has gained more fame by St Martin's church 
than by any other building he erected. It has one 
serious fault at least The steeple rises from the portico, 
which, massive as it is, appears crushed in consequence. 

* Cunningliain enumerates the lord keeper Bacon ; the lord chan- 
cellor Bacon, his son ; the lord keeper Pickering ; and the lord chancellor 

t I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. John Ward, F.S.A., for the 
accompanying print, reduced from that in Campbell's ' Vitruvius Britan- 


The interior, which is very closely imitated in its chief 
features from Wren's St James's, is extremely fine, and 
in spite of large galleries gives the visitor an impression 
of space very unusual in a London church. It has been 
well observed * that neither Gibbs nor his contemporary 
Hawksmoor understood the value of the mathematical 
proportion so much insisted upon by Wren. One con- 
sequence is here very apparent, for the east end, although 
it resembles more than one of Sir Christopher's, is yet a 
failure, heavy and dull, only for want of better propor- 
tions. To prove this we have only to remember St 
Lawrence, Jewry. The portico is magnificent, and its 
splendid effect is set off to great advantage by the mean- 
ness of the neighbouring National Gallery. The church 
was consecrated in 1726, having cost the parishioners 
more than 36,000/. We can imagine Sir Christopher 
Wren, who was still alive, looking on and thinking what 
he might have done with such a sum of money at St 
Stephen's or St Mary-le-Bow, in the city, or at St 
James's, in Piccadilly. 

Of the National Gallery as a building, the less said is 
the better.f It is impossible to regard it as permanent 
A time must come when we shall be ashamed to see it 
any longer. It was unfortunate for Wilkins that he was 
chosen to design it His powers as an architect were 
remarkable. His design for the University of London 
in Gower Street has been only partially carried out, but 
we can judge of him by St George's Hall, at Liverpool, 
one of the most beautiful modem buildings in Europe. 
At Trafalgar Square he was crippled by conditions in- 
compatible with the possibility of doing anything good* 

• Gwilt in * Edifices,* i. 44. 

t I have waded through an i^palling pile of pamphlets on the sabjectt 
without much result 


" The money allotted to the purpose was scarcely one- 
half of what was necessary ; he was ordered to take and 
use the pillars of the portico of Carlton House ; to set 
back the wings so as not to hide St Martin's church ; 
and lastly to allow two thoroughfares through it" * No 
wonder, then, that it is a miserable performance; and 
poor Wilkins, who could have done so much better and 
knew it, died of the ridicule his work excited. 

If Englishmen have cause to feel ashamed of the 
exterior of the National Gallery, which has not been 
improved of late years by some incongruous additions, 
they have every reason to be proud of its contents. The 
rate of acquisition is amazing. It goes on by leaps and 
bounds. The number of pictures has doubled in twenty 
years, and much more than doubled in value. In the 
very beginnings of things we bought the Angerstein 
collection, consisting of thirty-eight pictures, several of 
them very poor, especially those which bore the greatest 
names, for 57,000/., and lodged them in a house now 
absorbed by the War Office in Pall Mall. That was in 
1824, Ten years later the first trustees were appointed, 
and six years were spent in the usual recriminations in 
which we always indulge on these occasions, and in 
building in Trafalgar Square. The number of pictures 
had meanwhile risen, partly by purchases, partly by the 
munificent gift of Sir George Beaumont, partly by 
bequests, to one hundred and sixty-six. Progress was 
slow till 1843, when only twenty more pictures had been 
added, but a few years later the Vernon collection was 
bequeathed, and doubled the numbers, or would have 
done so had it been possible to receive the new pictures 
in the old gallery. They were exhibited first at Marl- 
borough House, and afterwards for many years at South 

* Fergusson, ' Modem Architecture,' 304. 


Kensington. In 1856 Turner s paintings and water-colour 
sketches were bequeathed. Ten years later the number 
of works exhibited amounted to 750, and the purchase 
of the Garvagh Raifaelle for 9000/. was thought to have 
exhausted the buying power of the trustees for some 
time to come. But a much more astonishing, if scarcely 
so satisfactory a bargain was completed in 1866, when we 
gave yoooL for the very doubtful picture of "Christ 
Blessing Little Children," attributed to Rembrandt 
Sir Charles £astlake*s early Italian pictures were added 
in the following year, under an old arrangement ; but 
very little else was bought until the autumn of 1868, 
when we acquired one of the most remarkable works in 
the gallery. We already possessed, as the best picture 
in the Angerstein Collection, the magnificent Sebastian 
del Piombo of the "Raising of Lazarus," for which 
Michael Angelo is known to have made the design, and 
on which he probably worked himself. But the new 
purchase professed to be an actual "holograph," so to 
speak, of the great Florentine — unfinished, it is true, but 
complete in composition, and most instructive in every 
way. At first there was no space to hang this treasure 
of art, and it was not exhibited publicly till the critics, 
and many besides, had seen it in private. The doubtful 
Rembrandt had a good pedigree, or it could never have 
fetched 7000/. ; the undoubted Michael Angelo had 
comparatively no pedigree, and was only reckoned 
worth 2000L, but the popular verdict leaves little 
question as to which of the two is best worth the higher 
sum. In 1869 the National Gallery obtained the old 
rooms of the Royal Academy at the southern end of the 
building, and signalised the occasion by the purchase of 
De Hooge's "Courtyard in Holland" for 1722/., a price 
which no one grudged when once the picture had been 


seen, and by reclaiming, after some delay, the Vernon 
bequest from South Kensington. Many people, how- 
ever, did grudge the purchase in the following year of the 
Peel Gallery, as it gave us only a few new names, and 
added but little to the completeness of the Collection. 
But many of the Dutch pictures it contained were 
masterpieces in their way. The "Avenue at Middel- 
hamis " by Hobbema, and the " Velvet Hat " by Rubens, 
became popular favourites at once. The Peel Gallery 
consisted of seventy-seven pictures and some drawings, 
and the price came to nearly a thousand guineas each, a 
high average; but five years later we received a still 
larger number of fine works for nothing by the bequest 
of Mr. Wynn Ellis. His pictures do not reach the same 
high average as those of Sir Robert Peel, and some of 
the best had no pedigrees ; but the strange Van Romer- 
swale — at first attributed to Quentin Matsys, till the true 
artist's name was found inscribed on one of the parch- 
ments represented — and some landscapes by Claude, 
Ruysdael, and De Koninck, are a distinct gain. They 
were among the new pictures exhibited when the public 
were first admitted to the galleries built by Mr. Barry 
behind the eastern end of the old front. As at the first 
foundation of the building, much controversy among 
artists and architects preceded the completion of this 
great improvement; and, though few were enthusiastic 
as to the beauty of the new galleries, all were astonished 
at the rapidity with which they were filled, and at the 
enhanced value of pictures properly arranged and lighted, 
and hung where they were visible to the naked eye. 

During the last few years many excellent works have 
been obtained by purchase. Lord Beaconsfield took a 
keen interest in the improvement of the collection, and 
several fine early Italian works were added during his 


premiership. But Mr. Gladstone's government has not 
been far behind, and during the past year the sale of the 
Hamilton gallery gave an opportunity which was eagerly 
seized. The new acquisitions, including those from 
Hamilton Palace, assuredly raise our National Gallery to 
a very high level indeed. We have not the Titians of 
Madrid, nor the Rubenses of the Louvre ; we have not 
the Memlings of Bruges, nor the Van Eycks of Ghent. 
But we have some of the best examples of all these 
artists — Titian's " Ariosto," Rubens's "ChAteau de Stein," 
Memling's "Holy Family," Van Eyck's "Amolfini," for 
example, only to name a few; we have Raffaelles, 
Murillos, Solarios, Rembrandts, Hobbemas, Claudes, 
and, in short, all the great masters, with one conspicuous 
exception, which is, however, temporarily supplied by 
the duke of Norfolk's generous loan of Holbein's 
" Duchess of Milan." This was the lady of whom it is 
said that when Henry VIH. proposed to marry her, she 
replied that unfortunately she had only one head. That 
nevertheless she dallied with the offer is apparent from 
the existence in England of this picture, brought over by 
Henry's ambassador, and another at Windsor Castle.* 

Among recent purchases are the Suffolk Leonardo 
which excellent judges prefer to the repetition of the 
same subject in the Louvre ; examples from the Hamilton 
collection of Botticelli, Velasquez, Pontormo, Signorelli, 
Mantegna, and other great artists ; together with the five 
little pictures of a lesser genius, Gonsalez Coques, which 
Mr. Burton recently obtained in Belgium. As a re- 
presentative collection, therefore, the National Gallery is 
second to no other ; and it is impossible not to look with 
pride on the successful efforts of a single generation to 
form in England a museum of art such as may compare 

/ See Mr. Scharfs paper on the subject in ' Archaeologia,' zL io6. 


with any other in Europe, even with some which are the 
result of long centuries of growth. 

At some not very distant day the barracks which 
occupy so much space at the back of the gallery must 
be removed, and an adequate building erected to house 
our treasures. The prints and drawings by great masters, 
of which we have a collection quite worthy of our pic- 
tures, should be brought and exhibited near the other 
works of the same artists. Designs have been made on 
several occasions, but they have never secured the 
approval of the critics. The fact is we have no Wren or 
Burlington, no Wilkins, not even a Gibbs among us now, 
and it will be better to wait a little longer rather than 
have a National Gallery in the style of the additions to 
Burlington House, or the stuccoed front of Buckingham 

The rapid growth of buildings in the parish gave 
serious cause of uneasiness to the authorities. In 1634 
a commission was appointed which reported that a man 
named Moor had built without license a row of no less 
than forty-two houses close to St Martin's church. He 
was fined a thousand pounds, and the houses were pulled 
down by the sheriffs. Lord Bedford had special leave 
to build round Covent Garden, but did not avail himself 
of it at first, on account of the strong public feeling on 
the subject, a feeling stimulated by the ravages of the 
plague.* The western roads were beginning to be lined 
with houses. Dwellings for the families of the officials 
and menials of the court were erected in the mews, which 
occupied what is now the open space of Trafalgar 
Square. At the same time a number of houses were 

* See above, chap. xL, and Southey's ' Common Place Book ' in which 
there are numerous extracts relating to the extension of building in the 


demolished in Piccadilly, by order of the committee 
sitting in the Star Chamber, on the ground that they 
fouled the water of the stream which, as we have seen, 
crossed the road into the Green Park, and supplied 
Whitehall. In the house of commons a few years later 
blame was thrown upon the city for refusing its freedom 
even "to rare artists," who were thereby driven to the 
western suburbs. But London was just recovering from 
the successive shocks of the plague and the fire, over- 
crowding was so much dreaded that the means taken 
to prevent it only added to the danger, and sanitary 
science was confined to empiricism and superstitious 

St James's, Piccadilly, was at last found to be a 
necessity. No efforts could stop the tide of building. 
Soho was already crowded and fashionable : but I 
postpone a notice of it to keep if possible to the chrono- 
logical order in which the " hamlets " of Westminster 
were separated from the mother church.* The great 
western road may be said to have commenced with Wych 
Street, but the newly-built quarter of Covent Garden 
interrupted it, and the line of highway of which Picca- 
dilly is the chief part, only becomes direct at the eastern 
end of Cranboum Street where Long Acre and St 
Martin's Lane meet The increase of population took 
place at first about the palace of St James's and Pall 
Mall. The square was built in 1665 and at once became, 
as it still continues, a centre of fashion, which has perhaps 
never been so constant to any other site. "Fashionable 
neighbourhoods are continually changing, but this square 
is an exception to the rule, as it has been for two 
centuries one of the most aristocratic places in London," 

* The history of the parish of St. James is fully detailed in Mr. Wheatley's 
entertaining volume ' Round about Piccadilly and Pall Mall.' 


says Mr. Wheatley.* The fields on which the new 

quarter was laid out immediately after the restoration of 

Charles 11. were the leasehold property of Henry 

Jermyn, earl of St Albans, who is always supposed to 

have been the second husband of queen Henrietta Maria. 

The square was at first called the Piazza, and had a large 

pond in the centre. The first tenants of the surrounding 

houses were all people of rank except two of the king's 

mistresses.! The act of parliament by virtue of which 

the parish was separated from St Martin's, was passed in 

1685, and the church was consecrated in July by Compton, 

bishop of London. Wren was the architect and as but 

little money — only 7000/, at first — ^was forthcoming he, as 

usual with him, spent as much as possible in one direction. 

Wren seems to have thought it best, and there is much to 

be said for his view, that in church building some part of 

the structure should be made as complete as possible, 

even though, through lack of funds the other parts might 

suffer. He acted on this principle at St Mary-le-Bow, 

and St Stephen's Wallbrook, as well as in many other city 

churches. At St James's he lavished all his small resources 

on the interior, and succeeded in producing one of the most 

beautiful, convenient and satisfactory places of worship 

in London. Gibbs, in rebuilding St Martin's, could not 

improve upon the design of St James's. Wren's own 

account will show his opinions : — " I can hardly think it 

practicable to make a single room so capacious, with pews 

and galleries, as to hold above two thousand persons, and 

all to hear the service, and both to hear distinctly and see 

the preacher. I endeavoured to effect this in building 

the parish church of St. James, Westminster, which I 

presume is the most capacious with these qualifications 

that hath yet been built ; and yet at a solemn time, when 

* P. 355. t See lists in Cunningham, i. 440. 


the church was much crowded, I could not discern from a 
gallery that two thousand were present In this church I 
mention, though very broad, and the nave arched, yet as 
there are no walls of a second order, nor lanthems, nor 
buttresses, but the whole roof rests upon the pillars, as 
do also the galleries ; I think it may be found beautiful 
and convenient, and as such the cheapest of any form I 
could invent" * Mr. Fergusson says St James's is after 
St Stephen's Wallbrook, Wren's most successful interior. 
It does not come within the scope of this book to 
describe in detail the interesting features of this most 
interesting district It is a curious fact that neither St 
James's Palace nor St James's Park is within the parish 
boundary, but St James's Street with its modem clubs 
and shops, the time-worn towers of Henry VIIL's palace 
looking out on them from beyond the mists of three 
hundred and fifty years ; Marlborough and Schomberg 
Houses, with memories alternately warlike and artistic ; 
Regent Street and the ingenious quadrant, or fourth part 
of a circle, with which Nash connected two thorough- 
fares, and created one of the few architectural street 
effects in London ; the tall houses of Carlton Terrace, 
with the duke of York's column and glimpses of the park 
and the Westminster towers beyond, another happy inspi- 
ration, which like the quadrant deserved a better fate than 
to be made of plaster and paint ; Burlington Gardens and 
Savile Row, the home till lately of classical architecture of 
the best type, of which only Vardy's Uxbridge House f 

 * Parentalia,' p. 320, quoted by Mr. Wheatley, p. 103. I remember to 
have attended service in St James's on one occasion when the Rev. Henry 
White preached, and both Mr. Disraeli and Mr. Gladstone were present 
with at least 1998 other people : and all could see and hear. 

t Now the western branch of the Bank of England ; judiciously added 
to lately. General Wade's house faced into Old Burlington Street, but is 
completely altered and is now a school. 


remains ; the Albany, where at the Savile Row end and 
in the topmost storey, Macaulay wrote the main part of 
his 'History' ; all these things and more might well detain 
my pen. But many books have been written about 
them and I could add nothing to make it worth 
while to pause in the task of tracing the history of 

As early as 1675 it had been found necessary by the 
authorities of St Martin's to make special arrangements 
for the collection of their rates in Soho, a district the name 
of which, like that of Piccadilly, is involved in obscurity; 
Piccadilly may be derived from the name of a house 
of entertainment nearly on the site of the modem 
Criterion : but this is only putting the difficulty a step 
further back. Pimlico, another strange name in the 
parish of St Margaret, may be accounted for by the 
existence of a similarly named place in the West Indies, 
whence timber was imported. But Soho has entirely 
baffled inquirers. Cunningham quotes the rate books of 
St Martin's to show that in 1636 people were living "at 
the brick kilns near Sohoe." In 1660 this spelling is 
reversed in the parish register, where the burial is recorded 
of a "child from Soeho." 

Although a church on the site of St Ann's was in 
existence as a chapel of ease from 1679 it was not until 
the beginning of the reign of James 11. that the present 
church was built ; and on its consecration the parish was 
formally separated in 1686. The old names of the Soho 
fields are preserved by Malcolm in noticing the grant of 
a lease from queen Henrietta Maria, by leave of her son, 
to lord St Albans, who already, as we have seen, held 
St James's. They were Bunche's Close, Coleman-hedge 
Field, and Doghouse Field, otherwise Brown's Close. 
Kemp's Field, where there had been a chapel for French 



refugees, was chosen as the site of the church. The Pest 
Field which lord Craven generously provided against 
the possible outbreak of another plague,* lay to the east 
of Camaby Street Crown Street was Hog Lane. 
Wardour Street was Old Soho. Princes Street was 
Hedge Lane. . 

The church of St Anne incurs much ridicule from the 
very strange appearance of its steeple. "A monstrous 
copper globe, elevated within a few feet of the summit, 
contains the dial plates for the clock." f It was built at 
the end of the last century. The interior of the church 
is by no means what might be expected from the distant 
view of the tower, on the western face of which, and 
plainly visible from Princes Street — now incorporated 
with Wardour Street — is the tablet Horace Walpole 
put up, with his own epigram on it, to the memory of 
Theodore, king of Corsica, who died in 1756, and was 
buried at the expense of an oilman named Wright 

Soho Square, which contains about three acres, was 
for a while very fashionable, and only began to decline 
a hundred years ago. Few remember the name of Mrs. 
Theresa Comelys. Yet she was once a central figure in 
the London world of fashion, which she left for a more 
retired sphere in 1785. Her house is now occupied by 
Messrs. Crosse and Blackwell, whose manufactory is 
close by, and fumes of strawberry jam, raspberry vinegar, 
and mixed pickles alternately pervade the neighbour- 
hood. Her ball room is a chapel. It used to be the 
headquarters of extravagance and strange apparel. At 
one of her masquerades the beautiful daughter of a peer 
wore the costume of an Indian princess, three black girls 
bearing her train, a canopy held over her head by two 
negro boys, and her dress covered with jewels worth a 

* See below, chap. xxi. t Malcolm, iL 544. 


hundred thousand pounds. It was at another that Adam 
was to be seen in flesh-coloured tights and an apron of 
artificial fig-leaves, in company with the duchess of Bolton 
as Diana. Death in a white shroud carried about his 
cofHn and epitaph. The duke of Gloucester wore an old 
English costume with a star on his cloak, and the 
malicious said he was '' disguised as a gentleman." All 
this pageantry passed through Mrs. Comelys' rooms, yet 
before many years had gone by she was earning her 
living by selling asses' milk at Knightsbridge. Even 
this employment failed her eventually, and in 1797 she 
died in the Fleet Prison, forming schemes for retrieving 
her broken fortunes to the last 

Long before Mrs. Comelys was thought of, King's 
Square in Soho was connected with the fortunes of 
another and more famous adventurer. James, duke of 
Montrose and Buccleugh, lived on the south side, where 
there is now a hospital for women. Bateman's Buildings 
is on the site of his garden. The tottering statue of his 
father in the centre of the square was the only thing left 
that could have seen him here, and it also has disappeared. 
He gave "Soho" as his watchword the night before 
Sedgmoor, but he never saw his old home again. 

It is more pleasant to recall some later memories : for 
there is still an old-world air about the place. If you 
dive down into the streets and lanes you see everywhere 
evidences of the greatness of former occupants. If a 
street door is open there is a vision of carved oak panel- 
ling, of fretted ceilings, of frescoed walls, of inlaid floors. 
Squalid as are some of the tenements, their inhabitants 
do not need to dream that they dwell in marble halls. 
Once on a time even Seven Dials was fashionable. Here 
and there, at the comers, a little bit of the quaint style 
now in vogue as queen Anne's allures the unwary 

H 2 


passenger into a noisome alley, and Soho can boast of 
fully as many smells as Cologne. The paradoxes in 
which facts and statistics are so often connected may 
receive another example from this densely populated 
and still more densely perfumed region, for it has been 
found that children survive the struggles of infancy better 
in Soho than in many a high and airy country parish. 
Paintings by Sir James Thomhill and Angelica Kauff- 
man are to be seen in some of the houses. Modem 
cast-iron railings may stand abashed before the finely- 
wrought work which incloses some of the filthiest areas. 
There are mantelpieces in marble, heavy with Corinthian 
columns, and elaborate entablatures in many an upper 
chamber let at so much a week. Visitors to the House 
of Mercy at the comer of Greek Street have an un- 
covenanted reward for their charity in seeing how the 
great alderman Beckford was lodged when he made the 
speech now inscribed on his monument in Guildhall.* 
Art still reigns in the house opposite, where the Royal 
Academy held its infant meetings, and it was close by, 
at the comer of Compton Street, that Johnson and 
Boswell, Reynolds and Burke, kept their literary even- 
ings, and were derided by Goldsmith. The more purely 
scientific associations of the place are almost equally 
remarkable. On the south side of the square, in the 
corner near Frith Street, Sir Joseph Banks and Mr. 
Payne Knight successively flourished, and the Linnaean 
Society had here its headquarters before it was promoted 
to Burlington House. Since the whole of Soho was 
more or less fashionable, it is nothing remarkable to find 
Evelyn and Bumet and Dryden and Nell Gwyn residing 
within its bounds ; but there is some interest in the 
lying in state there of Sir Cloudesley Shovel, when his 

* See above, chap. xiv« 


body, recovered from the sea at Scilly, was on its way to 
Westminster Abbey. No doubt an effigy surmounted 
the pall, and the illustrious foundling appeared in the 
Roman armour and the full-bottomed wig in which he 
reposes upon his monument Half the sites of curious 
scenes in Soho, half the residences of historical characters, 
have, however, been left without identification. 

We now come to the most important portion of the old 

abbey manor, St George's, Hanover Square, the greater 

part of which, extensive as it is, belongs to a single 

estate, that of the duke of Westminster. It comprises 

the chief part of the identical manor of Eia which, as 

we saw in the last chapter, was given by Geoffrey Man- 

deville to the abbey. Eia, in Domesday, is said to have 

consisted of ten hides. The modem parish comprises, in 

round numbers, nearly 900 acres, so that the hides in 

question must have been 90 acres, or nearly, each, but 

there was a good deal of waste marshy land, and the 

size of the hide may be considerably reduced. The name 

of Eybury, or Ebury, would appear to denote that part 

of the manor which lay around the principal residence 

of the lord of the manor, which was almost certainly 

somewhere near Grosvenor Square. This portion, which 

stretches from the river's bank northward along the 

Tyburn to the Uxbridge Road and Oxford Street, forms 

the Grosvenor estate. A second portion, the sub-manor 

of Neate, or Ne)rte, is doubtless that part of Kensington 

Gardens and the adjoining land which is still in the 

parish of St Margaret A third portion, Hyde, gives 

its name to Hyde Park.* 

There is very great difficulty in unravelling the history 
of this part of the possessions of St Peter's abbey. The 
boundaries, where there was much open and common 

* See next chapter. 


land, were not very clearly fixed The abbot was lord 
of all, and in case of difficulty there could be no doubt 
of his ownership. He appears to have leased away 
Eybury, or a considerable part of it A man named 
Barber, who was hanged in 1345 for murdering his 
brother, appears to have held it A dispute arose as to 
the abbot's right to seize the land, and though no decision 
has been reported, we cannot hesitate to conclude that 
the abbot succeeded in his claim. No doubt, too, he 
leased it away again : and after the suppression it was in 
the hands of one Whashe.* It consisted of a farm of 
430 acres, for which he paid 21/. a year, and he and his 
tenants appear from a complaint that was made against 
them to queen Elizabeth, to have inclosed the adjoining 
open and waste lands, including some in which the 
parish had an interest These Lammas lands, as they 
were called, cannot now be identified. Some of them 
seem to have been near the Haymarket, and Leicester 
Square is described as being built on inclosed Lammas 
lands. But Ebury, Euberry, or Eybury was * towards 
Chelsea," and comprised all that part of the Grosvenor 
estate which lies south of the great west road from Hyde 
Park Comer, including Belgrave Square and Pimlico. A 
little later the farm and some other holdings came into 
the possession of a member of an obscure family named 
Davies. How he obtained them does not appear, but 
doubtless in much the same way as Hobson obtained the 
two manors of Tyburn and Lylleston on the other side of 
Oxford Streett Davies, however, unlike Hobson, knew 
how to keep as well as to >obtain a good estate. He, or 
his son, Alexander, had an only daughter, Mary. In 
1676 Miss Mary Davies was married, at St Clement 

* Cnnningham, i. 288. f See below, chap. xzi. 


Danes, to Sir Thomas Grosvenor, a Cheshire baronet of 
moderate fortune. 

Another family of Davies, or the same, had about the 
same time that part of the parish on which the two 
Audlejr Streets were afterwards built " Rich Audley," 
as he was called, who began the world with 200L and 
died worth 400,000^!,* in 1662 left his land to his grand- 
nephew Sir Thomas Davies, who was lord mayor in 
1677, a member of the drapers' company, and a book- 
seller by trade. He had four sons, but there is no Alex- 
ander amongst them. It would, however, be difficult to 
affirm that there is no connection between the families, 
or that Davies Street is called after the one or the other. 
The two estates are now in the same hands, but no 
record has been published as to how the union came 
about In fact, considering the enormous value of the 
Grosvenor estate it is curious to remark that it has never 
found a historian, and that, though probably there are 
deeds in abundance existing on the subject, we do not 
know how it came to Alexander Davies and Hugh 

In 1725 we find Sir Richard Grosvenor, the elder son 
of Mary Davies, in possession of the whole estate. In 
July of that year the land had been laid out and planned, 
and at a "splendid entertainment " Sir Richard assembled 
his intending tenants and named the new streets and 
squares. Grosvenor Square had been partly built as 
early as 1716 : but covering the whole estate with houses 
was a work of time. The names chosen are easily 
accounted for : Brook Street is called after the Tyburn 
which forms the eastern boundary of the estate. Mount 

^ Cnnnmgham, and Le Neve's ' Knights,' HarL Soc. p. 212. There are 
several other Davies families in Le Neve and in the London Visitations, 
but " Alexander " does not occur as a name in any of them. 


Street obliterated "Oliver's Mount," one of the forts 
erected by the parliament in 1642.* Grosvenor, Davies 
and Audley Streets speak for themselves, as does Park 
StreeLf The rectangularity of the Grosvenor estate 
distinguishes it on the map, and the line of the brook is 
clearly marked by the irregular course of South Molton 
Lane, Avery Row, Bruton Mews and Bolton Row. 

But this great estate occupied less than half the lands 
of the Davies inheritance. The part south of Hyde Park 
Comer, though it was not so soon built over, is now even 
more valuable. George III. intended to have increased 
the gardens of Buckingham Palace westward and had 
even arranged with Sir Richard's nephew and successor, 
the first lord Grosvenor, to buy the ground on which 
Grosvenor Place now stands. But lord Grenville held 
the purse strings and the king's wishes were thwarted 
The ground, like that indeed within the palace inclosure 
still, was low and damp. We have seen that here lay 
Pollenstock and Bulunga Fen and the "eald die" or 
dyke of Edgar's charter. But lord Grosvenor enlisted 
the services of Mr. Cubitt In 1826 he obtained special 
powers by act of parliament The site was drained, 
levelled, laid out in roads and streets and squares, which, 
considering the unfavourable reputation of the place pre- 
viously, were taken up eagerly by people of the first 
fashion. Belgravia, as it is often called, rivals even the 
older Grosvenor district, in its popularity with the highest 
classes, and the erection, on the failure of the first build- 
ing leases, of the magnificent houses of GrosVenor Place, 
each of them a palace, has assisted to keep this part of 
the estate in the favour of people who can afford to be so 
expensively housed. Soon a third quarter arose on the 

* See chapter xi. There is an Oliver's Mount in Richmond Park, 
t For Hyde Park see next chapter. 


Westminster lands, and for a brief period Pimlico was as 
fashionable as Kensington is now. It very speedily 
declined, however, though one or two of the larger squares 
have continued to flourish. The local names almost all 
allude to the real or supposed history of the Grosvenor 
family, to the county and city of Chester, to Hugh 
Lupus, to Eccleston and Belgrave in Cheshire, to Eaton 
Hall and Halkin Castle. Strange to say we do not find a 
single allusion to the heiress who brought the estate into 
the Grosvenor family. 

The mansion by the river side continued to be inhabited 
until Gloucester House in Grosvenor Street fell vacant 
by the death of the younger brother of George HI It 
soon after became Grosvenor House, was greatly enlarged 
and improved, and a fine screen placed between it and 
the street It is still somewhat irregular, but a fine 
addition has recently been made to its western end. The 
removal of an adjoining house in which lady Palmerston 
passed her declining years, has opened a view from Hyde 
Park and greatly improved the situation, but in most 
respects it is very inferior to Dorchester House, close by, 
where the utmost advantage was taken by Mr. Holford 
of the site. Dorchester House was, it is understood, 
designed by its owner, but the architect who carried out 
the plans was named VuUiamy. Grosvenor House 
presents no architectural features requiring notice. The 
older house was often described as at Millbank. It had 
been inhabited for a time by the eccentric earl of Peter- 
borough and was called after him.* Peterborough house 
was pulled down in 1809, and now the Millbank Peniten- 

* Cunningham remarks briefly on the difficulties in Pennant's * Account ' 
relating to the history of this house. There is a plan in the supplement to 
Smith's ' Westminster,' from which it appears to have been almost sur- 
rounded by ^ater. 


tiary occupies the site. It has been declared extra- 
parochial by act of parliament But while the Grosvenors 
inhabited Peterborough House it was in the parish of St. 
John, Westminster, the last division of St Margaret's 
which I have to notice. Before doing so, however, it will 
be well to state clearly that this house at Millbank was 
not the manor house of Eia, nor yet the farm house of 
Ebury. It was in a different parish, and in the original 
manor of the abbey of Westminster, and was purchased 
by the Grosvenor family on account of its convenient 
situation. It was described in 1800 as ''a brick house 
with a pretty garden."* The house of Eybury was much 
more likely in or near Davies Street, where the estate 
office stands now. 

St George's, Hanover Square, is in the north-eastern 
comer of the parish, fully two miles from the river's bank. 
It was designed by John James, and being one of the fifty 
new churches erected at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century by virtue of an act of parliament, it was in its 
place before the parish became populous, and was conse* 
crated in 1 724. The portico is very handsome, but the 
rest of the building is dark and heavy. The east end is 
set off by two quaint and irregular brick buildings used 
as vestries, the architect having apparently omitted to 
provide any : a serious omission in a church which for 
many years was so fashionable for weddings that couples 
often put themselves to considerable inconvenience to 
acquire a domicile in St. George's. But the parish has 
been divided again and again since 1844, ^^^ a new 
marriage act has made matrimony lawful in almost any 
one of the many district chapels of the parish. The 
most important of these are St Peter's, Eaton Square, 
the district attached to which includes all but the front 

• Walcott, 338. 

^ '-' 1 



•I^^^K* jI 











wall of Buckingham Palace, and the so-called Grosvenor 
Chapel, in South Audley Street, which perhaps boasts of 
the most aristocratic congregation in London. Attached to 
this chapel is an extensive cemetery, which was so rapidly 
filled that in forty years from the opening a new place of 
burial had to be found, and five acres of Tyburn Field, 
also now closed, were consecrated in 1764.* 

The last parish formally separated from St Margaret's 
was SL John's, Westminster. Its church is by Vanbrugh's 
pupil. Archer, and is in a most eccentric .style. It re- 
sembles, according to one author, " a parlour table upset, 
with its legs in the air."t It was begun in 172 1, and 
finished and consecrated in 1738. Archer built Cliefden, 
a handsome pile, and one or two other great houses ; 
but his designs, some of which were engraved in 
the * Vitruvius Britannicus,' do not entitle him to further 
notice. The parish is very densely populated, and has 
several district churches ; but the visitor who seeks for 
anything of interest in it will probably be disappointed. 
St Stephen's, built by Ferry for lady Burdett-Coutts, 
who endowed it, is a handsome gothic church, and was 
much needed in the parish. Blore built St Mary's ; and 
there are several others, but to most of them, architec- 
turally speaking, the epitaph on a lady in Fulham 
churchyard will apply : — 

•< Silence is best." 

* See chap. zxL f Canningham, 446. 

( 108 ) 



It has often been noted as a curious fact that all the 
royal palaces of London are in the original parish of 
St Margaret An exception being made of the Tower, the 
same remains true of the ancient residences of our kings. 
For Bridewell, Somerset House, the Savoy, and White- 
hall are all in the district which in 95 1 was defined as 
the manor of the abbey. The more modem palaces are, 
however, situated in various divisions of the parish. St 
James's is not in the parish of St James, but in that of 
St Martin. Buckingham Palace is partly in St Martin's 
and partly in St George's. The Houses of Parliament 
stand across the boundary-line of St John's and St 
Margaret's. Kensington Palace is altogether in St Mar- 

Whitehall, previously York Place, shows little trace 
of the magnificent house which cardinal Wolsey built 
for himself, and which Henry VHI. took from him, as he 
had before taken Hampton Court The Treasury is on 
the site of Wolsey's great hall, and now replaces a smaller 
building which was adapted from Wolsey's, and cleverly 
altered from a gothic into a classical style by the simple 
expedient of making the buttresses into pilasters. Even 
this has disappeared, and except the Banqueting Hall, 
there is no building left which existed before the fire of 
1698. It is now called Whitehall Chapel, though it has 
never been consecrated, except by the blood of the 


"blessed king Charles the martyr." Between Scotland 
Yard and the Embankment stands an old house, the 
foundations or lower storey of which appear to be of 
ancient masonry. How long this relic of palatial White- 
hall may survive I know not 

Nowhere does the arbitrary and tyrannical turn of 
Henry's mind show itself more plainly than in the almost 
cynical disregard of the public convenience that prompted 
his arrangements at Whitehall. He found it convenient 
to speak of "our manor of Westminster," meaning the 
palace burnt in 1512, which had long been the head- 
quarters of royalty. He now transferred this title to 
Whitehall. In 1536 an act was passed by which it 
was enacted " that the old and ancient palace of West- 
minster from henceforth be reputed, deemed and taken 
only as a member and parcel " of the new palace of 
Whitehall. The "king's palace at Westminster" was 
to .mean no longer the old palace of Edward and 
William Rufus, of Henry HI. and Edward IV., but the 
new residence just finished by the cardinal archbishop, 
and just appropriated by his unscrupulous sovereign. 
The addition of St. James's Park to the new palace com- 
pleted the usurpation, and the abbot was wholly cut off 
from his possessions to the northward and eastward of 
Whitehall. Finally, he was forced to give the king that 
part of Mandeville's bequest which was distinguished 
from Eybury and Neyte as Hyde. Thus, then, in 
1545, Henry was able to issue the extraordinary pro- 
clamation in the collection of the Society of Antiquaries.* 
" Forasmuch as the king's most royall majestie is most 
desirous to have the games of hare, partridge, pheasant, 
and heron, preserved in and about his honor att his 
palace of Westminster, for his owne disport and pastime ; 

• " Ten copies printed for Islington Collectors.~Impensis J. H. Bum." 


that is to saye, from his said palace of Westminster, to 
St Gyles in the Fields ; and from thence to Islington, to 
our Lady of the Oke ; to Highgate ; to Homsey Park ; 
to Hamsted Heath ; and from thence to his said palace 
of Westminster, to be preserved and kept for his owne 
disport, pleasure and recreacion ; his highnes therefore 
straightlie chai^eth and comaundeth all and singuler his 
subjects, of what estate, degree or condicion soever they 
be, that they, nor any of them, do presume or attempt to 
hunt, or to hawke, or in any meanes to take, or kill, any 
of the said games, within the precincts aforesaid, as they 
tender his favor, and will estchue the imprisonment of 
their bodies, and further punishment at his majesties will 
and pleasure." This astonishing document was addressed 
to the mayor and sheriffs of London, and it is not upon 
record that they in any way remonstrated against its 
clear contravention of their charters. That the king had 
attained such a pitch of personal and irresponsible power 
that he could set aside the most cherished rights of the 
citizens for *' his owne disport and pastime," made it easy 
for him to change the boundaries of Westminster and 
St Martin's, as we saw in the last chapter, and to plant 
his park and palace right across the principal road from 
London to Westminster. 

Henry added greatly to the house as Wolsey left it, and 
his works went on for seven years.* Two thousand five 
hundred loads of stone were used in making the walls of 
"an orchard," probably Whitehall Gardens, and in in- 
closing " the park directly against the said manor." A 
passage was made "through a certain ground named 

• In Smith's * Westminster* there are views and plans of old WhitebaU. 
The pa3rments for Henry's additions are in the records of the Treasury in a 
volume labelled '* Westminster Manor." See ' Report of Burrell versos 
Nicholson,' by Walsh. 


Scotland," and a long gallery, frequently referred to in 
the memoirs of the Stuart dynasty, was constructed 
"towards Charing Cross." 

At first Whitehall was distinguished as the "New 
Palace," and, in queen Elizabeth's reign, as the " Queen's 
Palace " ; but the name of " Whitehall " became common 
soon after the accession of James, in whose time Sir 
Symonds Dewes distinguishes between Westminster and 
Whitehall James, among many magnificent projects, 
set Inigo Jones to design him a new palace for White- 
hall, and, like his ancestor Henry VIII., he did not 
consult the convenience of his subjects in the proposed 
arrangements. The "open street before Whitehall," in 
which his son was afterwards to be beheaded, but which 
at this time was commonly used in the passage from 
Charing Cross to Westminster, would have been almost 
closed, so small were the archways designed for the north 
and south fronts. The drawings of Jones have been 
frequently engraved and published : but the palace never 
existed except on paper. It would have been the largest 
in Europe, exceeding even Mafra, the gigantic building 
which is so conspicuous from the deck of passing steamers 
on the Portuguese coast, and which is generally looked 
upon as the largest in the world But Jones made a 
second and smaller design,* of which one small portion 
only was built, a banqueting hall,t of stone, which was to 
have been balanced by a chapel, the connecting portions 
to be of Inigo's favourite material, red brick. 

A little to the north of the Banqueting Hall was Scotland 
Yard, a locality said to have been so called from the 
" abiding there " of Margaret, queen of Scots, the sister 

* ' Vitrayius Britannicus,' i. 12, 13. 

t See Cuzmiogham, ii. 915. The Banqueting Hall cost I4>940^- 4^- <^- 
It was finished in 1622. 


of Henry VIII. Stow adds that the kings of Scotland 
lodged at the same place when they attended the English 
parliament : but as a rule, the Scots kings who visited 
London before the time of the Tudors inhabited more 
secure but less commodious apartments in the Tower. 
Queen Margaret, among queens, holds a position in one 
respect very like that of her brother among kings. Both 
were exceedingly addicted to marriage. Margaret lost 
her first husband, James IV., in 1513. He was killed at 
Flodden, fighting against the army of his wife's brother, in 
September of that year. His widow's second son was still 
unborn but she lost no time in looking out for a second 
husband, and married him eleven months after the king's 
tragical death. Angus, her bridegroom, was not yet of age, 
while she was twenty-six. In less than four years she 
made up her mind to divorce him ; her sister-in-law, 
Katharine of Arragon, who did not know the fate in 
store for herself, endeavoured in vain to dissuade her. 
She had fallen in love with Albany, the regent, though 
he had a wife living. But ten years elapsed before the 
divorce was pronounced, and queen Margaret had 
changed her mind about Albany, and had lost her 
beauty from small-pox. Her third husband was Henry 
Stuart, Lord Methven, with whom she soon quarrelled, 
and when she died in 1541, she had begun to take steps 
for a reconciliation with Angus. 

There are many views of the so-called Scotland 
Yard,* and they are of interest chiefly as telling on the 
question of where Charles I. was beheaded. The real 
Scotland Yard was further north. For s6me reason a 
theory was started and plausibly maintained that the 

* This name appears, afler the fire of 1698, to have been applied in- 
discriminately to two courts of the palace, and to the two original Scotland 
Yards besides. See Smith's Plan. 


scaffold stood on the roof of a house which closely- 
adjoined the northern end of the Banqueting Hall, and 
was in fact the gateway of the principal court of the 
palace. A view by Sandby, who erroneously calls it 
Scotland Yard, shows the gate as consisting of an arch, 
with a tall peaked roof surmounted by a ball, and flanked 
with two chimneys. It is impossible that a scaffold 
should have been erected here : but between it and 
the end of the hall are two other very irregular tiled 
roofs. Had the scaffold been placed on them, the taller 
gate would have prevented any but those people who 
were stationed directly in front from witnessing the 
execution. We know that it was plainly visible from 
the top of a house which stood where the Admiralty is 
now, because archbishop Ussher, who was on that roof, 
fainted when he saw the king's head fall. The local 
conditions therefore point to a different place, and the 
contemporary evidence, slight as it is, indicates the open 
space on the western side, or front of the Banqueting 
Hall * The words of the death warrant are explicit 
The execution is directed to take place " in the open 
street before Whitehall." The scaffold stood between 
the centre of the hall and the north end, and was 
approached by a platform which was erected in front of 
^n aperture broken in the wall, at the level of the top of 
the lower windows. An exit might have been made 
oy one of the windows, but Herbert, the king's personal 
attendant, mentions " a passage broken through the wall." 
"At the recent renovation of the Banqueting-House," 
writes Jesse, in 1840, "the author was invited to visit the 
spot, when the passage in question was plainly percept- 
ible, por a space of about seven feet in height and four 
w breadth, the bricks presented a broken and jagged 

See Jesse's ' Court of England under the Stuarts,' i. 466. 


appearance, and the brickwork introduced was evidently 
of a more modem date." This should be conclusive. It 
was probably considered more difficult to reach the high 
level of the windows, than to make a new exit 

The necessity of opening a better approach to West- 
minster than could be obtained along King Street, 
led to the destruction of a building only second 
in interest to the Banqueting Hall. This was 
the southern gateway, a beautiful design always attri- 
buted to Holbein.* When it was removed, in the 
very year in which the Londoners removed their 
old gates, and took the houses off London Bridge, the 
duke of Cumberland had the bricks numbered and 
carried to Windsor : but they were never set up again, 
just as the screen of Burlington House and the stones of 
Temple Bar, and other numbered buildings one could 
name, have been ruined under a promise of restitution 
never fulfilled. When a dean and chapter, or an inn 
treasurer, or a board of works, or an over-zealous official 
of the woods and forests department, desire to carry out 
some special act of vandalism, the indignant section of 
the public is assured and pacified by the promise that 
the stones shall be numbered and set up again. They 
are accordingly numbered, which costs little, but they 
are not set up again. 

At the opposite side of St James's Park, when Henry 
first inclosed it, stood a large hospital or almshouse, the 
out-buildings of which reached as far as the crest of the 
hill and abutted on the western road.t On this insti- 
tution Henry naturally cast an envious eye. He could 
not take his pleasure nor disport himself in his new park 

* There are engravings of it in many books. 

t Some remains of the older buildings have lately been found in Arlington 


without seeing it : and at the dissolution of religious 
houses he hastened to take possession. There must 
have been but little accommodation for a court, but 
Henry added something, and it became a kind of villa 
or hunting lodge. The design of the new buildings is 
said by tradition to have been made by Thomas Crom- 
well, earl of Essex, which is not very likely. The old 
gateway or clock-tower which looks up St James's 
Street is not very beautiful, and perhaps on account of 
its insignificant character has escaped when better 
buildings have been destroyed or "restored," but it is 
venerable, and, when it was taller than the surrounding 
houses, may have looked almost stately. On a chimney- 
piece in one of the chambers are still visible the initials 
of the king and his ill-fated victim Anne Boleyn. The 
chapel still shows something more than a trace of Tudor 
work, and is as quaint a little building of the kind as 
any in London. 

Though Mary lived — and indeed died — in St James's 
Palace, it was not in much favour until it was appointed 
as a residence for the precocious and promising Henry, 
prince of Wales, elder son of James I. He too died in 
St James's, of fever as was supposed, being only nineteen, 
and left no mark on the place, which, however, must 
have grown considerably since the days of Henry VHI., 
for the prince's household amounted to some four hundred 
persons. Charles I. made it the headquarters of his 
great collections, and especially of his books, many of 
his pictures being at Whitehall.* He slept here the 
night before his execution, and on the morning of the 
following day, at ten o'clock, walked through the park 
with colonel Hacker, attended by bishop Juxon, the 
way lined with troops, and guards of halberdiers before 

* Pyne, ' Royal Residences,* uL l6. 

I 2 


and behind with colours flying and drums beating. 
" Once during his walk, being apparently faint, he sat 
down and rested himself." * Perhaps it was then that he 
pointed out the tree his brother had planted. If so, his 
resting-place must have been near the spot where milch 
cows, by an ancient custom, are now stationed. 

St James's was also occupied the night before their 
execution by Hamilton, Holland, and Capel, who were 
similarly taken across the park to Sir Robert Cotton's 
house in Westminster, and then through Westminster 
Hall to the scaffold in New Palace Yard. 

Charles II. did not make much use of St James's ; but 
James his brother occupied it as duke of York, and occa- 
sionally also after he ascended the throne. In 1688 Mary 
of Modena here gave birth to the son who was destined 
to become known in history as the Old Pretender ;t but 
it was not until the great fire at Whitehall in 1698 that 
St James's attained the honour of giving its name to the 
English court The range of buildings facing Cleveland 
Row was made for Frederick, prince of Wales, on his 
marriage, and a few other additions of small importance, 
including a detached library for queen Caroline, were 
among the alterations ; but St James's Palace often 
excited the wonder of foreigners on account of its mean 
appearance. The south side of what used to be and is 
still called the Stable Yard, was built for the duke of 
York, the second son of George III., but never inhabited 
by him.t His brother, the duke of Cambridge, had apart- 

* Jesse, i. 464. 

t See Pyne, for view and account of the old bedchamber, the last room 
at the east end of the south front — ** the properest place," as it was 
observed, for a cheat See fall discussion of the warming-pan story in 
Jesse, iii. 433, and Macaulay, chap. viii. 

X The house is now known as Stafford House, and was sold to the 
duke of Sutherland, the price, 72,000/., being applied to the purchase 
of Victoria Park, Bethnal Green. 


ments at the other end of the palace, which were burnt 
in 1 809. A little further east is the German Chapel, a 
relic of the old Hanoverian days ; and behind it the resi- 
dence of the great duke of Marlborough, now occupied 
by the prince of Wales. A modem roadway into the 
park has been made here. Still further east stood another 
royal residence, Carlton House, the ephemeral palace of 
George IV. To its situation we owe Regent Street* To 
its wretched architecture and miserable colonnade we 
owe the front of the National Gallery. The whole site 
on which Marlborough and Carlton Houses stood was 
part of the royal garden belonging to St James's Palace, 
and was leased away by queen Anne. It has all reverted 
to the Crown, and Carlton House Terrace and Gardens 
occupy the site, except that portion which immediately 
surrounds Marlborough House. 

The park has changed as much as St. James's ; but 
the old stream of the Tyburn still flows through it, 
though no longer tidal, and makes its way underground 
to Richmond Terrace, Whitehall, whence it escapes into 
the Thames. The ducks and other wild-fowl may be 
looked upon as the successors, perhaps in some cases the 
descendants, of those to which Charles II. devoted so 
much attention ; but Rosamond's Pond, the favourite of 
suicides, has disappeared. A mulberry garden was 
planted by James I. on the site of Buckingham Palace, 
with a view to encourage the cultivation of silkworms ; 
and a keeper of the mulberries flourished among the pen- 
sioners of the court till 1672. 

Charles II. leased the grounds and the keeper's house 
to a member of the cabal ministry, Bennet, earl of Arling- 
ton, who is commemorated in the names of two streets at 
the top of St James's Street, where he also had a house, 

* Pyne has elaborate views of Carlton House. 


on land given him by the same king. Arlington 
House, at the western extremity of St James's Park, 
became Buckingham House in 1709, when Sheffield, duke 
of Buckingham, who had bought it six years previously, 
made many alterations, pulled down a long gallery, and 
laid out the quondam mulberry gardens anew. This 
eccentric but accomplished man has left a long and in- 
teresting account of his house, in a letter to the duke of 
Shrewsbury, which forms, in fact, a complete description 
of a great house in the real " Queen Anne " taste, of 
which we hear so much now.* He tells us of the 
goodly rows of elms and limes in St James's Park as 
forming an avenue for him, and goes on to mention 
his forecourt with its iron railings and basin with 
statues and waterworks. A terrace was raised in front 
of the house, and the entrance-hall was spacious, "the 
walls thereof covered with a set of pictures done 
in the school of Raphael." His parlour was thirty- 
three feet by thirty-nine, and had a niche for a buffet 
fifteen feet wide, paved and lined with marble, and 
flanked by coloured pilasters. The staircase was painted 
with the story of Dido, and the roof, fifty-five feet from 
the ground, was "filled with the figures of gods and 
goddesses." The first room upstairs "has within it a 
closet, of original pictures, which yet are not so entertain- 
ing as the delightful prospect from the windows." In the 
garden there was a broad walk, at the end of which " you 
go up to a terrace four hundred paces long, with a large 
semicircle in the middle, from whence are beheld the 
queen's two parks, and a great part of Surry." Among 
the other attractions was "a canal six hundred yards 
long and seventeen broad," the Tyburn, no doubt, under 
altered circumstances ; and on one side, presumably the 

* It is printed in Pyne, voL iL, and summarised by Cunningham, i. 144. 


western, a wall, purposely kept low, was covered with 
roses and jessamines, and afforded, over it, a " view of a 
meadow full of cattle just beneath — no disagreeable 
object in the midst of a great city." Finally, there was a 
•* little wilderness, full of blackbirds and nightingales." 

There is a pretty little view of this house in an old 
volume* published a few years after the duke's death, 
from which it appears that the "basin" in the fore- 
court, mentioned above, had in the centre a figure of 
Neptune surrounded with sea-horses. The house was 
deeply recessed and had long wings, connected with the 
main building by colonnades. 

In 1 76 1 it was decided to give up Somerset House, 
which had previously been a dower house for the queens 
of England, to be turned into public offices, and Buck- 
ingham House was purchased in its stead from the duke's 
heirs, for 21,000/., and settled in 1775 on queen Charlotte. 
Here George HI. accumulated the splendid library which 
George IV. handed over to the nation, and which now 
forms the King's Library at the British Museum. The 
king erected a couple of large rooms for its reception,t 
and in one of them, in 1767, he had an interview with 
Dr. Johnson, of which many details are preserved by 
Boswell-t George IV. rebuilt the house, now become 
Buckingham Palace, but never inhabited it ; and during 
the present reign it has been completely remodelled and 
much added to, the result being far from satisfactory. In 
fact, though it is one of the largest palaces in Europe, its 
poor architecture, and the tawdry style of the decoration, 
give it a meanness of appearance almost unaccountable. 
The only handsome thing about the old palace was the 

* 'A Character of John Sheffield, Duke of Buckinghamshire,' 1729. 
t Shown in two views in Pyne, voL ii. 
\ Liic, iL 36. 


marble triumphal arch in front ; but this was removed in 
1851 to the north-eastern entrance of Hyde Park. The 
eastern fapade of the palace is 360 feet in length. 

The gardens are beautifully laid out and have some 
fine trees, as well as a lake, and a pavilion or summer 
house decorated with frescoes, illustrating Milton's 
"Comus," by Landseer, Stanfield, Maclise, Eastlake, 
Dyce, Leslie, Uwins and Ross, an odd combination * of 
styles and artists. The low situation of the gardens along 
the ancient course of the Tyburn, is much to be deplored, 
and except in the finest weather they are damp and 
foggy. When Buckingham could look out on fields with 
cattle to the westward, they may have been more cheer- 
ful, but George III. failed to purchase these fields owing 
to a ministerial complication, and Grosvenor Place, much 
of which has recently been rebuilt in a palatial style, now 
looks over the gardens. 

A road called Constitution Hill, now in process of 
rearrangement, leads along the eastern side of the royal 
gardens to Hyde Park Comer, where, until this year, the 
duke of Wellington in bronze looked down on Piccadilly, 
close to Apsley House. The Green Park of 56 acres 
connects St James's and Hyde Parks, and has a pleasing 
and varied surface, through which the course of the 
brook can be traced by a winding depression. A large 
pond used to lie nearly in the centre, but was filled up in 
1842, when the Ranger's Lodge,t which the gossip of 
the day attributed to George HI., was pulled down, 
and the little park assumed its modem appearance. 
Some fine houses in the Stable Yard and Arlington 

* Landseer's original design, "The Masque of Comas," is in the 
National Gallery. 

t The two stags on the gate pillars of the Lodge no«r adorn the Albert 
Gate, Knightsbridge. Larwood, ' London Parks,' 31S. 


Street look into it on the eastern side, the most remark- 
able of which are Spencer House, designed by Vardy, 
but believed to have been founded on a drawing by Inigo 
Jones, with the addition of a pediment which goes far to 
spoil it ; and Bridgewater House, designed in a magni- 
ficent Italian style by Sir Charles Barry, Although 
some of the houses along Piccadilly which look on the 
Green Park have been built with very little regard to 
cost, not one of them presents any architectural features 
worth notice, or, indeed, worthy of the situation. 

We enter Hyde Park by a gate beside Apsley House 
which strange to say has never received a name. The 
triple archway with the connecting screen of Ionic 
columns is extremely pleasing, and rescues the reputa- 
tion of the designer, Decimus Burton, from the obscurity 
in which most of his other works would leave it The 
park forms the central part of the great manor of Eia, 
being bounded on the east by Eybury and on the west by 
Neyte. Some portions of Eybury were added to Hyde 
in the last century to make a straight boundary, and in 
1825 the wall along Park Lane was removed and an iron 
railing erected — the same which fell before the attack of 
a crowd of agitators a few years ago, — when opportunity 
was taken to set the fence further back, thus widening 
Park Lane, and improving its appearance and size. 

A similar wall stretched along the northern side, and 
the road being at a somewhat higher level, especially at 
the comer, a private individual raised the soil of the park, 
and obtained leave to open a gate facing Great Cumber- 
land Place.* This comer, close to the place of execution 
at Tyburn, is commemorated as the background of a 

* • Hyde Park,' by Thomas Smith (p. 60) ; by far the best accoaut of 
Hyde Park I have met with, but rather scarce, having been issued in paper 
covers at a shilling^ It escaped the notice of Lowndes. 


scene in Hogarth's prints of the Apprentices. The Idle 
Apprentice is about to be hanged, and some of the spec- 
tators have climbied on the park wall for a better view. 
Within the wall at the comer military executions used to 
take place, and when the ground was raised a stone 
which marked the spot was buried where it stood. Here, 
in August 17 1 6 two soldiers were flogged nearly to 
death for having worn oak branches on the 29th May : 
and the only gallows ever set up in Hyde Park were 
placed here in order to hang sergeant Smith, in 1747, for 
desertion to the Scots rebels two years before. He was 
attended from the military prison at the Savoy by the 

The northern boundary of Hyde Park was straightened 
like the eastern, by cutting off a portion of the manor 
of Paddington : this was done by Henry VHL, and 
similarly queen Elizabeth rectified the southern frontier 
by bringing it nearly up to the Knightsbridge Road, 
forty acres being thus added to the inclosure. The 
present appearance of the Serpentine is due to the care of 
queen Caroline, who in 1733 drained some unwholesome 
ponds along the course of the Westboume, and formed the 
very fine sheet of water we now see. I have neither been 
able to ascertain the origin of its name nor that of the road 
along its southern bank. The Serpentine and Rotten Row 
are puzzles alike. The queen, while she thus improved the 
park with one hand, robbed it with the other, and the 
whole rising ground in Kensington Gardens between the 
Bayswater fountains and the sunk fence on the crest of 
the hill were originally in Hyde Park. A hundred years 
later the water of the Westboume, being contaminated 
with sewage, and liable to inundations, was conducted 
into an underground drain, and fresh water supplied 
by one of the companies. The handsome bridge. 


across which the boundary runs, was built in 1826 by 
Rennie : and the latest alteration in Hyde Park has been 
the re-erection on the old site of the Knightsbridge Bar- 
racks, of which the only thing that can be said by way of 
commendation is that they are of red brick, and look best 
at a considerable distance. They cost 150,000/., and were 
completed in 1880, some of the old stonework being used 
again, and the old Hanoverian arms replaced. The Ring 
of which we hear so much in memoirs of the Stuart 
period, and where Oliver Cromwell endangered his life 
by driving four-in-hand, was on the slope to the north of 
the Serpentine. A straight avenue of fine young trees 
on the eastern side leads from the ridiculous statue of 
Wellington naked as Achilles, to a round sunk garden, in 
the centre of which is a pretty fountain which never flows. 
Here was the reservoir often mentioned in books of the 
last century, and previously first the stables of Grosvenor 
House, and then a cavalry barrack. Hyde Park now 
covers nearly 400 acres.* 

I have no hesitation in identifying Kensington Gardens 
with the manor of Neyte. The boundary between it and 
Hyde was formed by the Westboume, and the bridge 
which carried the western road over the brook was Neyte- 
Bridge, or, vulgarly, Knightsbridge. Some confusion has 
arisen on the question, because in Pepys' and other con- 
temporary books there are mentions of "neat houses," 
which are known to have been at Chelsea. But " neat 
houses," or in modem language, " cowhouses," though we 
still say "neat cattle," and occasionally "neat herd," 
might stand anywhere, and though part of Chelsea is 
isolated in Paddington,t we have no knowledge of any 

* Mr. Nathan Cole, ' Royal Parks,' p. 20. It is sometimes erroneously 
asserted that Kensington Gardens are larger than Hyde Park, but they only 
cover 250 acres. 

t See below, chapter xxi. 


part of St Margaret's being isolated in Chelsea. More- 
over, allowing that Eia was divided into three portions, 
and that one was Eybury, and another Hyde, how can 
we otherwise identify the land which lay west of the 
brook, seeing we know it was neither part of Eybury nor 
yet of Hyde ? 

We are driven therefore to believe that the manor 
house of Neyte, where the great abbot Litlington and the 
still better known abbot Islip* died, was situated not very 
far from the site of Kensington Palace, if not actually upon 
it Nottingham House,t as it was called in the reign of 
William HI., was probably put on the ancient site, 
especially as it would not be easy to find a better. 
William HI. bought it in 1690 for 20,000/., and the old 
house was soon afterwards burnt Sir Christopher Wren 
rebuilt it, but little trace of his hand can now be made 
out, except in the very handsome orangery, in the gardens 
to the north, which was begun for William but finished 
for Anne. There are massive and handsome gate-posts 
close by to the westward, and here probably was the 
roadway to Campden House, when all the hill was bare, 
except of a cottage or two among the gravel pits. 
Another possible relic of Wren is a charming semicircular 
alcove or summer house, which now stands in the further 
portion of the gardens beyond the Bayswater fountains, 
but which was originally close to Kensington High Street, 
where a wall hid the pleasure grounds from the passers- 
by. Parallel with the Broad Walk, which forms now the 
most pleasing feature of Kensington Gardens, is a new 
roadway which traverses what used to be known as the 
Moor, and is now called Palace Green. The second 

• Litlington in 1386, and Islip in 1532. 

t For further particulars as to Kensington Gardens I may refer to the 
notes I appended to Mr. Tristram Ellis's * Six Etchings.' ^ 


house on the left was built by Thackeray from his own 
designs, to be in harmony with the palace opposite, and 
with what may be called the local genius ; and here he 
died in 1863. Close by there used to be a small pointed 
building containing an interesting chamber of consider- 
able antiquity. It was probably built as a conduit to 
supply water to the house of Henry VIII. at Chelsea, 
and was sold with that house on several occasions. No 
respect was shown it when the royal vegetable garden 
was laid out afresh for villas in 1855, and one of the few 
little bits of genuine gothic perished from the west end of 
London. What the spirit was in which these hideous 
villas were erected may be judged when we hear that 
people who took building sites were forbidden to use red 
brick, though plaster and mud-coloured paint were 
allowed. A very curious tower was erected on the Moor 
for the water supply in queen Anne's reign, by Sir John 
Vanbrugh, to whom, whatever we think of his taste, must 
be allowed the merit of originality. This too has dis- 

Kensington Gardens have, however, been enriched by 
the erection of the Albert Memorial, an enormous Cross, 
in a style which may be termed Italian gothic. It rises 
175 feet, and cost 132,000/. It is incrusted with precious 
stones and heavily gilt, and a bronze seated statue of 
the prince by Foley is also gilL Four reliefs representing 
artists and poets are below, and as many groups em- 
blematic of the four quarters of the globe, flank the 
central structure. The cross, taken altogether, has a 
sumptuous appearance which, under the peculiar circum- 
stances of the case, is perhaps the best we can expect of 
it. Given an immense sum of money, gathered amid 
such an outburst of public feeling as has never been seen 
in England since the death of queen Elizabeth, and no 


great architect ready to take advantage of the opportunity, 
and we may be thankful that Sir Gilbert Scott, in a build- 
ing every part of which is borrowed from something 
else, and which would not stand an hour except for a 
clever piece of internal mechanism which cannot be 
called architecture, succeeded first in raising a very con- 
spicuous monument and also in spending the money at 
his disposal in so small a space. 

There is a charm about old Kensington Palace • which 
eludes the ordinary grasp of artistic or architectural terms. 
Its red brick, its blue slates, its heavy cornice, its quaint 
clock turret, a certain fitness of proportion, are aided by 
the most charming situation in London, and perhaps by 
the historical associations, to produce an effect on the 
mind only second to that produced by Hampton Court. 
To those of us who have had the good fortune to be 
bom and to live into middle age as the subjects of queen 
Victoria, her birth-place is in itself an object of interest. 
To all who have looked back with pride on the great 
days of a former queen, when most of the palace 
was built, while England's ascendancy abroad was being 
secured ; to all who remember the career of the first 
Prime Minister, and reflect that these vistas and walks 
were laid out by that other queen who made office 
possible to him in the days of George II. ; and finally to 
any one who has read of William III. and his gentle 
consort in the glowing pages of the great historian who 
lived and died close by on Campden Hill, Kensington 
Palace cannot fail to prove an object of the highest 

One ancient royal park remains to be noticed, although 
it is not and never was within the boundary of West- 

* There are several interiors and an interesting description of the palace 
in Pyne, 


minster. We have seen that Henry VIII. was able to 
take his disport without interruption from St James's 
to Highgate. The connecting link between these ex- 
tremities was St. Marylebone, with its open common. 
When the manor was granted by king James to Edward 
Forset,* "Marybone Park" was specially reserved. 
Charles I. in his troubles mortgaged it to Sir George 
Strode and John Wandesforde, who had supplied him 
with arms and ammunition for the prosecution of the 
war. This hypothecation was of course disregarded 
when the royal cause was lost, and the park was assigned 
for the payment of the arrears due to colonel Thomas 
Harrison's dragoon regiment. It thus a second time 
in a few years was in danger of being broken up ; but it 
survived some time longer, had its rangers, its lodge, its 
timber, until in 1765, we find it divided into twenty-four 
small holdings, chiefly laid out as farms, and in 1789 the 
duke of Portland bought up fifteen of them from a 
lessee, while the other nine accumulated in the hands of 
Peter Hinde, whose name still occurs on street comers 
near Manchester Square-f 

Both leases, that of the duke of Portland and that of 
Peter Hinde, expired early in the present century, and 
the crown came into possession. The whole of the lands 
had been surveyed a few years previously, and a list of 
the farms and fields has been preserved, which contains 
many items of topographical interest4 There are three 
large farms and a number of smaller holdings. Mr. 
Thomas Willan holds 288 acres, and has several under- 
tenants, one of whom is employed as a maker of copal 
varnish. Mr. Richard Kendall holds 133 acres, and has 
some tenants, who appear to live in villas ; for there is a 

* See below, chap. xzi. 

t Smith's • St Marylebone,' p. 243. % Smith, p. 244. 


"garden let to Sir Richard Hill, bart," and a house, two 
gardens, and a shed, let to George Stewart, esq. Among 
the inclosures is "Saltpetre Field," which name may- 
refer to the operations of Strode and Wandesforde in 
the time of Charles I. There is also a " Rugg Moor 
and Lodge Field, in one," of 57 acres. The farm of 
Mr. Richard Mortimer comprised 117 acres, and had on 
it six cottages. One of Mr. Mortimer's fields was the 
" Nether Paddock," and another the " Pound Field" 

In the year before this survey was made, 1793, an 
architect named White, who was employed on the Port- 
land estate, formed a plan for the improvement of 
Marylebone Park. Ideas had been entertained of 
building over the whole space, but they were happily 
abandoned, and when the leases fell in, there was no 
difficulty in carrying out the great scheme which Nash 
had elaborated on the lines of White. There is no 
London improvement more satisfactory than that by 
which Regent Street, with its Quadrant, was made to 
connect Pall Mall and Marylebone Park. A labyrinth 
of miserable tenements had been allowed to grow up 
between Golden Square and Burlington Gardens, Even 
now, any one not very well acquainted with the region, 
who gets entangled in the lanes about Broad Street or 
Great Pulteney Street will find himself puzzled how to 
get out again, and will have to breathe many strange 
odours, and walk in not very select company. There 
is, in fact, within a stone's throw of the finest street in 
London a territory which looks as if it properly belonged 
to Whitechapel or Wapping. The maps of sixty years 
ago show in Piccadilly, just between Sackville Street on 
the west and Air Street on the east, a little lane called 
Swallow Street, and a court called Vine Street. Striking 
boldly through the continuation of these thoroughfares, 


Nash made Regent Street parallel with the upper course 
of Swallow Street, which was in great part obliterated, 
and he connected his new street with Waterloo Place by 
the Quadrant, already referred to, which occupies the 
site of a lane called Marybone Street, The Regent's 
Park had by this time been laid out, much as we still see 
it The rows of stucco terraces called after the royal 
dukes had been built, and the Zoological and Botanic 
Gardens established. 

Regent's Park is the largest of these " lungs of 
London," as it covers 470 acres. " The centre is to a 
great extent an open green plain, free almost from 
trees." * I have already f described the course of the 
Tyburn through it. An artificial lake has been made, 
compared sometimes in shape to the three legs on the 
shield of Man, and producing with its well-wooded 
banks a charming effect Two or three private villas do 
not mar the view, though as they were all built as much 
in a '^ Grecian " style as stucco and paint would permit, 
they are not remarkable for picturesqueness. St. Dun- 
stan's Villa was designed by I^ecimus Burton for the 
marquis of Hertford. It derives its name from a singular 
whim of that nobleman. When he was a child, and a 
good childy his nurse to reward him would take him to 
see the giants at St Dunstan's, the old church in Fleet 
Street, where the hours were struck on a bell by two 
automatons. He used to say that when he grew to be 
a man he would buy those giants. " It happened when 
old St Dunstan's was pulled down that the giants 
were put up to auction, and bought by the marquis out 
of old associations." J They still mark time in the 
Regent's Park. 

 Cole's * Royal Parks,* p. 36. f Vol. i., chap. i. 

X CanniDgham, ii. 696. 


In 1863, an Italian garden was laid out in the park, 
by Mr. Nesfield, under the direction of lord Mount 
Temple, who was at that time chief commissioner of the 
Board of Works. Great pains have been taken to choose 
plants and flowers which will flourish in spite of London 
smoke, and the result is most satisfactory, the rhodo- 
dendrons in particular, and some formal rows of poplars, 
bearing the trial admirably. In fact, it is curious to 
contrast the flourishing condition of the vegetable 
kingdom in this heavy clay with the effect produced on 
animal life. The situation of the Zoological Gardens is 
unfortunate. A large number of animals die annually, 
and others go blind, and suffer from various diseases on 
account of the unfavourable nature of the soil. It would 
be difficult to suggest a better place. The gardens are 
in so central a position that they may be and are daily 
visited both from the eastern and western extremities of 
London ; but there can be little question that a saving, 
not only of money, but of suffering, would result if 
they could bfe removed to a sandy, or even a gravelly 

Very pretty views are to be had from the Zool(^ical 
Gardens, and other places, where there are bridges up 
and down the Regent's Canal. It is now almost aban- 
doned by traffic, and the long narrow reaches overhung 
with heavy foliage afford probably the most completely 
rural effects to be seen so near the great city. Little as 
is the traffic now, during the passage under one of the 
bridges of a gunpowder barge, in 1876, an explosion 
took place which shook all London. The scene on the 
following morning in the neighbourhood was not one to 
be easily forgotten. Houses were wrecked as if they had 
been built of playing cards. There was not a whole 
pane of glass left in some score of streets. Even trees 


and shrubs had been shattered. One trembles to think 
of what might have happened had the explosion taken 
place a little nearer to the menagerie ; the animals killed 
and the animals let loose would alike have been the 
cause of dire loss and confusion. 

New as it is, the Regent's Park boasts of the presence 
of one of the oldest charitable institutions in the king- 
dom. St Katharine's Hospital formerly stood in a very 
different place. There was a small piece of low lying 
ground beyond the Tower of London, in the Portsoken, 
and therefore the property of the canons of Holy Trinity 
at Aldgate on the hill above. Here queen Matilda, the 
wife of king Stephen, who is not to be confused with 
Matilda or Maude, the wife of Henry I., and the founder 
of the Priory at Aldgate, in the year 1 148, established on 
thb spot a hospital, which was to consist of a master, 
certain brethren, and as many sisters, but how many does 
not clearly appear. Their chief duty was to pray for the 
queen's soul, and for the souls of her son and her 
daughter. She placed the hospital under the special 
care of the canons, whose lands she had obtained by an 
exchange, and all went well till 1255, when a most 
curious transaction took place. We know but little about 
the private character of Eleanor, the queen of Henry IH., 
and that little does not prepossess us in her favour. She 
was hated in the city ; owing to her neglect London 
Bridge was in danger of complete ruin;* and the 
slaughter of the citizens at Lewes by her son ''Sir 
Edward le Fitzroy," did not, we may be sure, tend to 
endear her in their minds. Queen Eleanor, for some 
reason which history has failed to preserve, cast a 
covetous eye on the foundation of queen Matilda, and 
made a perfectly unfounded claim, through her chaplain, 

* See above, vol. i. p. 152. 

K 2 


to the custody of the hospital. The canons of Aldgate 
had long declined from their pristine piety, and were now 
chiefly remarkable for their enormous wealth. One of 
them, on some complaint of drunkenness against the 
master of queen Matilda's hospital, had been appointed 
to supersede him ; and that the prior and his canons 
had a right to make the appointment was upheld by 
the unanimous judgment of the barons of the exchequer. 

Nothing daunted by this defeat, queen Eleanor went 
another way to work. She invoked the assistance of 
Fulk Basset, then bishop of London, and a warm partisan 
of the court faction. Bishop Basset inquired by what 
right the prior and the canons appointed to the master- 
ship. They replied, of course, that the hospital stood on 
their land, that they had other and similar institutions to 
which they appointed, and that, moreover, they had 
received a gift of this hospital from the founder. The 
bishop took little notice of the validity of this claim. He 
appears wisely to have given no reasons for his decision, 
but he simply removed the canon-master, inhibited the 
brethren and sisters from obeying the prior, and ap- 
pointed one of the brethren to be head of the hospital. 
Fulk Basset died in i26i,without having further arranged 
for the acknowledgment of queen Eleanor's preposterous 
aggression, but his successor, Wingham, compelled the 
prior and canons to make a formal act of resignation to 
the queen, threatening them with Henry's displeasure if 
they refused, and assuring them that the king's will was 
the law of the land. 

After these high-handed proceedings, queen Eleanor 
entered on undisturbed possession, and held her Naboth's 
vineyard of St Katharine's for twelve years, when, in 
spite of the entreaties of the pope, that she would restore 
it to the prior and canons, she absolutely suppressed 


and dissolved it, and in 1273, made an entirely new 
foundation on the site, appointing a master, and fixing 
the number of inmates at twenty-two ; namely, three 
priests, three sisters, ten poor women, and six poor 
scholars. Queen Philippa augmented the charity, and 
so it remained, spared even at the reformation, on the 
intercession, it was said, of queen Anne Boleyn.* 

In the reign of queen Elizabeth a layman, Thomas 
Wylson, her secretary, was appointed master, and it soon 
became evident that he proposed to deal with the estates 
very much as his contemporary, Thurland, was dealing 
with those of the Savoy. But the inhabitants of the 
precinct, who derived innumerable benefits from the 
presence among them of so wealthy and benevolent a 
body, petitioned Cecil strongly against Wylson's pro- 
posed dissipation of the revenues of the hospital, and 
succeeded in putting a stop to his negotiations with the 
lord mayor for a sale of the franchises of the precinct. 
Great numbers of foreigners, chiefly religious refugees, 
resided here at the time, Dutch, French, Danes, Poles, 
and Scots. The buildings can never have been very 
handsome, and in 1734 were much injured by a fire. In 
175 1, the old house of the masters, which was built of 
wood, was removed as threatening to become ruinous ; 
and a few years later the cloisters and the houses of the 
brethren were likewise pulled down, so that in 1779, when 
Nichols's view was taken, little except the venerable 
chapel remained of the original buildings. Sir Julius 
Cxsar, who was master in the early part of the reign of 
James I., had repaired and beautified it, and had presented 
a pulpit which still exists at Regent's Park. It bears a 
quaint inscription from Nehemiah, ** Ezra the scribe stood 

* There is a very fiill account of old St. Katharine's in Nichols's 
' Bibliotheca,' with a plan and several views. 


upon a pulpit of wood which he had made for the 
preacher."* The tomb of John Holland, duke of Exeter, 
and his two wives was removed at the same time, and a 
building erected in the Regent's Park in the style of 
gothic which might be expected from the date, 1827. A 
dock company envied the old site, and the brethren and 
sisters were removed from what might have been and 
had been a sphere of usefulness, to grace the new park 
and impart an air of antiquity and respectability to the 
pet scheme of George IV. The hospital has resisted all 
projects of reform, and cannot now be said to serve any 
very good purpose, except perhaps to enable the queen 
to pension off a meritorious servant or a superannuated 
foreign chaplain. 

To the north of Regent's Park, were Barrow Hill and 
Primrose Hill. Barrow Hill has disappeared, but its 
companion remains, the only example of the kind near 
London. It is kept open, and is laid out in walks. The 
view from the summit on a clear day is not only beautiful 
but interesting, and well repays one for the slight fatigue 
of making the ascent. 

Of the other parks of London there is not very much 
to be said. I shall notice Battersea in its geographical 
position.t Homsey Wood has somewhat absurdly been 
renamed Finsbury Park, although it is more than three 
miles from Moorgate. Victoria Park is an oasis in the 
squalor of the east end. It is all that remains of the open 
common of Stepney, and is in three modem parishes. 
The civic authorities have done much in the way of 
securing the preservation of open spaces, but Epping 
Forest, Wanstead Park, Burnham Beeches, West Ham 

* Nichols gives views and details of this pulpit in a series of eight 

t See below, chap. zxii. 


Park, and the beautiful and breezy downs about Coulsdon, 
Keney, and Chaldon are beyond my limits. They have 
all been taken in hand by the corporation of London, who 
spent more than a hundred thousand pounds in one year, 
1880, with this object* 

* The total expenditure of the corporation in the ten years from 
1872 to 1881, on " providing open spaces for the people " has been 
308,985/. 1 1 J. lod. 

( 136 ) 



The occasion which William the Conqueror seized for 
building the Tower has been already described.* The 
situation, close by the river's bank, favours the supposition 
that a part at least of the ground within the precinct was 
reckoned royal property as foreshore. But another part 
was undoubtedly taken from the citizens, and the circuit 
of the city walls was broken. It has recently been 
ascertained, not only that a considerable quantity of 
Roman brick was used in the buildings, but that the 
foundation of the White Tower itself overlies that of a 
great and solid bastion. When Gray therefore talked of 
the "towers of Julius," he was not so very far wrong as 
has sometimes been thought Had he said " towers of 
Caesar," there would have been little fault to find. 

While the western half of the tower precinct thus 
belongs to the ancient circuit of the city, the eastern 
half belongs to the original parish of Stepney. It is 
perhaps on this account that the parliamentary borough 
which has been formed of the parish is called, not 
Stepney, but, somewhat absurdly, the " Tower Hamlets." 
The boundaries of the precinct are very sharply defined, 
and for many ages the city looked with great jealousy at 
any encroachment When Edward IV., for example, 
set up the gallows on Tower Hill, the citizens imme- 

* See above, vol. i. chapter iv. 


diately took alarm, and the jurisdiction of the sheriffs 
was acknowledged by the king. 

In the reign of James I. a similar question arose, but 
m this case the citizens were apparently the aggressors. 
The lord mayor in 1618 ordered "a prison or cage" to 
be constructed on Tower Hill. Sir Allen Apsley, who 
was then lieutenant of the Tower, remonstrated in a 
letter* in which he pointed out that if the new building 
could be removed a few yards it would stand within the 
City boundary. He uses the curious word "disbur- 
bance" with reference to the site chosen. It had too 
much disburbance. As far back as the time of Elizabeth 
a controversy sprung up between the lord mayor and 
the lieutenant as to the removal of a boundary stone, 
and as to the lord mayor's right to have the sword 
borne before him upright until a certain point was 
passed, t 

The gradual growth of the buildings as we see them 
now may be briefly traced. When William died the 
works were far from complete. At the close of the 
reign of Stephen there was only the White Tower within 
its wall, forming what we now know as the inner ward, 
the royal palace being on the south-east side. "No 
doubt there was a ditch, but probably not a very formid- 
able one." J The outer ward was the creation of 
Richard I. and his minister, William Longchamp, bishop 
of Ely. § The bishop deepened and enlarged the ditch, 
hoping to fill it from the Thames, an object in which, 
however, he failed. In his excavations he encroached on 
the land of the priory of Holy Trinity, Aldgate, and on 

* ' Remembrancia,' p. 442. 
t See ' Remembrancia,' /arjf/v. 
X Clark, ' Old London,' loi. 
§ See ToL L chapter ▼. 


that of St Katharine's Hospital. These trespasses were 
the cause of much complaint, which was not finally 
allayed until Edward I. made compensation. The 
" royal chapel in the Tower " is mentioned in the records 
of Longchamp's rule, and this may be the chapel of St 
Peter. King John spent much money in buildings, and 
the chapel is distinctly mentioned in 12 10, when 
Osmund, a knight bound for Poictou, received a gift of 
ten marks, and, to buy a horse, a hundred shillings from 
the king in the " church of St. Peter at the Tower of 

But to Henry HI. must be given the credit of having 
made of the Tower the extensive fortification we now 
see. At his accession the wall of the inner ward was 
complete, but the quay along the river's edge, and the 
water gate known as St Thomas's Tower, had not been 
constructed. The wall probably abutted on the water, 
and the principal entrance was directly on the river. 
The palace, or '' king's house," was built before 1222, and 
the Bell Tower probably soon after, work going on con- 
stantly. There are many entries as to the making of a 
chimney for the king's chamber, a piece of domestic 
engineering which seems to have taxed the ability of the 
builders. At this time the Wakefield Tower, which had 
formed part of the Norman work, was raised and com* 
pleted, and the " Bloody Tower " adjoining. Close to it 
was the great hall of tfie palace, destroyed during the 
Commonwealth. It is in the Wakefield Tower that the 
modem visitor inspects the crown jewels, but it was long 
used for the storage of records. Unfortunately the old 
building has here been almost completely renewed, the 
chapel — the third which is known to have existed in the 
Tower of London — Shaving been destroyed, not, indeed, 
under the Commonwealth, but under the direction of the 


Office of Works. Here, in all probability, the unfor- 
tunate Henry VI. worshipped during a great part of his 
long reign, and one cannot but regret to see that the 
same want of consideration for ancient association is busy 
in every part of the venerable fortress. 

In 1240, Henry HI., the new-built Traitor's Gate, or 
Water Tower, fell down suddenly. It was rebuilt, and 
again fell No doubt the foundation in the bed of the 
river was not sufficiently strong .or deep. But super- 
stition accounted for the two occurrences in a much more 
satisfactory way. On the night of the second fall the 
great Archbishop Thomas appeared to a certain priest 
and told him that he resented these great works as pre- 
judicial to the citizens. Nevertheless, the king had 
them renewed, and compounded with the saint by calling 
the new tower after him. On this his sympathies with 
the citizens ceased to agitate him. An oratory in the 
upper storey, the fourth building of the kind, was 
dedicated to St Thomas of Canterbury. 

A good many of Henry Ill's descendants passed 
through the archway, some of them under sad circum- 
stances. We cannot forget the figure of the lady Eliza- 
beth, who was sent to the Tower on the outbreak of 
Wyatt's rebellion. When the boat came to the stair the 
princess refused to land. The lord in charge of her 
peremptorily told her she had no choice. It rained, and 
he offered her his cloak, which she refused, ** putting it 
from her with a good dash," * and as she set foot on the 
steps she cried with momentary spirit, " Here landeth as 
true a subject, being a prisoner, as ever landed at these 
stairs." But her courage forsook her again when she 
saw the guards drawn up to receive her. The soldiers 
kneeled down as she passed, and prayed God bless her, 

* * The Tower of London,' by Lord de Ros, 71. 


for which, it is said, they were all dismissed. The prin- 
cess, unwilling to go further through the gloomy portals, 
sat down on a stone in the rain. The lieutenant 
entreated her to rise and go on. "Better sit here 
than in a worse place," she answered, significantly.* 

The impression which St Thomas's Tower used to 
make on the visitor is now much weakened. The upper 
storey consists of a new, nay, a novel building in the style 
of a country cottage ; and the water is no longer per- 
mitted to approach the steps. Few of the stones, if any, 
that Elizabeth saw in 1553 are to be seen now. Every- 
thing has been " restored." 

Perhaps the most curious commitment was that of the 
abbot of Westminster, who, with forty-eight monks and 
thirty-two other persons, was sent to the Tower by 
Edward I. on suspicion of having stolen the king's 
treasure. The crime was brought home at last, after a 
long trial, to the sub-prior and sacrist f Their skins 
were nailed on the doors of the treasury and of the 
sacristy, where they still remain, a warning to evil- 

Edward III. did much for the Tower, which was the 
site of a powder factory in 1347, to the great danger of 
the buildings, though, in all probability, the quality of 
the explosive compound was not such as to make it very 
formidable. There are entries in the records for saltpetre 
and sulphur, "ad opus Regis pro gunnis." 

In this reign, too, the Tower saw the first of a long line 

* Lord de Ros mentions a tradition to the effect that certain of the dty 
church bells having been rung on Elizabeth's release, she afterwards pre- 
sented those churches with silken bell-ropes. He goes on to say that silken 
ropes long existed in the vestry chest of *' the church of Aldgate." This 
may refer to St Botolph's. 

t Stanley's • Westminster Abbey,' chapter v. ; and Scott's * Gleanings,* 
p. 283, where will be found an account of the trial by the late Mr. BurtU 


of royal prisoners. David, king of Scotland, taken at 
Neville's Cross, was brought here to linger out eleven 
years of captivity and ill-health. In 1358, the then large 
sum of 2/. \2s, ()d, was paid for his medicines. John of 
France, Richard II., Henry VL, Edward V., queen 
Anne Boleyn, queen Katherine Howard, queen Jane, 
and queen Elizabeth, are among the royal personages in 
the sad procession, but Charles I. was never confined in 
the Tower. 

When James I. came to the throne the palace within 
the Tower had fallen almost into ruin. According to one 
account, he removed the great hall. In 1663 Wren was 
commissioned to repair the White Tower, which he did 
in a way worthy of a modem restorer, and only a few 
traces remain of the old Norman windows.* In 1841 a 
fire destroyed the armoury which Wren had built for 
James II. and William III., and the painfully substantial 
Wellington Barracks in a gothic style, as gothic was 
then understood, were placed on the site. The Beau- 
champ Tower was "restored" in 1854, and all traces of 
antiquity carefully removed : the inscriptions on the 
walls were taken down and placed together in one room, 
so that they have lost half their interest and all their 
historical value. During the past few years other changes 
have taken place, of which it may safely be said that few 
of them are improvements. The curious building, dating 
from the reign of Edward III., which adjoined the eastern 
side of the White Tower, has been removed, as have the 
great stores which stood on the site of the old palace, t 

• I regret to hear that it is proposed to restore Wren's work. The 
authorities who have charge of the Tower have no more reverence for 
historical association than the dean and chapter of a gothic cathedral. 

t It is understood that a further "falsification of the record" is to be 
carried out shortly by the erection of a building here which "will 
barmonise with its surroundings." 


The interior of the White Tower still retains the fantastic 
arrangements of old arms, but we no longer enter it 
through a window, and " Queen Elizabeth's Armoury " 
has become what it was before, the crypt of St. John's 
Chapel. The chapel has been very thoroughly scraped, 
renewed, paved, and otherwise robbed of any appearance 
of age it had acquired in eight centuries. Something 
has also been done with the long-ruined towers along the 
quay. They were buried in modern buildings, and the 
process of extrication has, of course, been accompanied 
by great destructions. On the whole, however, this is 
the most satisfactory of all the modern operations, and 
the only one which has in any way added to our interest 
in the Tower of London. 

The chapel of St Peter's " ad Vincula " has suffered 
more from "restoration," than even the Beauchamp 
Tower, It only dates from 15 12, when an older church 
was burnt, and was still new when interments were first 
made within its walls. Few churches have undergone 
greater vicissitudes than St. Peter's. It may be described 
as either a collegiate church, a parish church, a royal 
chapel, or a garrison chapel. The intentions of Edward 

III. to place it under a dean and three canons, were 
never carried out A similar scheme formed by Edward 

IV. went further, but was eventually dropped. It has, 
however, been continually served by a " parson," whose 
office, instituted perhaps when the church was first built, 
has survived until now. Even when the arrangements 
for a college were in progress, the parson of St Peter 
existed, and in 141 9 gave very powerful proof of his 
existence when he slew a certain Friar Randolph, as 
Stow tells us without further comment. Philip and 
Mary found *' no parson abyde to have cure sowle," and 


declared their royal pleasure ^ the same to be established 
into perfecyon."* 

The position of the Tower parson is, nevertheless still 

anomalous. The bishop has no jurisdiction within the 

precincts, says one authority.! Godwin and Britton 

report that it is under the control of the bishop of London, 

which is probably correct ; but Bayley calls it a chapelry, 

and in the next line speaks of " the chaplain or rector." 

archbishop Whitgift and his successor "would not 

meddle with it," but archbishop Abbot excommunicated 

"the rector and his son, the curate" for solemnising 

marriages without license. The reader turns with 

satisfaction to the precise statement of Newcourt J The 

chapel was formerly exempt from the jurisdiction of the 

bishop of London, but Edward VI., by letters patent 

dated i April, 1550, subjected it to the episcopal 

supervision, and this order was confirmed by queen 

Mary, on the 2nd March, 1554. *But," adds the 

judicious Newcourt, "whether ever any bishop of 

London, did by virtue of these letters exercise any 

jurisdiction within the Tower, I have not found." 

We have all read and reread the affecting words in 
which Stow notices the chapel. " Here lieth before the 
high altar in St. Peter's church, two dukes between two 

• • The Chapd in the Tower,* by D. C. Bell, p. 6. Mr. Bell carefuUy 
and approvingly details the vandalism and sacrilege which were per- 
petrated in 1876 and the following year. 

tMr. BeUL 

\ I 53a Mr. Bell's assertion that this arrangement was abrogated 
*'Qpon the establishment of the Protestant succession in the following 
reign, " is somewhat puzzling. What Protestant succession did Elizabeth 
establish ? And what abrogation was ever formally made ? There cannot, 
in short, be any reason for doubting that the chaplaincy is of the nature of 
a perpetual curacy in the diocese of London. The constable is the 
patron. The stipend is paid by the Exchequer. 


queens, to wit, the duke of Somerset, and the duke of 
Northumberland, between queen Anne and queen 
Katherine, all four beheaded." We have also read 
Macaulay's comment. "Thither have been carried 
through successive ages, by the rude hands of gaolers, 
without one mourner following, the bleeding relics of 
men who had been the captains of armies, the leaders 
of parties, the oracles of senates, and the ornaments of 
courts." Nothing can add to the mournful interest of 
the place ; and though we must sympathise in the 
indignation which Macaulay expressed against the 
" barbarous stupidity " which had transformed the chapel 
into " the likeness of a meeting house in a manufacturing 
town," it is not possible to approve of the works recently 
carried on. The only satisfactory restoration would have 
been one which removed the seats and galleries, and 
which left undisturbed the sacred ashes under the floor. 
The reredos was ugly, but it had seen the burial of the 
Scots lords, and perhaps of Monmouth. It was much 
more appropriate than the fine new one, which, if it was 
really^ what it pretends to be, of the fourteenth century, 
would be 200 years older than the church in which it 
stands. A church built in 1512 would almost certainly 
have had a renaissance reredos, if any.* 

But the alteration of the reredos was a small matter. 
There was not a more interesting piece of ground of its 
size in England than that which lay under the broken 
pavement of the chancel It is almost incredible that a 

* Mr. Doyne Bell mentions the resolution of the committee who 
carried on this unfortunate work. It is so typical of the state of mind 
which makes this kind of " restoration" possible that I quote it : '* The 
chapel should be as far as possible restored to its original condition, 
and also suitably arranged as a place of worship for the use of the in- 
habitants and garrison of the Tower." It did not strike anybody that the 
two objects were incompatible the one with the other. 


committee of government officials and military officers, 
unassisted by the advice or supervision of a single anti- 
quary or historian, were permitted to dig over every part 
of it, to remove the ancient stones, to sift the earth, to 
re-arrange and classify the bones, and, in a word, to ruin 
the historical associations of this most sacred spot A 
gaudy inlaid pavement bears the names, worked into 
ornamental patterns, of the nobles and ladies whose dust 
was so sacrilegiously disturbed ; and the church itself, if 
it once resembled a Methodist now resembles much 
more a Congregational meeting house, and the " original 
condition " is as far away as ever. 

Before the building of the Record Office in Fetter 
Lane, the national archives were deposited in the Tower, 
Latterly the accumulation was so great that not the 
chapel in the White Tower only, but several other 
buildings, as the Wakefield and Bloody Towers, for 
example, were filled with documents. The chancery 
records were kept here at a very early period.* In the 
reign of Elizabeth, the first attempt to reduce the records 
to order was made by William Bowyer,t but his digest 
is lost His successor, William Lambard, usually called 
"the handsome man of Kent," compiled a calendar :( 
of the records under his charge and intrusted it to the 
countess of Warwick to lay before the queen. But 
Elizabeth desired that Lambard should present it in 
person, saying, ** If any subject of mine do me a service, 
I will thankfully accept it from his own hands." 

In 1643, John Selden became keeper of the records. 

* The name of WiUiam Laxnhith, clerk of the works, is on record as 
hftving been ordered to see to the repairs of the house in which they were 
kept in 1360. The spelling of his name is interesting in connection with 
the controversies mentioned in chapter xxii. 

t Was Bowyer's Tower called after him ? 

X Brayley and Britton, ' The Tower of London,* p. 338. 



He was succeeded by Prynne, who though he had 
suffered so much under Charles I., was a promoter of the 
restoration of Charles 11. Astle, who wrote the history 
of writing, also held the office, but the greatest of the 
keepers was Samuel Lysons, to whom, and to his brother 
Daniel, modem topographers are so deeply indebted. 
Under his supervision the systematic calendaring was 
commenced, and the names of Sir Harris Nicolas and 
Sir Francis Palgrave may be mentioned among those 
who have carried on the great work inaugurated by 

A different kind of interest attaches to the Tower 
menagerie, the nucleus of the great collection now in the 
gardens of the Zoological Society in Regent's Park. 
" Seeing the lions in the Tqwer " has become a proverb. 
People who visit the ancient fortress now do not go to 
study natural history, but " seeing the lions " is still the 
phrase employed. The first wild beasts were kept in the 
Tower almost as soon as it was built* Henry I. had a 
collection of lions, leopards, and other strange animals. 
Three leopards, in allusion perhaps to the royal heraldry, 
were presented to Henry HI. by the emperor Fre- 
derick n. This king indulged his zoological tastes at 
the expense of the city, whose greatest oppressor he seems 
to have been in so many other respects. The sheriffs 
had to arrange in 1252 for the safe-keeping of a white 
bear from Norway. They " provided four pence daily, 
with a muzzle and iron chain, to keep him when ' extra 
aquam ' and a stout cord to hold him when a-fishing in 
the Thames." \ Two years later an elephant arrived 
from France. He landed at Sandwich and the sheriffs 

* ' The Tower Menagerie,' with cuts, by William Hanrey, published 
in 1829, a pretty book. 

t Clark, * Old London,* p. 96 


had to provide for him " a strong and suitable house/* 
and to support him and his keeper. " At the time when 
the allowance for an esquire was one penny a day," 
remarks Mr. Clark, "a lion had a quarter of mutton, 
and three halfpence for the keeper ; and afterwards six- 
pence was the lion's allowance ; the same for a leopard, 
and three halfpence for the keeper." In the reign of 
Henry VI., the office of keeper was held by men of 
superior rank, and sometimes by the lieutenant of the 
Tower. In 1543 the collection consisted of four large 
lions and two leopards. In 1657 there were six lions in 
the Tower, and by 1708, the list of wild beasts had 
increased to eleven lions, two leopards or tigers, three 
eagles, two owls, two cats of the mountain and a jackal.* 
Fifty years later the menagerie attained very large 
dimensions. Maitlandf gives us many curious par- 
ticulars of the ** wild beasts and other savage animals," 
and seems to have h'eard and believed some very extra- 
ordinary tales. The " man-tyger," which was probably 
an ape, specially interested him. It could throw stones 
with surprising strength and accuracy, and seems to have 
been deemed most valuable on account of its having 
killed a boy by throwing a cannon-ball at him. It had 
many other actions " nearly approaching to those of the 
human species." Among other wonderful animals was 
a golden eagle which had been in captivity more than 
ninety years. There was only one lion, Pompey, and 
one lioness, Helen. After this period the collection 
dwindled, and in 1822, when Mr. Cops became the 
keeper, he found nothing but a grizzly bear, an elephant, 
and some birds. Mr. Cops must be regarded as the true 

* * Tower Menagerie,' p. xv. 

t 'History of London,' i. 172. His list commences with "Two 
Egyptian night walkers," perhaps some species of monkey, or lemurs. 

L 2 


founder of the present " Zoo." Within a few years the 
collection grew too large for the Lion Tower, and it was 
transferred in 1834, to the Regent's Park, where a few 
animals had already been gathered by the Zoological 

The Lion Tower was an outwork in advance of the 
Middle Tower, now the principal entrance for visitors. 
It stood on the site of the present ticket office, and had 
a smaller tower adjoining it, and a drawbridge of its ow^n.t 
The whole of the outer space was called the Bulwark, 
and sometimes Spur Yard. Close to it was the sluice by 
which water was admitted to the Tower Ditch. During 
a visitation of cholera, in 1854, the death of lord Jocelyn, 
then on duty at the Tower with his regiment, called 
attention to the unwholesomeness of the great surface of 
stagnant water, and the duke of Wellington ordered it 
to be drained. The bottom was partially filled and 
levelled so as to form a parade ground, and the sloping 
sides, north and west, were laid out with shrubs and 
walks, and surrounded by a railing. A curious accident 
happened here some years later, but escaped public 
notice. A fire-engine driven at great speed to the suc- 
cour of a conflagration at St. Katherine*s Dock beyond 
the Tower, emerged from Tower Street, and in the dark- 
ness was dashed against the railings. Engine, horses^ 
and men fell headlong into the ditch, yet, strange to say, 
the engine only was injured. 

Of all the manors connected with St Paul's, Stepney 
was the greatest, and we have now to tell the story 
of its alienation and disintegration. A little further on 
a similar story will be concerned with the estates of the 

* * Gardens and Menagerie,' with Harvey's cuts, 2 vols. 1831. 
t It may be seen on the extreme left— or west — of the accompanying 





prebendaries or canons of the cathedral church. If the 
abbot of Westminster had the manor of St Margaret's, 
extending west from the wall to Chelsea, the bishop of 
London had a counter-balancing estate in the east : for 
Stepney extended from Aldgate to the Lea, and from 
the Thames to the northern hills. In Domesday the 
bishop's holding is set down at thirty-two hides, and he 
had besides eight tenants, some of whom held as much 
as five hides. One of them was Engelbric, a canon of 
St Paul's, and another William, the chamberlain, pre- 
sumably of the city, whom we have had occasion to 
notice more than once. 

This great estate comprised at least seven different 
modern parishes and innumerable smaller ecclesiastical 
divisions, being in fact itself the district so often referred 
to as the great and terrible ** east end." Whitechapel 
was the first district separated. An ancient church, 
whose name, ** St Mary Matfelon," has been the subject 
of some wild guessing, had subsisted here — as St. 
Clement Danes had subsisted on the manor of the abbot 
of Westminster — ^from time immemorial. The rector of 
Stepney had the gift of the living in the time of Stow, 
but since the beginning of the eighteenth century even 
this connection with the mother parish has been severed 
and the advowson is now held by an Oxford College. 
The church was recently pulled down, and a new one in 
a very florid style of gothic built, but almost immediately 
burnt It is now being rebuilt 

Shad well was separated in the reign of Charles II. by 
Act of Parliament, when the church, also probably an old 
chapel of ease, was consecrated as St Paul's, the gift 
being in the dean and chapter of the cathedral. One by 
one after this, "Wapping in the Wash," Spitalfields, 
Limehurst, Stratford, and Bethnal Green have followed. 


and the mother church has now but a moderate district 

The dedication to St. Dunstan is almost manifestly 
later than the church itself; and we find, accordingly, 
" All Saints " added to the English archbishop, and even 
in some authorities an assertion that to them alone the 
parish was originally assigned. The old church has been 
much molested, but is the old church still, and contains 
a fine series of ancient monuments. So far back as the 
beginning of the last century the fame of Stepney in this 
respect had penetrated westward, and we find its 
epitaphs quoted in both the ' Spectator ' and the ' Tatler.' 
Built into the west porch is a stone carved with an 
inscription commencing, *'0f Carthage wall I was a 
stone," and signed, " Thomas Hughes, 1663." It may 
very well have been brought by a traveller from the 
African ruins.* The fine houses which once surrounded 
the church have all perished ; the neighbourhood is com- 
posed of very miserable tenements. Pace, who sue* 
ceeded Colet, first at Stepney and afterwards at St Paul's, 
was the well-known diplomatist, one of Wolsey's 
favourite tools, especially in his intrigues for the papal 


Of the other churches in this vast parish it would be 
impossible to give a detailed account. With one excep- 
tion, all were in the classical style, until St Philip's was 
built in 1 829, the first example of the gothic revival ; but 
one old gothic church survived, namely, at Stratford, near 
the " Bow " or arched bridge over the Lea, a chapelry of 

* It was just twenty years after that Mr. Huntingdon brought home 
from Egypt to Oxford the oldest monument now in England. See 
* Catalogue/ Ashmolean Museum, No. 794. 

t See 'Handbook to St Paul's,' pp. 156-168, for notices of Colct and 


Stepney till 1719, when it was made parochial It retains 
many pointed features, and is mainly as it was when 
built in the fifteenth century* It stands well in the 
middle of "the king's highway," on a site specially 
granted by bishop Baldock. St George's-in-the-East 
has superseded the old name of Wapping, which now 
only belongs to a small riverside district, the church of 
which, perfectly modem, is dedicated to St. John. St. 
George's was designed by Hawksmoor, the pupil of 
Wren. It was one of the fifty parish churches of queen 
Anne's time, but was not finished and consecrated till 
1729. Limehouse, formerly Limehurst, was made 
parochial in 1730, and the dedication of the church to 
St Anne was probably intended as a compliment to the 
queen. It also was designed by Hawksmoor, but cannot 
be considered a favourable example of his powers. In 
St George's and St Anne's he appears in fact to have 
been trying experiments in a style already bound down 
by hard-and-fast rules. If we judge him by St Mary 
Woolnoth, or St George's Bloomsbury, we may think he 
approached very near to his master Wren : but these 
conspicuous riverside churches show that his genius was 
limited. Architects have been slow to leara, if indeed 
they have ever learnt, that eccentricity is not necessarily 
picturesque, while it is often unpleasing. Vanbrugh, who 
went even farther than Hawksmoor in this direction, 
succeeded more often, yet his best works are those in 
which he adhered most strictly to the conventional rules. 
Of St George's-in-the-East there is not much to be said. 
Its tower is a monument of ugliness well known to any 
one who has occasion to go up or down the Thames 
below London. It is 160 ft in height, and bears a little 
spire and weather-cock rising from among eight object- 
less columns. The interior is spacious, but insufficiently 


lighted, and the construction is so ingeniously concealed 
as to excite a feeling of insecurity very much out of place 
in ecclesiastical architecture. 

Stepney, like Westminster, at the time of the Conquest 
and long after, was a centre of fashion. Domesday Book 
contains a list of the bishop's tenants, from which we 
gather that some great men of the court, some of the 
city, and some of the church lived here, though it would 
be difficult to identify their holdings. Ralf Flambard 
must have overshadowed the bishop himself. Hugh 
Bemers was a Norman noble. William de Vere became 
the progenitor of the long and illustrious line of the earls 
of Oxford. Beside the bishop of Lisieux and several 
canons of St PauFs, there were some eminent citizens — 
Roger, the sheriff, * for example, and William, the cham* 
berlain. These great persons probably lived either about 
Bishopsgate, outside the wall, or at Stepney itself, near 
the church of St. Dunstan. One or two of the holdings 
may still be identified. In the same paragraph with the 
bishop's home manor the estate of a canon of St. Paul's 
is described. This was probably Holywell or Finsbury, 
since the bishop's house was north of the city and near 
Bethnal Green. Sired, a canon, held it in the days of 
king Edward, and could sell or lease it Another pre- 
bendal manor is mentioned, and as it is in the same 
paragraph, it was presumably at the same place, and 
would answer to the modern stall of " Ealdland" f A 

* He was probably sherifT of Middlesex, but he may have been sheriff of 
London. The Essex sheriff seems to have been Sweyn. On the whole it 
seems likely that " Rogerius, vicecomes,*' as he is described in the MS., 
was not the successor of Gosfrith, to whom the charter had been granted, 
as " the title of William the Chamberlain " seems to answer best to that of 

t See above, chapter i. p. 4. Neither Holywell nor Ealdland is 
mentioned by name in Domesday. 


third estate was the property of " Engelbric, a canon," 
presumably of St. Paul's. He could not sell it, and it 
was probably not one of the prebendal manors. In a 
humbler walk of life we find Doding, the miller, who 
held a " virgate " of the bishop's own manor, and who 
seems to be commemorated in the name of " Dodding 
Pond," in East Smithfield.* 

The bishop's manor house was at Bethnal Green. Its 
site, close to the western entrance of Victoria Park, is 
still indicated by some of the local names, such as 
Bishop's Road, Bonner's Road, and Hall Bridge. Names 
alone are ancient now in this quarter. All else is modem 
and moreover shabby. The Beggar's Daughter has 
multiplied a hundred thousand fold. Only public houses 
and pawnbrokers' shops seem to flourish, everything else 
has an air of poverty, which here and there puts on a 
still more melancholy look of gentility. There are a few 
private houses, surrounded by straggling gardens, and 
coarse weedy grass. There are great hospitals, one of 
which occupies part of the site of the bishop's manor 
house. There are some modem churches built in the 
early years of the gothic revival, and the handsome, if 
useless Columbia Market,t looks strange and out of 
place in all its finery of pinnacles. An occasional board 
school rises above the low roofs and looks pleasant and 
pretty by contrast 

There is an old Joe Miller about Bethnal Green which 
used to puzzle commentators. It related to some coarse 
joke made by Rochester or Charles II. as to a causeway 
constructed of the skulls and horns of cattle which 

* * Steven's Continuation of Dngdale,' p. 83. 

t Intended by lady Burdett-Coutts for a local market, but, perhaps, 
too good for the place, and a failure. The architect was Mr. Darbii^re, and 
the building cost about 200,cx)0/. 


here carried the Newmarket road across a marsh. The 
citizens it was said, laid their heads together to form 
the road. At the present day the marsh is drained, and 
there are many roads in the district and many streets, 
but very few breathing spaces. 

In one of them stands the museum, conspicuous 
among the east end buildings as the only example of 
what future ages may call the South Kensington style 
of architecture. The pilgrim from the west end if he is 
not very young may see another memento of Brompton 
in the majolica fountain which was so conspicuous an 
object in the exhibition of 1862. The raw colours are 
as bright, as inharmonious as ever. Glazed pottery, 
indeed, enjoys perpetual youth. The interior of the 
museum is more pleasing: the specimens of manufac- 
ture of different kinds being well arranged, and loan 
collections of china and pictures being constantly on 

Before bishop Ridley surrendered Stepney to Edward 
VI., or rather to the greedy courtier who coveted it, 
the manor house had seen some very fine company at 
times. There is not much to connect Bonner with it 
during his first incumbency of the see, but before him 
several bishops had made it an occasional residence. 
Braybrook, who was chancellor of England in the 
beginnings of troubles under Richard II., found it 
convenient to live fcr months together half-way as it 
were between town and country. The hunting grounds 
of Homsey and Highgate with their woods stretched 
away over the hills towards the great forest on one side, 
the busy city that, literally, "kings and priests were 
plotting in," was close by on the other. Before Bray- 
brook, another chancellor, Baldock, was much at Bethnal 
Green, and died here in 13 13. Bishop Roger the Black 


(cognomine Niger) died here in 1241. But after the 
grant of Stepney to lord Wentworth the house declined. 
We seek in vain for any vestiges of it, A century ago 
it was divided into tenements. Hospitals, asylums, 
streets and squares cover all the bishop's land 

Near the church of St Dunstan was another old house. 

In 1299 Edward I. held a parliament in Stepney at the 

house of the mayor of London, Henry le Waleys. The 

mayor's country villa must have been a palace. Its 

exact site is not certain, but it was probably the same as 

that occupied by mayor Pulteney in 1330. He was the 

representative of a great city family still commemorated 

in St Lawrence " Pountney," one of whom at a much 

later period was an eminent statesman, and earl of Bath. 

Sir Henry Colet, the father of dean Colet, had a house 

here also, probably the same ; it stood a little west of the 

church * and was known as the Great Place. Some 

fragments were still to be seen in the present century. 

The monument of Sir Henry Colet, repeatedly restored, 

is in the church. It is the special care of the Mercer's 

Company. The house which Sir Henry left to the 

company, was by them leased to the great vicar-general, 

Cromwell, earl of Essex. Colet's son, the celebrated 

dean, was vicar of the parish. It is seldom that so many 

great associations cluster round one such place. Here 

More and Erasmus must have visited Colet — whether in 

the vicarage, or at his father's house — and there are 

many allusions to the place in their letters. He died in 

15 19, and so did not witness the reign of terror under 

which More lost his head, nor did he see his father's 

house desecrated by the presence of Cromwell. When 

Cromwell in his turn was attainted the lease of Stepney 

was allowed to descend to his nephew. Sir Richard 

* Ljsons, iL 685. 


Williams, who assuming the surname, became an ancestor 
of the Lord Protector. • 

Stepney was privileged to have both a rector and a 
vicar. The rectory was a sinecure, but the rector 
nominated the vicar who paid him the rent of a red rose 
for the vicarage house. Colet was not rector, as he is 
sometimes called, but vicar : he lived in a house of his 
own, which he bequeathed to St. Paul's School, as a 
villa for the " High Mastfer." Its site is marked by 
Colet Place. Pace, the friend of Erasmus, succeeded 
Colet as vicar of Stepney, and after some years, also as 
dean of St. Paul's. Rectory and vicarage have long been 
united, and the living is now in private patronage.* 

The greater part of the manor of Stepney must, 
however, have been very little better than a fen until a 
comparatively late period. We find a prioress of St 
Helen's just before the Dissolution granting a lease of 
land in Stepney called Hare Marsh ; and even so late 
as the time of Stow, much of the parish was completely 
open. There were fair hedges, he tells us, and long 
rows of elms and other trees. The name of Wapping 
may be that of a Saxon mark, but the old addition 
"in the Wose," or wash, sufficiently indicates its con- 
dition.t Nightingale Lane, Bramley, Ratcliffe (said to 
have been called from a bank of red clay), Limehurst, 
and other rural names occur by the river's edge. But 
already in the middle of the sixteenth century, the 
houses were springing up. The old place for the execu- 
tion of pirates was at Wapping " at the low water mark, 
there to remain, till three tides had overflowed them."J 
Here, says Stow, there was never a house standing 

* The gift is in the Tyssen- Amherst family. 

* The ** Wap Ing " may have been a meadow by the river. 
{ A similar custom existed in the liberty of Castle Baynard. 


within these forty years. He is writing in 1603, and 
adds that since the gallows have, been removed further 
off, there has been " a continual street, or filthy strait 
passage, with alleys of small tenements, or cottages, built, 
inhabited by sailors' victuallers, along by the river of 
Thames." This district, which began at the Tower with 
East Smithfield, was known as Ratcliffe Highway. Of 
late it has been called St. George Street, the name of 
RatclifTe, except in the vulgar tongue, has disappeared, 
and Wapping is restricted to the corner cut off between 
the river's bank and the docks. These docks commence 
on the site of St. Katharine's Hospital, and are continued 
as London Dock, and Shadwell Basin right across the 
peninsula. To the north of them runs the highway so 
feelingly described by Stow ; it is continued east until 
it becomes High Street Shadwell, and is finally lost near 
Limehouse Basin. Further inland is a vast thorough- 
fare, entirely modern, known as Commercial Road ; and 
still further north, the old thoroughfare, leading to 
Stratford and its bridge over the Lea. The whole 
district is a labyrinth of small houses, and sustains an 
enormous population, almost entirely employed in docks, 
breweries, match factories, and other establishments of 
the kind. The efforts which have been made, by such 
institutions as the Bethnal Green Museum and the 
public libraries, to influence these people have had a fair 
measure of success, and deserve more than a passing 
mention, if only because of the amount of wholly dis- 
interested labour which has been bestowed upon them 
by clergymen and employers in the district. 

The bishop of London has still the gift of a majority 
of the livings in this immense parish, but he is no 
longer lord of the manor of Stepney. In 1550, Nicholas 
Ridley, then bishop, and afterwards martyr, surrendered 


it to Edward VI., and for the last time we may connect 
Stepney with Westminster. Both the abbot's house and 
the bishop's manor were conferred on lord Wentworth. 
He retained his hold on Stepney, even during queen 
Mary's reign, and his descendants till 1720 were reckoned 
lords of a manor which included all the modem Tower 
Hamlets, except the Tower itself, and a small portion 
of Hackney, which having been alienated during the 
Commonwealth was never restored. A wealthy mer- 
chant named Daniel bought much property in the 
parish. Another named Tyssen imitated his example, 
and by degrees the greater part of the original manor 
was acquired by one family or the other. A union took 
place between them by marriage, and their present 
representative may be looked upon as lord of the manor, 
since he has not only the land as the Wentworths had 
it, but also the advowson of the church. There is on 
record a curious protest of the Heralds College against 
the unauthorised pomp of the funeral of Mr. Francis 
Tyssen of Hackney in 17 17. He was a goldsmith and 
his body lay in state at Goldsmiths' Hall, and was con- 
veyed at night with a great torchlight procession to its 
last resting place. The heralds issued an advertisement 
in the Gazette^ censuring " the manner in which the body 
was set forth," as being far above " the quality of the 
deceased."* Two or three days after this great ceremony 
Tyssen's widow was delivered of a son, who eventually 
inherited the estate. 

Hackney, which forms the chief part of the Tyssen 
estate, lies at the northern extremity of the old manor 
of Stepney. In the marshes of the Lea there was 
from time immemorial a village named Hackney 
Wick. It was on an island or " ey " of the river named 

* See a similar case under *' Battersea,*' chapter xxiL 


in all probability after some Danish Hacon who settled 
there. Various neighbouring landowners acquired tracts 
of marsh land, as the wide-spreading waters were 
g^radually canalised or banked up^ and eventually the 
bishops, the Knights Templars, the hospital of St Mary, 
(called St Mary Spital) outside Bishopsgate, and the 
priory of Clerkenwell, had all estates here, each of which 
was reputed a manor. In addition Hoxton, previously 
Hoggeston, and in Domesday Hochestone, was a manor 
of the canons of St Paul's, really owned by the Aspale 
family in the fourteenth century ; and the Gernons held 
Hergotestane, now called Haggerston. These two last 
were long reckoned part of the parish of St Leonard, 
Shoreditch, which also includes, or included, a manor 
named Norton Folgate, or perhaps, " Forth-the-Gate," 
which belonged to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's and 
lay, as its name denotes, north of the city and outside 
Bishopsgate.* It is mentioned, but not by name or as a 
manor, in Domesday, as containing ten cottages on nine 
acres, and being situated at the Bishopsgate.! Clapton, 
which lies on the way to Hackney, is remarkable as the 
birthplace and residence during the intervals of his long 
journeys, of John Howard the philanthropist He sold 
his house in 1785, and it was pulled down before the end 
of the century. 

At the dissolution of the monasteries, the Temple 
manor in Hackney was granted to the earl of Northum- 
berland.^ It is one of the historical puzzles of that 
puzzling period to know how this earl Henry kept his 
head on his shoulders and survived to die in his bed, ** at 

* The prebend of Holywell was in both St Giles' Cripplegate, and St 
Leonard's Shoreditch. There is stiU a Holywell Street in Shoreditch. 
t Riley (' Memorials,' p. 12) speaks of Fall-gate. 
\ Henry, 6th earl 


his manor of Hackney, now the king's house, between 
two and three in the morning, on the 29th of June in 
1537." He it was who, as lord Percy, was contracted 
to Anne Boleyn : and his name was freely used at the 
unfortunate queen's trial, when this precontract was 
among other things adduced against her. The engage- 
ment led to a very curious scene, detailed in Cavendish's 
life of Wolsey, where the cardinal by the king's secret 
order, endeavoured to detach Percy from the lady. His 
course was to disparage her, to call her a foolish girl and 
an unsuitable match for the heir of one of the greatest earl- 
doms in the kingdom, and though Percy at first protested 
that she was of " right noble parentage, for her mother is 
high of the Norfolk blood, and her father descended of 
the earl of Ormond," he eventually yielded, and sub- 
mitted himself to the will of the king and the cardinal. 
It is to be observed that his subsequent marriage with 
lady Mary Talbot, daughter of the earl of Shrews- 
bury, proved unhappy, and that he died childless little 
more than a year after the queen's execution. His 
monument which was formerly in Hackney church, has 
long disappeared.* 

The manor reverted to the crown, the reversion having 
already been secured by a deed. It obtained, short as 
was the time it belonged to any sovereign, the name of 
kingshold, in contradistinction to " lordshold," the estate 
remaining to the bishop out of his original lordship. 
Kingsland and Kingsland Road still indicate the site, 
but there is little air of antiquity left in any part of 
Hackney. Here and there a " Queen Anne " or early 
Georgian house may be seen, with a heavy cornice and 

*^ His only brother, Thomas Percy, had been beheaded a few months 
before for participation in Aske*s rebellion. The earldom became extinct, 
but was revived twenty years later in favour of a son of Thomas. 


deep-set windows, and perhaps a wrought-iron garden 
gate, but gardens are themselves becoming every day 
more rare as the town creeps on. A little chapel once 
stood by the turnpike at Kingsland. It was only twenty- 
seven feet long, but sufficed for the wants of a small 
branch "Lazar House" attached to St Bartholomew's. 
The " loke " was removed in the last century, but the 
chapel only disappeared in 1846. It stood actually 
within the boundary of Islington.* 

The bishop's land was termed "lord's hold," as the 
bishop was the original lord of the whole manor of 
Stepney. It went with Stepney to the Wentworths, 
but after the Commonwealth was not restored to them, 
and passed through the hands of various owners, chiefly 
as I have said, Daniels and Tyssens, many of whom were 
commemorated in Hackney church. Both came originally 
from Holland and were great in the city. There are still 
some fine old houses to be seen at Hackney, but most 
of those we read of in the last century have disap- 
peared. Among them was Balmes or Baumes, now only 
commemorated by Balm Road. It was built about 
1660 and had a high picturesque roof.t The estate on 
which it stood was sold to Richard Beauvoir in 1680, 
and belongs or lately belonged to his descendants the 
Benyon family. Balmes became eventually a mad- 
house, but has long disappeared, though the streets and 
squares of the neighbourhood preserve the names of 
some of its successive owners. A family named Perwich 
who kept a boarding school for young ladies at Hackney 
after the Restoration obtained celebrity on account of the 
beauty and accomplishments of Susanna Perwich, who 
was buried in the middle aisle of the church in 1661, 

* Wilkinson's ' Londina IHustrata,' i. 121. 
t Lysons, i« 32a 



having died "in the 2Sth year of her age, of a fever 
which she caught by sleeping in a damp bed." This 
paragon of perfection might have proved a rival to the 
lovely and clever Anne Killigrew, almost her contem- 
porary, on whose death Dryden wrote an ode. But 
Miss Perwich's poet did not attain the lofty pitch of 
Dryden. His verses, indeed, have about them an 
echo of Hudibras which mars their elegiac character,* 
and he himself seems to have been aware of their de- 
ficiency as he offers an alternative narration in prose. A 
few couplets will suffice to show the character of Mr. 
Batchiler's poetry. He begins with " a description 
of her person," from which we learn that " mix'd 
curiously," it " gave great delight," and must conclude 
that " person " with him meant complexion or face, like 
the French " figure." He goes on, after an account of 
her hair and temples, which he compares to " alabaster 
rocks " : — 

*• From her black jetty starry eye 
Ten thonsand sparkling Lustres flie. 
Brave gen'rous spirits siderial 
Move quick about each nimble Ball *' — 

and so on. She was a great musician. Perhaps 
Samuel Pepys may have joined a chorus occasion- 

* The book is somewhat scarce, and most modem writers have been 
content to borrow the lines which Lysons copies. The title nins as 
follows: — "The Virgins Pattern: in the exemplary life and lamented 
death of Mrs. Susanna Perwich, daughter of Mr. Robert Perwich, who 
departed this life, every way a rarely accomplished virgin, in the flower of 
her age, at her father's house in Hackney, near London, in the coonty of 
Middlesex, July 3, i66x. Published at the earnest request of divers that 
knew her well, for the use and benefit of others, by John Batchiler, a near 
relation, that occasionally had an intimate conveise in the family with her, 
more or less, the greatest part of her life." 


ally at Balmes, and seen '* her handsom sitting at her 
musick : " — 

'* No Antick gestures, or bold face, 
No wriggling motions her disgrace. 
While she's at play, nor eye, nor head. 
Hither or thither wandered. 
Nor nods, nor heaves in any part, 
As taken with her own rare Art." 

Several pages are occupied with an account of her 
religious state, from which we gather that Mr. Batchiler 
was probably a nonconformist preacher of the Cal- 
vinistic school, and we then reach her last illness and 
death. She went to stay a few days with a friend. 

•• Behold damp sheets 

Cling close about her in the bed« 
At which she waking said, Tm dead : 
And so it prov'd, alas ! for wo ! 
At thought on't Tm afflicted so ! 
That briniest tears drop from mine eyes 
My heart with throbs and inward cryes, 
All broken is ! what shall I say ? 
She's thus untimely snatcht away I 
Shall I tlie careless Maid go blame ? 
And tell her what a horrid shame, 
It is, that by her negligence 
So choice a one is lost from hence ? " 

She died of acute rheumatism, or rheumatic fever, to 
judge by Mr. Batchiler's account of her sufferings, and 
her father's scholars wept round her bier, the maid 
servants of the school, all dressed in white, carried her 
coffin covered with a white pall, to the church, and " a 
rich costly garland of gum work, adorned with banners 
and scutchions was borne immediately before the hearse, 
by two proper young ladies, that entirely loved her." 
The Reverend Dr. Spurston preached a funeral sermon 

M 2 


on the text ** Death is ours : *' * and the coffin was let 
down into a grave in the centre of the church. The same 
grave already held the remains of" Mrs. Anne Carew, one 
of the greatest beauties of England in her time, and 
formerly a Gentlewoman of the School." Mr. Batchiler 
takes care to add an advertisement on the healthiness of 
Balmes : for Mrs. Anne Carew was " the second of those 
five Gentlewomen onely, which have dyed out of her 
Father's House, among those eight hundred, that have 
been educated there, within the compass of seventeen 
years." The moral is drawn in lines which remind us of 
Bunyan's introductory doggrel. 

" Now you young Ladies of the School 
Lest your affections grow too cool. 
Sit down, consider well your case — ^" 

are the opening lines of this " serious exhortation," and 
the poet ends with an allusion to Death : — 

" Shall we not count it our best friend 
That brings us to so brave an end." 

Perhaps the quaintest thing in this quaint book, 
besides some acrostics, chronograms, and odes by the 
fair Susannah's school-fellows, is a long series of 
" Practical Queeries," with which her biographer, pro- 
posing to fill up the remainder of a sheet, " left void for 
want of matter," contrives to go on, or rather, cannot 
contrive to stop, for a hundred pages, the greater part 
filled with questions like this, from which the whole may 
be judged : " Whether he that affirms total and final 
falling away from special grace be not a downright 
Arminian, and Cozen-German to a Papist" 

* I Cor. iiL 22. 


( 165 ) 






y When we speak at the present day of " crown property," 
the phrase bears a very different meaning from that 
which it bore under the Tudors. The first effect of the 
suppression of the monasteries was to throw an enor- 
mous amount of land into the possession of the crown. 
If such an accession of wealth came, by any conceivable 
accident or arrangement, into the hands of the crown 
as things are now constituted, the result might be a 
lightening of public burdens, a relief of pauperism, a 
remission of taxation. We often hear an ignorant person 
complain when some rich man has died without heirs 
and intestate, that his money has *' gone to the crown " ; 
little thinking that " the crown," in this sense, means the 
grumbler himself, and all the other taxpayers who are 
benefited by an increase of the national income. But to 
Henry VIIL, and to Somerset and Northumberland, his 
successors in power, a crown estate was as much the 
i property of the king as the chain round his neck or the 
ring- on his finger. Under queen Mary the tendency 
was not so much to treat the monastic estates as the 
private property of the sovereign as to regard them in 
the light of a trust to be returned to their ancient owners 
at the first opportunity. Under Elizabeth, again, some- 
thing more like the modem view prevailed. When 
crown lands were given away it was for a consideration. 
Many of the existing private estates in the suburbs of 


London were purchased from the government of this 
queen, and were paid for in sums commensurate at that 
time with their real value. Under James the old systen:i 
revived, but even the thrifty Elizabeth had not left the 
crown property as large as it was when Henry VIII. 
died, and the grants made by the Stuarts were few, in 
London, at least. 

The enormous extent of the ecclesiastical estates in 
the suburbs, and their seizure by the crown, have 
proved circumstances of the happiest kind for us of the 
time of queen Victoria. It is to them we owe the 
parks. All these " lungs of London " were at one time 
or another church or abbey land. In those parts of 
London where the church lands remained to the church 
no parks were made. St. Paul's, in name at least, still 
holds St Giles's and St. George's ; Gray's Inn and Tot- 
tenham Court are prebendal manors, as are Camden 
Town and Somers Town, and other over-populous 
districts with changed names. They were not alienated 
by king Henry, but by their ecclesiastical owners.* 

Further west we have two manors in the parish of St. 
Marylebone, one of which belonged to the nuns of 
Barking, and the other to the knights of St John. The 
next parish, Paddington, belonged to Westminster Abbey, 
and, having formed part of the endowment of the short- 
lived bishopric of Westminster, became, and still, in 
name, remains the property of the see of London. 
Next we have Westboume, still the property of West- 
minster Abbey. Further west again we come to Ken- 
sington, the estate of the abbot of Abingdon. Half 
the great manor of Chelsea belonged to Westminster, 
and is still the property of the dean and chapter. 
Crossing the Thames we find a momentary break in this 

* For a list of the prebendal manors, see Appendix £. 


almost continuous ring of ecclesiastical land. Ken- 
nington was, and is, a crown manor, and annexed to the 
duchy of Cornwall, but Lambeth was the archbishop's, 
Walworth belonged to the cathedral church of Canter- 
bury, and Bermondsey, on the south-east, to the abbey 
of SL Saviour, there established. Crossing the Thames 
again we find Stepney, the immense manor of the see of 
London ; and so have completed a circuit, at a fairly 
uniform distance, of the ring of estates which at the 
present day are the site of the principal suburbs. 

The gradual alienation of their estates by the canons 
of St Paul's forms the subject of a curious chapter in 
ecclesiastical history. The present nominal arrange- 
ment of the stalls seems to have come into force about 
the middle of the twelfth century. A meeting was held 
at St Paul's in 1 1 50 as to "bread and beer,"* and 
apparently some manors which had been appropriated to 
the food of the canons were now divided into residential 
estates. There is a certain monotony in the subsequent 
history of these estates. They were leased away by the 
incumbents, who gradually ceased to have any interest 
in what is still nominally their property. 

The Middlesex manors belonging to the prebends of 
St Paul's are all to the north or north-west of the city.f 
It may be worth while to trace the history of some X)f 
them, though it is often hardly possible to identify them, 
so changed are the modem names, so entirely are the 
original lords forgotten. The prebendal manor of Holy- 
well, for example, which comprised the great district 

• 'Ncwcourt, Repertorium,* i. 173. Oddly enough he spells ctrvisio 
as servido ; but the meaning is plain. 

t They are Eald street, Holbom, Holywell, Cantlers, Mora, St. Fancras, 
Portpool, Roggemere, Tottenball, Wenlakesbam, Newington, WiUesden, 
Brondesbmy, Brownswood, Chamberlainwood, Harlesden, Mapesbary, 
Neasdon, Oxgate, and Twyford. 


now covered by Finsbury, was, in 1315, leased away by 
its incumbent* to the mayor and commonalty of the 
city for the annual rent of twenty shillings. The cor- 
poration have had to surrender it to the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, the lease having run out and died 
a natural death in 1867. I do not know that the 
occupant of the stall now labelled " Finsbury " receives 
as much as his pound a year. Ealdstreet yields no 
income to its holder, though the manor, which evidently 
from its name was on the Roman road, may be identified 
with the parish of St Leonard, Shoreditch. Old Street, 
St. Luke's, is probably called after the prebend. The 
Moor, at Moorgate, was a manor in the parish of St 
Giles Cripplegate, as was Wenlakesbam, or Wenlocks- 
barn. We must not suppose that these prebendal 
manors, though I have called them, for convenience, 
incumbencies, were in any sense parochial charges. 
They were merely, when they emerge upon the page of 
history, estates. It is possible that when they were first 
founded some spiritual charge was annexed to them : 
but in the twelfth century there is no trace of anything 
but the ownership of the land. 

These prebendal manors originally no doubt came up 
to the very walls of the city. But at a remote period, 
when land was not very valuable, and life insecure without 
special protection, a series of monasteries sprung up just 
outside the walls. St Bartholomew, for instance, was 
built on waste ground, as we are told. But, waste or 
cultivated, the ground was stolen from a prebend, 
perhaps that of Holborn.t There is a notice in the 

* Robert de Baldok. "The lease, which has been renewed from 
time to time, will expire in the year 1867," says Mr. Aungier, 'French 
Chron.' (Cam. Soc.), p. 53. 

t See accomit of the foundation, vol. i. chap. iy. 


Domesday Book, of a small holding near Newgate, 
called " No man's land." This became part of the site 
of the Charterhouse,* and was anciently reckoned in the 
parish of St Sepulchre, which was partly within and 
partly without the city boundary. The two modem 
parishes of St Bartholomew, the Great, and the Less, 
were taken out of St Sepulchre at the dissolution. But 
the site of the Charterhouse became, and continues, 
extra-parochial. Sir Walter Manny and bishop North- 
burgh united to found the Carthusian monastery, and its 
church was consecrated by bishop Stratford, North- 
burgh's successor. Several small holdings were united, 
and the names are interesting though it would be diffi- 
cult to identify them. Pardon Churchyard was a burying 
ground belonging to the knights of Clerkenwell. Spittle 
Croft was a field belonging to the " spital " of St Bar- 
tholomew. There was also Newchurch Haw, and further 
north lay Hervye's Croft In 1429 William Rendre, 
citizen and barber, let to the monks for eighty years, at 
the rent of a red rose, an acre of land which contained a 
spring, and a map showing the sources of the water 
supply of the house is still extantf Rendre's acre is 
very minutely described : it was pastureland, and lay in 
a field called "Conduit Shote," near "Trillemylle Brook," 
in the parish of " St Andrew de Holbome," and was 
bounded on the north and west by the pasture of the 
Carthusians, on the south by that of the prior and 
convent of St Bartholomew, and on the east by the king's 
highway leading " de Holbome versus Kentish town." 
The Carthusians were, perhaps, more cruelly treated 

* Vol. i. chap. viii. There is a full and careful account of the foundation 
hf Archdeacon Hale in the ' Transactions of the London and Middlesex 
Archaeological Society,* iiL 309. 

t In the Charterhouse. See Mr. Hale's paper, as ahove. 


by Henry VIII. than any other monks. The number 
of their houses in England was only nine, but they 
claimed the credit of having numbered St Hugh, 
bishop of Lincoln, among their ranks. They preserved 
to the last their reputation for consistent and Christian 
life; and we find Sir Thomas More living among 
them for two years, in order to give himself up to 
devotion and prayer.* They strongly opposed the new 
doctrine of the king's supremacy, and even their sub- 
mission in 1535 was only followed by the arraignment 
of prior Houghton for having spoken' too freely on the 
subject Two of his monks were brought up with him, 
and a form of trial was gone through. Their old friend 
More saw them going to execution from his prison in the 
Tower, and remarked on their cheerful demeanour. The 
utmost barbarity then prescribed by the law was inflicted 
on them, and Houghton's mangled body was set up over 
the gate of his monastery. Three more of the monks 
were similarly treated after a month's respite. Even 
this second exhibition of severity left some of the brethren 
unconvinced. Cromwell's visitor, Fylott, recommended 
that it was " very necessarie to minysh' the numbre " of 
the monks, at least by so many as will not give up the 
pope and accept the king's supremacy.! In 1537 a new 
prior was appointed to succeed Houghton, in reality that 
he might surrender the house to the king, and the oaths 
were offered to the remaining monks. Ten of their 
number absolutely refused. Their brethren surrendered 
and received pensions, but these ten were conveyed to 
Newgate, chained in an unwholesome dungeon, and so 
cruelly treated by Cromwell's agent, Thomas Bedyll, 
that in a few days half of them died. A letter from 

* 1504 and 1595 : see Sebohm's ' Oxford Reformers,' p. 146. 
t ' Chronicles of the Charterhoose,' p. 26. 


Bedyll to his master is extant. It reveals a depth of 
inhumanity unusual even under Henry VIII. "The 
monks," he says, " be almost despatched by the hand of 
God," which in this case meant misery and starvation 
purposely inflicted, and he adds a list of five who had 
died, of two who were " even at the point of death," of 
two who were sick, and says, " there be one hole." One 
of the two sick men was eventually the sole survivor, 
and after lying for four years in prison he was hanged. 
A portion of BedylFs letter is taken up with commenda- 
tions of the prior who had surrendered the house ; and 
especially says of him " He is a man of such charity as 
I have not seen the like." Bedyll seems to have been 
a judge of charity. The other monks went to Bruges, 
and continued steadfast to their vows. On Mary's 
accession they returned, and at her death departed again, 
but Elizabeth evidently^ respected their consistent life, 
for she gave them a safe conduct 

The subsequent fate of the house was somewhat 
different from that of most of the London monasteries. 
It became, indeed, for a time the palace of a series of 
noblemen. The duke of Norfolk whom Mary Stuart 
lured to his death made it his headquarters, and built 
several commodious chambers, and a tennis court The 
solitary cells of the Carthusians were unfit for ordinary 
life, but it is remarkable that so much old work remains. 
The chapel is mainly as it was built, and the cloisters 
may be easily recognised. The duke's eldest son, the 
earl of Arundel, held " Howard House " till his attainder 
in 1590, and it was afterwards granted to his brother the 
earl of Suffolk. In 161 1 it was bought by Thomas 
Sutton, and made the central feature of the noble found- 
ation with which he endowed his fellow-citizens," For 
reasons with which many people disagreed the Charter- 


house school has lately been removed to Godalming, 
and one of Thomas Sutton's objects is thus defeated. 
The advantages of London for schools are obvious. To 
mention one of them — there is no other place where boys 
are so healthy, and there is no place where intellectual 
life is so powerfully awakened. Leech and Thackeray 
were educated at the Charterhouse, and hundreds of 
other men who have done credit to our country. The 
company of merchant taylors, wiser than the governors 
of the Charterhouse, when their old school in Suffolk 
Lane, Dowgate,* was destroyed by the Metropolitan 
Railway, took the discarded site of the Carthusians, and 
moved their scholars to it It is difficult to say whether 
any of the old spirit was removed with the school to the 
Surrey hills, but the Merchant Taylors* School has 
naturally fallen heir to the greater part of it The 
traditions of Addison and Wesley were too fragile to 
travel. Those of Thackeray are perhaps better preserved 
by the hospital than by the school, which he nicknames 
in some of his novels " the Slaughterhouse." There are 
about fifty pensioners, called "Poor Brethren" in the 
hospital, the maximum number allowed by the statutes 
being eighty. Many of them are military men, and 
Colonel Newcome has been identified with more than 

The Hospitallers of Clerkenwell always kept up 
friendly relations with their more strictly monastic 
neighbours in the Charterhouse. There are many 
records of negotiations respecting the water supply, a 
question the importance of which in the middle ages 
cannot be overrated. The two priories of Clerkenwell 
had been so long in possession that it is difficult now to 

* See views of the old building in Mr. J. J. Stevenson's ' House Archi- 
tecture,' i. 319. 


say to what parish the land originally belonged. On the 
whole it may be assumed as probably correct that the 
whole modem parish of St. James, Clerkenwell, was for- 
merly in Islington, as was part of the parish of St John, 
the rest having been taken from St. Sepulchre's.* For 
Clerkenwell as it is now constituted owes its existence 
entirely to the nunnery of St Mary and the priory of 
St John. Indeed an outlying estate of the nunnery at 
Muswell Hill used to be reckoned in the parish of St 
James ; and likewise the possessions of the knights in 
Hackney Marsh were claimed for St John's. 

In the Domesday Book there is no mention of Clerk- 
enwell ; but the canons of St Paul's, Geoffrey de Mande- 
ville, Ralph the brother of Algar and Deorpian, or 
Derman, of London, hold all the lands in Islington. 
Deorman's estate has been identified as Highbury.t 
Ralph held Tolentone, or ToUington. The estate of 
Mandeville came in two portions to the knights of St 
John, and may now be identified with Pentonville and 
with Clerkenwell itself, except what was taken out of 
St. Sepulchre's. The estate of Deorman came eventually 
to the nunnery, and so the only lay family which con- 
tinued for any time to hold land near London was 

Both the nunnery and the house of the knights are 
usually said to have been founded by Jordan Briset in 
I lOO. With regard to the priory this maybe true. With 
regard to the house of the Hospitallers it is almost 
certainly an error. The order of St John was only 
instituted on the capture of Jerusalem in the previous 

• Almost everything bearing on the question is printed by Mr. Tomlins 
in bis 'Perambulation of Islington.' His conclusions seem sometimes 
inconect, but as he gives all his proofs in full it is easy for the reader to 
reason for himself. O that there were more like him I 

t See vol. i page 86. 


year. Jordan placed the nunnery on fourteen acres of 
land close to what we know as Clerkenwell Green ; and 
the priory grew and prospered rapidly, obtaining gifts of 
land both in the immediate neighbourhood and in other 
parts of England. The prioresses had many transactions 
as to their estates with their wealthy neighbours the 
knights; and when the house was suppressed their 
income was 262/. 19J.* Their church stood where St. 
James's stands now, and was full of goodly monuments. 
It was granted to various private persons who let it to 
the people as a parish church, and at length in 1656 the 
parishioners purchased it and elected a " curate " to carry 
on the services. An act of parliament, passed in 1788, 
placed things on a more legal footing, and a new church, 
which is very conspicuous, especially from the Fleet 
valley and Farringdon Street, was built The living is 
now termed a vicarage, but the householders of the 
parish elect the vicar, as of old. 

The site of the nunnery and the adjacent lands were 
granted away by the crown very soon after the dissolu- 
tion. They came at length to the Cavendish family, and 
their representative, the duke of Newcastle, resided in 
his house here in the reign of Charles 11. Two or three 
streets still commemorate the name. The Clerken Well 
was long identified with a pump in Ray Street, formerly 
Rag Streett The fraternity of parish clerks are said to 
have resorted annually to this well to perform a miracle 
play, and the name of the place is commonly derived 
from the circumstance. Clerkenwell Close still indicates 
the place occupied by the domestic buildings of the 
Benedictine priory. 

The modem church was consecrated in 1792, and 

* Malcolm, iii. 202. 

t The pnmp is figured in Wilkinson, ii. 131. 


Stands as nearly as possible on the site of the nuns' 
chapel. In the vaults are buried the ex-lord prior Weston, 
who died of a broken heart, it was said, at the dissolution, 
though the unusually large pension of looo/. a year had 
been granted to him. The last prioress, Isabella Sack- 
ville, also lies here. In the churchyard, among other 
eminent folk, rests Weever the antiquary. His grave 
cannot now be identified. He died in 1632. His epitaph 
said of him — 

*' He laboured in a learned strain 
To make men loAg since dead to live again." 

It does not appear that the lines he wrote for his own 
epitaph were placed on his grave : — 

** Lancashire gave me breath, 
And Cambridge education, 
Middlesex gave me death, 
And this church my humation. 
And Christ to me hath given 
A place with Him in Heaven." 

The society of antiquaries sought in vain for Weever's 
tomb when the church was rebuilt. It was near the 
west end. The preface to his * Funeral Monuments * is 
dated from his house in Clerkenwell Close. 

Immediately south of the precincts of the Benedictine 
nuns we enter by the narrow Jerusalem Passage into 
the spacious St John's Square, which was once the 
courtyard of the house of the knights of the Hospital. 
There is something unaccountable in the fact that the 
date of the foundation of the house is unknown. It is 
usually given as 1 100, and Jordan Briset is mentioned as 
the founder. We may safely reject both assertions. The 
confusion between the two priories of Clerkenwell is illus- 
trated by the contradictions as to the burial of Jordan 
and his wife Muriel. Sometimes they are said to have 


been buried in St. John's, sometimes in St James's ; some- 
times they are separated, and one is assigned to the 
church of the knights and the other to that of the nuns.* 
The only fact which can be relied on is that the church 
of the knights of St. John was consecrated in 1185 by 
Heraclius, patriarch of Jerusalem, who was in England 
at the time preaching a crusade. He had consecrated 
the church of St Mary for the Templars in the previous 
month, and appears to have been exceedingly active in 
obtaining recruits, though the councillors of king Henry, 
greatly to the indignation of the patriarch, would not 
allow him to leave England. Richard, his son, assumed 
the cross. " I maye not wende out of my lond," said the 
king to Heraclius, according to Fabian, " for myn owne 
sonnes wyll aryse agayne me whan I were absent'* 
" No wonder," answered the patriarch, " for of the devyll 
they come, and to the devyll they shall go," and so 
" departed from the kynge in great ire." 

In a very short time the priory of the knights of 
St John became enormously wealthy.f The lord prior 
was reckoned the premier baron of England.^ Wat 
Tyler's rebels burnt the house in 1381, but it only rose 
more glorious from its ashes, the rebuilding going on 
till just before the dissolution, when Thomas Docwra, 
then lord prior, rebuilt the well-known southern gate- 
way which still bears his shield of arms. He was 
succeeded by Weston, whose death and burial in the 

* The register of St John claimed them both (Malcome, iiL 70\\. 
Weever and Stow agree that they were baried in the chapterhouse of the 
nuns. Dugdale separates them. See Newcourt, i. 657. 

t The well-known volume edited by Mr. Larking for the Camden 
Society gives an account of their possessions in England. 

X In the 'Roll of Arms of the Peers' in 1515, printed by Willemcnt, 
"the lord off Saint John's, lord Thomas Docwra," comes immediately 
alter the junior earL 


nuns' church, I have mentioned above. The revenues 
of the house were reckoned to amount to 2385/. 12s. Sd. 
Queen Mary restored the knights to their ancient house, 
and Sir Thomas Tresham became the last lord prior. 
The house had been retained by the crown, and during 
the reigns of Henry VIII. and his successors it was 
sometimes used as a royal residence. But the church 
was half ruined by the protector Somerset to obtain 
materials for the great house he projected in the Strand: 
and in the beginning of king James's reign it belonged 
to lord Burghley, afterwards second earl of Exeter. 
In 1706 it was bought by Simon Michell, who repaired it, 
and, in 1723, sold it to the Commissioners for Fifty New 
Churches, who made it a parish church, and in December 
of the same year it was formally consecrated, and is now 
a rectory in private patronage. 

There are few relics of antiquity apparent in the 
exterior of St. John's church. But the ancient crypt 
remains and is a most interesting example of mixed 
Norman and Early English architecture. It was 
formerly filled with coffins, but they have been removed 
to the side aisles and bricked in, and the central vault- 
ing is to be seen without interruption. 

Many eminent people have lived in St. John's 
Square since the dissolution, but it is now the head- 
quarters of the clock and watch manufacture, and also 
largely occupied by printing houses. Burnet resided 
long in a house on the west side opposite the church. 
John Wilkes was bom in the square, where his father 
was a distiller: but his house was pulled down in 181 2. 
The earls and marquises of Northampton have long 
been reckoned lords of the manor, and the site of their 
house, Northampton Square, lies to the north-east, near 
Goswell Street 



The Gate is famous as the residence of Edward Cave, 
who published here the first number of the * Gentleman's 
Magazine/ in 1 731. There is a handsome chamber 
over the archway, and the whole of what remains of the 
old building has of late years been rescued from destruc- 
tion and the desecration of a tavern, and put in good 
repair by a benevolent society of gentlemen, who call 
themselves the knights of St John of Jerusalem, and 
claim to represent, it is difficult to understand on what 
grounds, the English branch of the order. 

Near the southern end of St John's Street, and close 
to the great meat market lately made for the con- 
venience of London by the public spirit of the corpora- 
tion, is the site of Hicks Hall, a sessions house built in 
161 2, for the use of the Middlesex magistrates, by 
Sir Baptist Hicks, afterwards lord Campden.* The 
miles on the northern road were measured from Hicks 
Hall, which was a commodious but not very magnificent 
place of meeting, and a great improvement on the 
chance taverns in which the magistrates had previously 
been obliged to hold the sessions. The trial of the 
regicides took place here at the restoration of Charles IL, 
and here also William, lord Russell, was condemned, 
'*in defiance 01 law and justice."t Hicks Hall became 
very ruinous about the middle of the eighteenth century, 
and was pulled down in 1782 when a fine new building, 
still in use, was erected on Clerkenwell Green. The 
portrait of Sir Baptist was removed to the new house, 
as well as a chimney piece and some other relics. % 

The great prebendal manor of Islington § has been 

* See chap. xxi. under Kensington, 
t Macaulay, chap. ii. 

X There is a very full and well illustrated account of Clerkenwell as it 
now is in * Old and New London/ vol. ii., by the late Mr. Thombury. 
§ Mr. Tomlins's ' Perambulation' is the best of several histories of Islington* 


frequently referred to in these notes on Clerkenwell. 
A sketch of its history will not be out of place here, the 
more so as of late years it has become an integral part 
of the great " metropolitan area." Islington is one of 
the largest parishes in Middlesex, being, says Lysons, 
three miles and one furlong in length, two miles and 
one furlong in breadth, and ten miles and a half in 
circumference, reaching from Highgate on the north- 
west to Pentonville on the south-east and including 
both, as well as Upper and Lower Holloway, Canon- 
bury, Highbury, Bamsbury, Stroud Green, and many 
other "hamlets." At the earliest period of which we 
have any account a comparatively small portion remained 
in the possession of the canons of St Paul. Domesday 
Book mentions three separate estates belonging to them 
comprising in all eight hides, to only one of which is 
any special name given. This is Stanestaplc, which 
may be identified with that part of the parish known as 
Stapleton Hall, near Stroud Green. Another portion, 
from having been let to the Bemers or Barnes family, 
became known as Bamsbury. Another part having it is 
supposed been leased to the Mounteney family, came to 
Jordan Briset with his wife, Muriel de Munteigni, or 
Mounteney, and was given to the priory of St. Mary at 
Clerkenwell. Some other smaller holdings came to the 
knights of St John, and in the end the church of 
St Paul had very little of Islington left Even Canon- 
bury, which might be supposed prebendal, if anything, 
was the property of the prior of St Bartholomew, having 
been given by Ralph de Bemers before the middle of 
the thirteenth century. The prebendal manor, indeed, 
dwindled to very small dimensions before 1 850 when it was 
ordered to be sold by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 
It was situated on the east side of Lower Street 

N 2 


The local names which survive in Islington are very 
interesting. Highbury marks the site of the "castle" 
of Deorman and his descendants. One of his sons 
was prebendary of Islington. Bamsbury similarly 
shows us where the Bemers family lived, a family 
whose name still exists in the peerage. They held in 
Islington the half of one knight's fee from the bishop 
of London " as of his castle of Stortford." The learned 
and literary lord Berners, * who translated Froissart 
and Marcus Aurelius, sold his manor of "Bemersbury" 
to Sir Reginald Bray, in whose family it remained till 
lord Sandys sold it in 1539 to Robert Fowler, whose 
descendants in the female line possess it still. Canon- 
bury, sometimes contracted into Canbury, is called after 
the canons, not of St Paul's, but of St Bartholomew's. 
It was surrendered to Henry VIII. in 1539, ^"^ then 
belonged successively to Cromwell, to Northumberland, 
and to queen Mary's nurse, the wife of David Broke, 
a baron of the Exchequer, t Eventually it came to the 
" Rich Sir John Spencer," who also had Crosby Hall, 
and still belongs, or lately belonged, to his descendants, 
the Comptons, marquises of Northampton. The scene 
of lord Compton's elopement with Spencer's heiress is 
laid at Canonbury. He is said to have carried the fair 
Elizabeth away in a baker's basket The wealth which 
came to him on the death of his father-in-law literally 
turned his head. "That poor lord," says a con- 
temporary letter, J "is not like (if God do not help 
him) to carry it away for nothing, or to grow very rich 

* He is called on the titlepage of his ' Golden Boke,' John Bonrchier, 
Knyghte Lord Bamers. 

t The Brokes are omitted in Nichols's ' History of Canonbury,' published 
in 1788. Mr. Tomlins adds many particulars I have found in no other 

X Nichols, p. 21. 


thereby, being in great danger to lose his witts for the 
same." He recovered eventually, but not till he had 
for a time been "somewhat distracted." There is 
another curious letter extant in which lady Compton 
describes the kind of state with which her household 
was to be ordered, the number of gentlewomen, maid- 
servants, laundresses, gentlemen, footmen, coaches and 
horses, she thought necessary to support her dignity, 
including 6cx)/. a year for the performance of charitable 
works. The great lord Bacon rented Canonbury 
House in 1616, and after him the lord keeper 
Coventry. A portion of the house, well-known as 
Canonbury Tower, is still standing. 

Islington still contains some old houses and retains 
the names of " the upper street," and " the lower street," 
now written with capital letters and without the article. 
The church stands in Upper Street, and is dedicated, 
almost as a matter of course, to St. Mary. It was 
rebuilt in the eighteenth century and cannot be called 
beautiful, though its steeple is imitated from that of 
Bow Church in Cheapside. The patronage was long in 
the hands of the nuns of Bromley-by-Bow, and after- 
wards passed into the possession of a number of private 
persons, but is now vested in trustees. There are a few 
monuments of interest in the church including two brasses 
of the sixteenth century. 

Stoke Newington is another of the prebendal manors 
north of London. The parish is comparatively small, 
and very irregular in outline, some portions being com- 
pletely detached. * The prebendaries very early leased 
it away, and a very small income seems now to be 
attached to the stall in St. Paul's. In fact, a private 

* A coloured map of Newington is in Johnson's ' History and Antiquities 
of the Parish,' published in 1820. 


landowner is called lord of the manor. The old manor 
house was pulled down in 1695. ^^ ^^^ been inhabited 
in the early part of the seventeenth century by Thomas 
Sutton, the munificent founder of the Charterhouse 
School and Hospital. The old church of St. Mary is a 
quaint gothic structure, " restored " not very successfully 
by the late Sir Charles Barry, in 1829: but a new 
church has been erected near it, from the designs of 
Sir Gilbert Scott, the parishioners very wisely declining 
to have the old church pulled down, as has been done 
in so many other places near London. It contains 
many curious monuments, including one to the memory 
of John Dudley, whose widow married Thomas Sutton. 
Dudley belonged to the same family as the great 
duke of Northumberland, and a magnificent shield of 
quarterings is on his tomb. In the churchyard is the 
burial-place of Mrs. Barbauld and Dr. Aitkin and a 
curious monument of the Pickett family, one of whom, 
Elizabeth Pickett, in 1781, was accidentally burnt to 
death at the early age of twenty-three by her clothes 
taking fire while she was ironing. Her epitaph contains 
a sensible warning: — "Reader, if you should ever 
witness such an afflicting scene, recollect that the only 
method to extinguish the flame, is to stifle it by an 
immediate covering."* The parish remained rural 
till very lately, but is now occupied by the better class 
of villas, and presents a comparatively pleasant appear- 
ance from the number and size of well-planted open 
spaces, among them Abney Park Cemetery, which is 
called after the late lessees. Isaac Watts came to Stoke 
Newington as a guest of the Abneys and having lived 
with them for many years, died here and lies buried in 

 Johnson's * History of Stoke Newington,' p. 176. 


the dissenters' burial ground at Bunhill Fields, but a 
statue in Abney Park represents him. 

West of the city were the manors of Portpool, on the 
north side of the Holborn road, and St. Andrew's on 
the south. The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn are 
owners if not lords of the manor of Portpool. St. 
Andrew's is cut up into small holdings, having in the 
time of Richard 11. been the property of John, lord 
Strange of Knockyn,* who had here ** a great tenement, 
with garden and sixteen shops annexed to the same." 

The parish church of St. Andrew's, Holborn, is very 
ancient It is mentioned in a document which sets forth 
the boundaries of Westminster as early as 97i.t But it 
seldom afterwards figures in history. In 1686 it became 
ruinous, and a new building was erected by Wren, who, 
however, preserved what he could of the tower which 
shows some gothic arches. The interior is judiciously 
described by Cunningham as " a bad St. James's, 
Westminster."t Dr. Sacheverell, who contrived to make 
himself so notorious in the reign of queen Anne, was 
incumbent of St Andrew's, and lies buried in the chancel. 
The name of Chatterton is in the register, but he was 
buried in an outlying cemetery in Fetter Lane. Among 
the baptisms is that of Benjamin Disraeli. 

The Holborn Viaduct has spoiled whatever there was 
to admire in St Andrew's, which having stood half-way 
down the hill is now in a kind of pit : while, with very 
questionable taste, a dissenters' meeting-house has been 
built almost against it at the higher level. When age 
has worn the Viaduct and the so-called City Temple, 

• • Lond. and Midd. Archseo. Transactions,* i. 124. It is a pity that this 
society has not printed more documents like the '* Grant of the Manor of 

t See above, chapter jyL Chapter xvii. 


they will perhaps form with St Andrew's a strange and 
picturesque group. At present they are strange, indeed, 
in their juxtaposition, but are not otherwise attractive. 

Besides the prebendal manor, there was also a smaller 
estate, which requires something more than a passing 
mention. Ely Place still exists on the north side of 
Holborn, and in it the chapel for which William of Louth, 
bishop of Ely, in 1298, made provision in his will 
This is all that remains of a residence given to the see 
by John Kirkby,* de Louth's predecessor, after a quarrel 
with the Templars as to the bishop's right to lodge in 
their house when he came to London. The master of 
the Temple resented the intrusion of the bishop, who 
had, however, some legal claim, and in the end recovered 
damages for the refusal to admit him. Three centuries 
later a similar intrusion drove the bishop into a comer 
of his palace, and the case of Sir Christopher Hatton 

 Miss PhilUmore says, in her life of • Sir Christopher Wren,' that 
" Ely House was an ancient possession of the see, the gift of William de 
Ludd, who in the reign of Edward I. gave the house and endowed it with 
his manor of Ouldboume, a name which soon grew into Holboum," p. iiS. 
As the authority for this statement, ' Newcourt/ ii. 273, is cited ; but this 
page contains the conclusion of an account of Foulness in Essex. As, how- 
ever, I have great faith in Newcourt, I looked in his account of St Andrew's 
Holborn, where I found some justification for Miss Phillimore's curious 
statement : — " Ely House, belonging to the Bishops of Ely, and given to 
them by William de Luda, Bishop of that see, in the reign of Edward I.« 
by the name of his Mannor of Ouldboume, with the appurtenances/* For 
this Information Newcourt refers to Stow. I have also great faith in Stow, 
while I could hardly believe Newcourt to have misquoted him ; but on 
turning to his account of Holborn, or Oldbome, as he prefers to call it, 
I find the innocent cause of all this tissue of errors : — " WiUiam de Luda, 
Bishop of Elye, deceased X297, gave this house by the name of his manor, 
with the appurtenances, in Oldbome," &c. &c. The manor of William and 
the appurtenances of the manor in Holborn is a somewhat different thing 
from the house, "endowed with his manor of Ouldboume," of which 
Miss Phillimore writes. I must apologise for making so large a note on 
so small a matter, but this b a typical example of the way in which Londoa 
history is too oftoQ compiled. 


and Bishop Cox is very like that of bishop Balsham and 
the master of the Temple. Queen Elizabeth's famous 
letter* to the "proud prelate" brought the bishop to 
reason, but even the romantic rent of twenty bushels of 
roses from " Hatton Garden" did not compensate him. 

Ely Place, although it was the " inn " or town-house of 
the bishops, seems to have been always at the service of 
any one who wanted a large and commodious hall for 
entertainment or ceremony. Archbishop Arundel, while 
he held the see of Ely, did much to improve it, and 
Stow remembered to have seen his arms over a great 
"port, gate-house, or front, towards the street or high- 
way." t This was the palace in which John of Gaunt 
spent the later years of his life. It was nine years after 
Arundel came to Ely that the rebels burnt the Savoy. 
The duke of Lancaster took refuge with his kinsman the 
bishop,^ and probably the house was large enough for 
both. Here, in the reign of Edward IV., the Serjeants 
at law held their feast, when a curious contest for pre- 
cedence occurred. Among the invited was Sir Matthew 
Philip, mayor of London, a member of the goldsmiths' 
company, and distinguished by his military prowess, as 
he had been knighted on the field of battle during the 
wars of the Roses. Another of the guests was the lord 
treasurer, lord Grey de Ruthyn, who insisted on taking 
the first place, whereupon the mayor and aldermen left 
the feast and went back into the city, "and the new 
Serjeants and others were right sorry therefore." § The 

• The authenticity of this letter is doubtful. 

t The gate and the garden are clearly seen in Newcourt and Faithome*s 
* Ddiiaeation of London and Westminster,' recently reprinted. 

X They descended in the same degree from Henry III., and John of 
Gaunt' s first duchess was Arundel's first cousin. 

§ The story is told at some length by Stow, p. 144, together with details 
of other feasts here. 


mayor consoled his aldermen by a feast at his own 
house, ** howbeit he and all the citizens were wonderfully 
displeased." It may be a question whether the mayor 
had a right to sit above the lord treasurer, and whether 
Ely House lies within or without the city liberties. 
Possibly, as Stow hints, he considered it within them, 
but the police reckon it without at the present day. 
The gardens of Ely House must have been remarkably 
productive. In addition to bushels of roses we read of 
strawberries, and a famous passage in Shakespeare's 
* Richard III.' is a quotation, more or less accurate, of an 
anecdote in Hollingshead : — 

*' My Lord of Ely, when I was last in Holbom, 
I saw good strawberries in your garden there. 


As an episcopal residence, Ely Place must have been 
rather an encumbrance to the see. To judge from the 
magnificence of the chapel, together with what we read 
of royal entertainments in the hall, of courts and cloisters 
and colonnades, it must have been one of the most 
magnificent private houses in London. Perhaps it was 
to help in keeping it up that it was so often lent. We 
can easily believe that some of the bishops gave up the 
state apartments without leaving their own. Henry 
Ratcliffe, earl of Sussex, was staying here at the time of 
Henry VIII.'s death. Here John Dudley was living in 
1549, and here the combination was formed against 
Somerset which led Dudley along the regular path of 
ambitious statesmen under the Tudors — to the pro- 
tectorship, a dukedom, and the scaffold upon Tower 
Hill. At length this hospitality of the bishops was 
carried too far. Sir Christopher Hatton * was not satis- 

* The story is in all the books, but best in Malcolm's 'Londinium 


fied to take the house for a term. Bishop Cox died in 
1 581, and the see was vacant for eighteen years, during 
which Sir Christopher got a firm hold, and bishop 
Heton in vain opposed the grant. There were too many 
examples all around of similar grants. Where were the 
manors of Portpoole, of Holborn itself, of Rugmere? 
Were they still in ecclesiastical hands? Why should 
this stately mansion be an exception? Besides, Sir 
Christopher was prepared to improve the property. The 
bishop was poor, and did not want so great a house ; he 
might retain his lodgings by the chapel. The roofs 
were very extensive, the gardens were enormous, there 
was a constant outlay needed, and Sir Christopher was 
willing to spend his money freely. He soon ran up a debt 
to the queen which he could not pay. Queen Elizabeth's 
heartless demand for the money, her subsequent repent- 
ance, her strange visit to Ely Place, when Hatton lay 
sick and sorrowful, and, as it turned out, actually dying, 
are all duly recorded, with circumstantial minuteness, in 
many books : but we find Sir Christopher's nephew and 
heir here in the following reign ; and are told of the per- 
formance of a mystery play, the last in England, in the 
hall before Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador, the same 
ambassador who pursued Raleigh to his death. 

It was Gondomar who, with his bait of a Spanish 
marriage, sent prince Charles on his celebrated expe- 
dition. The party was carefully organised ; the prince 
was to be royally attended. His spiritual as well as his 
bodily wants were to be provided for, and Dr. Maw, 
afterwards bishop of Bath, and Dr. Matthew Wren were 
designated to accompany him and guard him from the 
assaults of Popery. But Charles and Buckingham 
started by themselves, and the whole nation was " per- 
suaded that the prince's faith would be tampered with," 


and his person endangered. The chaplains were speedily 
despatched, but had James's subjects seen the instruc- 
tions with which he furnished them they would not have 
been so well satisfied of his safety from the ghostly 
enemy. The chaplains were provided with vestments, 
with ornaments and hangings for the altar, with altar 
lights and Latin prayer books, and were directed to hold 
frequent services and to order their behaviour "so near 
the Roman form as can lawfully be done " ; and the 
king added, " It hath ever been my way to go with the 
Church of Rome usque ad aras'' With a characteristic 
quotation James dismissed them, and they reached 
Madrid in safety, but the apartments assigned to the 
prince in the palace were not furnished with a chapel, 
and so there was " no public service, only bed-chamber 
prayers." * 

After Wren's return he received some preferment at 
once : but, though he continued in favour with the 
prince, he did not rise very high till the new reign com- 
menced. Charles took him with him to Scotland when 
he went to be crowned at Scone, and soon afterwards 
made him dean of Windsor and registrar of the Garter. 
When Matthew Wren went up higher his brother, Chris- 
topher, the father of the architect, succeeded him at 
Windsor ; a happy event, as it turned out, since in the 
troublous times of the great civil war the new registrar 
buried the records of the illustrious order, and so pre- 
served them for posterity when the jewels were lost In 
1634 Matthew Wren became bishop of Hereford, and 
was soon after translated or promoted to Norwich and 
Ely successively. Bishop Heton had been succeeded by 
Lancelot Andrewes, Wren's old tutor, and he by three 
other bishops, none of whom had managed to oust the 

• Miss Phillimore's * Wren,' p. 8. 


Hattons from Ely Place. Bishop White was deep in 
the lawsuit when he died. The same difficulty had 
delayed the proceedings in every case. The bishops were 
poor men. The Hattons had laid out money on the 
house. How were they to be repaid ? The new bishop 
was not a man to be deterred from what he considered 
his public duty by any hesitation as to his private purse. 
He brought his action into the Court of Requests, and 
produced the money. Lady Elizabeth Hatton, seeing 
now which way the decision must go, commenced to 
pull down the lead-work and to cut down the trees. 
Wren obtained an injunction against her. But the blood 
of the Nevils and Cecils was up. She had defied her 
husband and turned him out of doors, though he was a 
chief justice. A mere bishop was nothing to her. She 
disobeyed the injunction. But bishop Wren was not 
a man to be trifled with. Lady Elizabeth very speedily 
found herself actually arrested and committed to the 
Fleet We should like to have particulars, but none 
have come down to us. Was she really incarcerated, or 
did a payment of fees and the observance of certain 
formalities suffice ? We may be sure that whatever was 
the strictest course of the law was followed ; and the 
reader might expect to hear immediately of the restora- 
tion of their old manor-house to the bishops, and the 
triumph of right over usurpation. But it was otherwise 
ordained. The bishop had offended the Parliament by 
proceedings of much greater public importance than the 
ejectment of lady Elizabeth Hatton * from Ely House. 
In July, 1641, he was accused of setting up altar-rails, 
ordering the reading of the Book of Sports, turning out 

* She seems neTer to have assumed her second husband's name. He 
was not a knight when she married him. Most writers who mention her 
call her simply lady Hatton. 


nonconformist ministers, preaching in a surplice, and 
other "innovations," and very soon not lady Eliza- 
beth but her opponent went to prison. Bishop Wren 
was sent to the Tower, and with a brief interval, in 
1642, he continued there till Ely Place had been almost 
destroyed, till lady Elizabeth Hatton was long dead, 
till Charles and Laud had been beheaded ; in short, till 
all he most venerated and best loved had disappeared, 
including his own wife and the Church itself for which 
he suffered. 

In spite of his retrograde views on some subjects, Wren 
remains one of the most interesting figures in the long 
tragedy of the Great Rebellion. When release came 
at last, and the son of the king he had loved perhaps 
too well was restored to the throne, he quietly began 
again his episcopal work where he had left off twenty 
years before ; and one of his first acts was to " exhibit 
his bill in Chancery (as he had done before the war in 
the Court of Requests) against the Lord Hatton and 
others for the redemption " of Ely House. Everything 
had changed except the stout-hearted bishop. It was 
hard for bishop Heton to contend against the chan- 
cellor, or for bishop White to contend against Sir 
Edward Coke, who had married lady Elizabeth,* and 
become chief justice in 161 3. But the chief justice was 
dead : lady Elizabeth, who, in 1638, had gone to prison 
rather than yield to his order of the court, and who 
enjoyed a brief triumph in the early days of the Rebellion, 
followed her husbands in 1646. 

During the Commonwealth the house was made first 

* She was the daughter of the earl of Exeter. Her pride, quarrelsome 
temper, and marriages, are the subject of many pleasant passages in the 
memoirs of the time : most of them may be found summarised in Thom* 
bury's * Old and New London,* vol. ii« 


into a prison and then into a hospital for wounded 

soldiers and their families. It was connected a second 

time with the Savoy, when, in 1660, just before the 

restoration, a sum of money was voted to both. But 

lord Hatton was at least nominally still in possession, 

and, when the bishop's bill came before the Court of 

Chancery, he was actually engaged in converting the 

noble garden into streets. Lady Elizabeth, before the 

Commonwealth and the imprisonment of bishop Wren, 

had commenced to dilapidate the house, and had cut 

down the fruit trees. The whole district, now densely 

populated, was first built over at this time ; for Chancery 

proceedings were proverbially slow, and the bishop 

found little except the chapel and his own apartments 

intact Even the gate-house was pulled down — ^though 

the gate still remains, or its successor — and, no doubt, 

those parts of the domestic buildings which had been 

occupied by the Hattons shared its fate, including the 

splendid hall, where John of Gaunt had feasted, where 

queen Elizabeth had danced, and where Gondomar had 


Wren's temper may be judged by an anecdote recorded 
in Miss Phillimore's life of his more famous nephew. 
During the Commonwealth, and while Matthew Wren, 
the bishop, was in the Tower, expecting the fate of Laud, 
young Christopher Wren, the philosopher, became ac- 
quainted with Richard Claypole. He was the husband 
of Elizabeth Cromwell, the Protector's favourite daughter. 
Wren frequently dined with the Claypoles, and on one 
occasion met Oliver himself at their table. "Your 
uncle," said Cromwell to the young man, "has been 
long confined in the Tower." "He has so, sir," said 
Wren, "but he bears his affliction with great patience 
and resignation." " He may come out an' he will," said 


the Protector. "Will your Highness permit me to take 
him this from your own mouth?" asked the nephew. 
Cromwell assented briefly, and Christopher hastened 
with the good news to the Tower. But the bishop 
would make no terms with " that miscreant" He refused 
to submit in any way to the "detestable tyranny" of 
the Protector, and remained in his prison till the arrival 
of Monk. Two days after the Parliament had voted 
£1700 for the maimed soldiers in Ely House and the 
Savoy, and for providing them with "a preaching 
minister," the gates of the Tower were opened, and 
"Dr. Wren, Bishop of Ely, was discharged from his 
imprisonment," which had lasted more than eighteen 
years. In the following February Evelyn went to 
service in the old chapel and records that " after the 
sermon the Bishop of Ely gave us the blessing very 

Ely House and the Savoy were once more associated 
in the conferences which led to the revision of the Book 
of Common Prayer, and in which bishop Wren took a 
prominent part The general drift of his suggestions 
may easily be surmised, and many of them were adopted. 
The bishop survived to see the new book in general use 
A tradition at the Savoy, of which Sheldon was then 
master, asserts that the revised Common Prayer was 
first read there ; but St Etheldreda's was not far behind, 
we may be sure. Bishop Wren constantly resided in the 
house, and there are numerous references to the chapel 
in contemporary memoirs. Three episcopal consecra- 
tions took place in it during bishop Wren's lifetime, one 
immediately after his death,* and two more down to 
1 73 1. John Evelyn records the marriage of his daughter 

* Stubbs, 'Episcopal Succession.' The dates are 1661, 1662, 1662, 
1668, 167s, 1731. 


here to a Mr. Draper somewhat more quaintly than is 
the wont in his diary ; for he says he gave her a portion 
of ;f 4000, and "prays God Almighty to give her his 
blessing." The one is evidently considered the com-» 
plement of the other. 

But before Susanna Evelyn, with ;^400O and a bless-* 
ing, became Mrs. Draper, a new bishop was in Matthew 
Wren's room. When he emerged from the Tower his 
first care had been to build a chapel at Pembroke Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he had been a scholar under 
Lancelot Andrewes. In choosing the architect to carry 
out his work, bishop Wren's nepotism has conferred a 
benefit on posterity. Christopher Wren's first architec- 
tural work should have been respected even in this 
** restoring " age. But the lengthening of the chapel of 
Pembroke, so as to destroy Wren's proportions, and the 
stripping of the walls, are, after all, but small things in 
comparison with what the most ancient, but now, also, 
alas ! the newest of Cambridge colleges, has undergone 
amid the boasted light and taste of our own day. The 
bishop of Ely appropriately consecrated his chapel in 
1665, on St Matthew's Day. He was then seventy-nine, 
but had still two years' work left in him. He survived the 
plague, and witnessed the fire which was to afford his 
nephew such fame, and dying at last in his house in 
Holbom, in April, 1667, his body was conveyed to Cam- 
bridge, and was buried in his new chapel there with 
great pomp. He had never been able to shake off the 
Hattons. They covered the garden with wretched 
buildings under his very eyes. The law moved very 
slowly in those days, the bishop had many things of 
greater importance on his hands, and the contest was 
one in which time and close attention were most re- 
quired The death of bishop Wren may be said to have 



settled the question, for though his successors protested 
they did little else. 

At length, in 1772, an act was obtained, enabling the 
see to dispose of its claims and possessions. The remains 
of the house and the reserved grounds were conveyed to 
the crown for ^1^6500 and an annuity of jC20O to the 
Bishop of Ely ; and Clarendon House, in Dover Street, 
Piccadilly, was bought for the see. It may easily be 
distinguished by its stone front and the mitre carved 
above the door, and is now one of the few official 
episcopal residences left in London. 

A " very eminent architect and builder," whose name 
was Cole, bought the site, and pulled away everything 
except the chapel. Ely Place, sacred now to lawyers 
and diamond merchants, was built, and the chapel was 
let, according to the custom of the day. At the b^in- 
ning of the present century it was held on lease by a 
lady, the widow of a clergyman called Faulkner. She 
provided a weekly preacher, and made what she could 
out of the chapel. There is an amusing reference in 
Cowper's ' Task * * to the way in which the services were 
carried on. It is evident that the clerk, probably the 
only permanent official, had an inordinate influence. 

In 1 78 1 the question arose, to which I have already 
referred, as to whether Ely Place was in St Andrew's or 
not In a trial before lord Mansfield about poor rates, 
the judge thus stated it to the jury : — " The question 
for you to try is simply, whether the palace of the Bishop 
of Ely, in Holbom, sold to the public and by them to 
the plaintiff (Mr. Cole), lies within the parish of St 
Andrew, Holbom, or is extra-parochial." The jury 

* Quoted in a Tolume by an anonymous author, 'A Notice of Ely 
Chapel, Holbom,' published by Parker in 1840, in which a good deal of 
original information may be found. 


found for Mr. Cole, and, though poor rates were soon 
after enforced, the latest maps leave Ely Place and 
Hatton Garden outside the city boundaries.* 

In 1814 the tenancy of Mrs. Britannia Faulkner 
expired, and a new lease of the chapel was granted to a 
Mr. Wilcox, but, in 18 1 S, the representatives of the National 
Society for the Education of the Poor, then in its infancy, 
made it their headquarters, and Mr. Coleridge, afterwards 
bishop of Barbadoes, became chaplain. When the 
society removed to Westminster the chapel was closed, 
after a brief struggle for existence. In 1843 it was 
assigned to a Welsh congregation, which dwindled and 
flickered for thirty years before it was finally extin- 
guished. In 1874 a committee of eminent Roman 
Catholics set churchmen an example and put them to 
the blush by buying it and by laying out a considerable 
sum in what cannot be considered an injudicious attempt 
at restoration. Many features of interest were of course 
lost, but, except for a certain tawdriness which seems 
inseparable from a Romanist chapel, the general effect 
is good, and by no means devoid of the appearance of 
age. The ten side windows are very large and hand- 
some, but the stained glass with which some of them 
and the large east window are filled leaves much to 
be desired, and some modem statues on the ancient 
brackets look strangely out of place.t The crypt, long 
desecrated as a wine vault, has been cleared and con- 
verted into a chapel, or series of chapels and confes- 
sionals. The curious row of pillars — ^all rebuilt — down 
the centre and the still more curious timber-work they 
support are well worth seeing. 

The densely-populated district still retains some names 

* See CoUingridge's ' City of London Directory,* 1882. 
t The chapel is 91 feet long and 39 feet wide. 

O 2 


which remind us of the long preservation of its rural 
character. Saffron Hill is one of the streets on the site 
of the garden, which, as it lay behind the house, cannot 
have been wholly in the place occupied by the present 
street called Hatton Garden. To judge by Faithome's 
view or map, Kirby Street* would appear to be, so to 
speak, the middle walk of the garden. Field Lane out- 
side led down to the Fleet 

It is a question whether the little manor of the bishops 
of Ely lay within the manor of Holbom or that of 
Portpool. Both were within the original parish of St 
Andrew, and it seems likely that the highway, as in other 
cases, formed the later boundary. The manor of Portpool 
very early lost its prebendal character. In 1241 there 
was a controversy between the monastery of St Bartho- 
lomew's, Smithfield, and Roger Orset, who had the stall 
of Portpool, and was precentor of St Paul's. They 
claimed a piece of land which he alleged, and proved, to 
be in his manor. It is called in the record by the puzzling 
name of Alfrichebun, which may be in modem language 
AU-freshburn, and refer to one of the numerous little 
streams which ran into the Fleet Sixty-three years later 
Portpool is spoken of as the property of the Greys, one of 
whom, Reginald, let it or part of it for a " hospitium " or 
inn, early in the reign of Edward III. Gray's Inn has 
ever since been on the same site. This Grey or Gray 
family seems to have been that of Wilton. In the reign 
of Henry VII. they conveyed the manor of Portpool to 
the fellows and students of the honourable society. 

At the western extremity of the old parish is the 
modem district of St George the Martyr, Queen Square, f 

* Was Kirby Street called after Bishop Kirkby ? 
t A history of this little parish has recently been compiled by Mr; J. 
Lewis Miller. 


It is sometimes, but very erroneously, described as in 
Bloomsbury ; and reckoned a chapel of ease to St 
George's in Hart Street But it is a rectory taken out 
of St Andrew's, Holbom, and is in a different manor 
and parish altogether* It contains some interesting 
relics of old architecture, dear especially to the lovers of 
the so-called "Queen Anne" style. In 1742 the writer 
of a * Survey of London ' observes that " this parish 
being of a modem erection, it has few or no antiquities 
therein." A hundred and fifty years have transformed it 
into one of the older relics of western London ; and the 
antiquary may often be met prowling about the street 
comers and peering into the archways to find wrought- 
iron railings, bold brick cornices, shell-shaped doorways, 
pedimented windows, and all the other signs of the kind 
of building in fashion while Wren was yet alive* Queen 
Square was left open on the north side, it is said, in 
6rder that the inhabitants might enjoy the view of the 
Hampstead heights, and the open country between. 
Red Lion Square, which is also in this parish, is called 
from its having been the paddock of an inn, the Red 
Liarty still commemorated in a neighbouring signboard. 
At the Blue BoaVy where now the Inns of Court Hotel 
has risen on the south side of the street, which is nearly 
opposite, Oliver Cromwell is said to have discovered, 
sewed up in a saddle, the documents compromising 
Charles I., which were used to bring him to the scaffold ; 
and at the Red Lion the body of the same Oliver was 
deposited in its cerecloth the night before it was dragged 
to Tyburn to undergo the pitiful spite of the triumphant 
Royalists. The story has been frequently repeated that 
the body never got further from Holbom than the Red 
Lion Paddock, and a large and handsome obelisk in the 
centre of the square " was pretended to have covered the 


bones of Oliver Cromwell, whereas the whole embellish- 
ment was promoted by a subscription of the inhabitants, 
at the suggestion of Mr. Dillingham, a neighbouring 
apothecary," says Malcolm.* But Mr. Dillingham's 
suggestion does not in itself refute the tradition which 
certainly obtained at one time considerable credit. 

Among the newer buildings in the district should be 
mentioned the very handsome church in Red Lion 
Square, built through the exertions of a private clergy- 
man, Mr. Webber ; and the very conspicuous but 
hideous Hospital for Children, near Great Ormond 
Street : an institution whose excellence as a charity is 
no excuse for the remarkable and disfiguring ugliness 
which makes its presence a misfortune to the neighbour- 
hood. With the admirable examples of a simple and 
picturesque style with which the whole parish of St. 
George abounds before his eyes, the architect of the 
hospital has achieved a feat very similar to that which 
has placed St Thomas's Hospital opposite the Houses 
of Parliament and beside Lambeth Palace. 

Great Ormond Street is dated by its name. In the 
reign of George H. it was pronounced "one of the finest 
situations about town," on account of its north side 
looking upon the open fields. Lamb, the charitable 
individual, who, in 1577, conducted water in a leaden 
pipe from these fields to Snow Hill, has left his name in 
Lamb's Conduit Street Theobald's Road and Kings- 
gate Street recall the frequent journeys of James I. 
to his hunting seat in Hertfordshire and the race 
course at Newmarket Powis Place in Great Ormond 
Street is on the site of a house built by William Herbert, 
marquis of Powis, the head of an eminent Jacobite family. 
It was the centre of intrigues for the restoration of the 

 VoL ii, 306. 


Stuarts during the reigns of William and Anne. In 
1714 it was burnt while in the occupation of the French 
ambassador. In the popular belief he was engaged in 
making the arrangements to be carried out on the demise 
of the queen, which, in fact, occurred that same year. The 
historian may reckon the fire at Powis House among the 
political causes of the time. Louis XIV. magnificently 
rebuilt the house, as his dignity " would not suffer a fire 
office to pay for the neglect of the domestic of his repre- 
sentative." There is not much of this kind of dignity 
left in the world now. Powis House was pulled down a 
hundred years ago.* The site is a perfect nest of 
hospitals — ^the Homoeopathic standing also where, in 
No. 50, Great Ormond Street, the Macaulay family long 
resided, of which there is a touching reminiscence 
recorded in the great historian's diary. In August 1857, 
he writes : " I sent the carriage home and walked to the 
Museum : passing through Great Ormond Street, I saw 
a bill upon No. 50 ; I knocked, was let in, and went over 
the house with a strange mixture of feelings. It is more 
than twenty-six years since I was in it The dining- 
room, and the adjoining room in which I once slept, are 
scarcely changed ; the same colouring on the wall, but 
more dingy. My father's study much the same ; the 
drawing-rooms, too, except the papering ; my bedroom 
just what it was. My mother's bedroom — I had never 
been in it since her death. I went away sad," 

• Sec Miller's * Church and Parish of St George the Martyr, Holbom,' 
fior further particulars. A view of the house is in ' Vitruvius BritannicuS:' 

( 200 ) 



The modern west end of London may be said to 
commence with Rugmere: yet few, probably, of the 
sixty thousand inhabitants of that great prebendal 
manor have the slightest idea where it lies, or that they 
are in it. We have all sorts of pretty stories about the 
name of Bloomsbury. The wildest guesses are made as 
to its origin and meaning. Some say it was Lomesbury 
at first ; others would connect it with some tradition of 
gardens and flowers. That St. Giles's belonged to it; 
that it was all comprised in an estate attached to a stall 
in the cathedral of St Paul's ; that its name of Rugmere 
probably referred to a pond, or pool, or marsh, on the 
summit of the hill * or ridge which separated the valley 
of the Fleet from that of the Tyburn ; that the name 
Bloomsbury is evidently of personal origin, and must 
refer to an owner or occupier — all these are facts, plain 
enough, indeed, but never referred to in the pleasant 
collections of anecdotes which sometimes do duty for 
histories of London. 

Rugmere, in Domesday, is described as a manor in 
Ossulston, belonging to Ralph, a canon of St Paul's. 
It was assessed for two hides. It was worth thirty-five 
shillings (a year), and had been worth forty in the time 
of king Edward the Confessor. It was then, and had 
been, in the demesne of the canons of St Paul's. There is 

* Already described in chap. L 



^ not a word as to any sub-manor, nor mention of a division 
between Bloomsbury and St Giles's. When, a few years 
X ago, an eminent clergyman was appointed to the pre- 
bendal stall of Rugmere, a question as to where Rug- 
mere might be went unanswered round the papers. 
There was a Ralph, called Fitz Algod, canon ot 
^y Rugmere in 1132, probably not the same as the 
Ralph of Domesday. Fitz Algod was succeeded by 
his son William,* and he by another Ralph, of Chilton, 
archdeacon of Middlesex, who was alive in 1192. 
l!t/ Another canon of Rugmere, John de Crachale, a chaplain 
'^ to the good Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, 
was one of those privileged to hear the outburst of 
1 ^*^venly music, near Buckden, on the night of the 
^'JMBk>p's death.t 

I we look at any old map of London — any map, that 
de before the beginning of the present century — 
ay observe that the old road, diverted, as I have 
ere shown, from the line of the Watling Street at 
arble Arch, runs in an eastward direction towards 
te. It was a Roman road, and was, as usual with 
mans, made as nearly straight as possible. That 
im the Marble Arch, whence, as I have endeavoured 
low, it used to run straight to the Thames at 
kninster, it now runs straight to the Thames at 
n Bridge. But on examining the course of the 
with care, we see that at a certain point it made a 
circuit to the south. We have long been accustomed 
straight, or nearly straight line of Oxford Street, 
rget that it was only in the present reign that " New 
rd Street" — the piece connecting the old street, 

fewcoixrt, L 206* 
Loberti Grossteste Epistolse,* edited by Mr. Luard for the Rolls Series, 


which ran to the Tottenham Court Road, with Holbom — 
was made ; and that, previously, on reaching a place 
where there was a pond and a pound, and at one time 
a gibbet, it would have turned a little to the right into 
High Street, St Giles's; and at High Holbom, after 
describing a semicircle, have returned into the straight 
Roman line of road again. 

The reason for this deflection is not known ; but it is 
not speculating too deeply to suggest that here, where 
St Giles's Pond remained almost till our own day, was 
the Rugmere which gave its name to the prebendal 
manor, and that the road made a circuit to avoid it We 
know for certain that there was a " mere " at this place, 
or very near it We know that it was on the ridge, and 
we know that the ridge is highest just here. It is but 
reasonable to seek for some cause to account for the 
bend in the usually inflexible course of a Roman road \ 
and no reason seems so good as this. 

But we may go further, and ask. What has become of 
the mere ? The first fact we have in the history of 
Bloomsbury answers the question. Bloom, whose Bury 
may be said still to exist, was one William Blemund, or 
de Bleomund, or Blemot — the name occurs in all these 
forms — who made a great fosse, called Blemund's Dyke, 
or ditch, which drained the mere. This long-forgotten 
worthy lived in the reign of king John, and his name 
occurs in the deeds and charters connected with the 
hospital of St Giles, to which I shall have occasion to 
refer a little further on. Blemund's Dyke divided the 
northern half of Rugmere from the southern; but 
Bloomsbury and St Giles's are both parts of the original 
manor of the prebendary of St Paul's. 

This great estate was bounded on the south by the 
manor of the Savoy, on the west by St Marylebone, on 


the north by Tottenhall, on the east by Portpoole and 
St Andrew's, Holbom. When the hospital at St Giles's 
comer was founded in 11 17, a "Manor of St Giles" 
was apparently separated for its benefit. Before the 
passing of the Act " Quia emptores " such a separation 
was easy. In a hundred years the rest of the original 
manor, that part namely, which lay to the north of the 
high road, now Oxford Street, was apparently alienated 
like the southern part Blemund's ditch, referred to 
above, passed behind the northern row of houses in 
Holbom, but is now forgotten. The name survives in 
" Bloomsbury." The manor house of Rugmere was 
isolated in the parish of St Pancras.* 

The sub-manor of Bloomsbury passed through the 
hands of many owners before it came in 1617 to Henry 
Wriothesley, earl of Southampton, for the price of 600/. 
In 1668, the treasurer, Thomas, fourth earl, died, leaving 
Bloomsbury to his co-heiress, the justly famous lady 
Rachel, widow of lord Vaughan son of the earl of 
Carbery, who, by her marriage with William, lord 
Russell, conveyed to the Bedford family an estate of 
which the value at the present day can only be reckoned 
in millions. 

The original church was apparently at the place occu- 
pied in the twelfth century by the hospital of St. Giles, 
the same site on which the modem church stands. It 
was rebuilt in 1734. Other parochial institutions were 
to be found near the same place. At the comer of 
the Tybum Road, now Oxford Street, was the pound. 
Near the pound was the " cage," f apparently a lock-up 

* It is probably on this account that most writers make Rugmere a 
manor in St. Pancras, like Tottenhall. 

t At this comer a tavern bore the sign of the " Hog in Pound,'* till 
188 1. A bank has been built upon the site. 


for disorderly persons.* In 141 3 between the wall of 
the hospital and the pounds a gibbet was erected for 
the execution of criminals. It had previously stood 
in Smithfield, though a double execution took place 
far westward) at the afterwards famous Tyburn, more 
than five-and-twenty years earlier.f The modem church 
was built in 1734, but stands on the site of the hospital 
chapel, which probably included an aisle for parochial 
worshippers, as in other cases. It was succeeded by 
a second church built in 1623 : in fact there can have 
been but a scanty congregation at first, and the church 
had to be enlarged. to suit the gradual growth of the 

The manor was granted, together with the buildings of 
the Hospital of St. Giles or Lazar House, by Henry VIIL, 
in 1 545, to John Dudley, who was then known as lord 
Lisle, and afterwards as duke of Northumberland, and 
Protector of the Realm in the minority of Edward VI. 
Dudley fitted up the old buildings for his own residence, 
but shortly after conveyed the whole of the premises to 
Sir Wymond Carew, who, however, seems to have been 
merely a trustee, and reconveyed or let it to the Dudley 
family. The duchess of Dudley, the widow of an illegiti- 
mate son of queen Elizabeth's earl of Leicester, resided in 
it till her death, at the age of ninety, in 1669. She was a 
great benefactor to the parish, and her monument is still 
to be seen in the church. Meanwhile, the whole manor 
was divided amongst various owners. Drury Lane com- 
memorates the Drury family, whose town house was at 

* " 1 641. Paid to a poor woman that was brought to bed in the Cage 
2J. For a shroud for a poor woman that died in the Cage xs. 64** Dohie^ 
p. 126. 

t See vol. i., chap. vii. 


the Strand end of that thoroughfare. Great Wild Street 
bears a name corrupted from that of the family of 
Weld of Lulworth, who had long a residence here, in 
what was called the Aldwych, or Oldwick, an open 
space. Part of the name still survives in Wych Street. 
The south-eastern comer of the parish abutted on 
Temple Bar, and comprised what was known as Picket's 
Field, the jousting ground of the Templars. It is 
now the so-called ** Carey Street site " of the New Law 

Lincoln's Inn Fields were also in the manor, and 
chiefly claim notice here because the " square," though 
an oblong, is said to equal the area covered by the 
Great Pyramid of Geezeh. It was laid out, and one 
side, the western, built by Inigo Jones, parts of whose 
buildings still remain. The most beautiful of his houses 
which are now to be seen in St Giles's form two shops 
on the southern side of Great Queen Street, near the 
Freemasons' Tavern — ^probably part of a residence he is 
known to have built here for lord Herbert of Cherbury, 
about the year 1610.* The area of Lincoln's Inn Fields 
is always sacred to the memory of William, lord Russell, 
who was beheaded there in 1683. Other executions of 
state criminals had taken place here, as that of Babington 
and his six companions, in the reign of queen Elizabeth ; 
and, probably, lord Cobham, two hundred and fifty 
years before. 

The parcelling out of a manor among a number of 
owners has always led to the same bad results. St Giles's 
was long and is still, to some extent, another word for 

* There are views of these houses and others in Parton's ' St Giles,' as 
well as some highly fanciful bird's-eye views and maps of the parish. See 
curioos notice of Parton in Smith's ' Book for a Rainy Day,' p. i8a 


an assembly of miserable tenements and poverty-stricken 
tenants. Lisson Grove, which we shall shortly have 
occasion to notice more at length, though situated 
between four of the most wealthy and fashionable of 
our western suburbs, offers another example. It is 
interesting to contrast the history of St George's, the 
northern half of the prebendal manor of Rugmere, with 
that of its less fortunate if more interesting neighbour. 
Much has been done of late years to purge St Giles's, 
but only with the result of driving the lowest class into 
other and remoter dens. Changing the names of streets 
will not of itself improve their character, yet, until the 
Peabody Gift, little attention was paid by those in 
authority to the necessity of providing the poor with 
suitable houses. In St Giles's, what with the continua- 
tion of "New" Oxford Street east from Tottenham 
Court Road to Holbom, the widening of Old Belton 
Street, and its change into Endell Street, connecting 
Broad Street and Long Acre ; what with the change 
of Queen Street into Museum Street, and Dyott Street 
into George Street, and Brewer Street into Thomey 
Street, and many other alterations of the kind, it would 
puzzle any one who knew it at the banning of the 
present reign to recognise it now. Its local associations 
are in many places obliterated ; but Bowl Alley yet 
preserves the memory of the convict's last drink as he 
went up the long hill to Tyburn. The grave is still 
pointed out where Derwentwater's headless body re- 
posed for a time before its removal to Dilston ; * and the 
register reminds us that it was in the parish of St Giles 
that the Great Plague of 1665 originated. 

The contrast between the fates of Bloomsbury and St 
Giles is like that which Hood draws between Margaret 

* It has lately been removed to Thomdon in Essex. 

IHE WESTERN suburbs: 207 

and Peggy.* At first, for a short time, Bloomsbury was 
a "noble" suburb, then it became "respectable," and 
respectable it has remained While it was " noble," a 
few great mansions with extensive pleasure grounds, con- 
nected by country lanes, and separated by dairy farms 
and tile-roofed cottages, existed, instead of the squalid 
lanes and courts with which already St Giles's was filled. 
Nearest to the great western thoroughfare was Montagu 
House, erected by Hooke for the first Duke of Montagu, 
"after the French manner." It was burnt down in 1686, 
when, as lady Rachel Russell relates in one of her 
delightful letters, the westerly wind carried sparks and 
flames to the neighbouring Southampton House, and en- 
dangered its inmates, lady Rachel herself and her son, 
the siecond duke of Bedford, then a child. Montagu 
House was rebuilt, but only partially inhabited, and the 
duke's coheirs joined in selling it to the nation at the 
moderate price of 10,000/., for the reception of the Sloane 
collection. The last remains of the old house, with its 
pointed roofs, its deep cornices, its double lodges, and 
other quaint and picturesque appendages, "after the 
French manner," were removed in 1845. Two years later 
the portico of the new museum was finished. 

The growth of the collections in the British Museum 
has been very rapid Montagu House was first em- 
ployed in 1753, when room had to be found for the 
library and curiosities of Sir Hans Sloane, who directed 
his executors to ask the merely nominal price of 20,000/. 
for them. This sum was raised by a lottery, and a 

* ^ While Margaret charmed hy the bnlbul rare in a garden of Gal 

Poor Peggy hawks nosegays from street to street 
Till — ^think of it ye who find life so sweet ! — 
She hates the smell of roses I *' 

Miss Kilmans^g and her Golden L^,' p. 6.) 


member of Sir Hans Sloane*s family has ever since sat on 
the board of trustees. In fact the museum is, like most 
institutions of the kind in England, more or less a private 
enterprise: but a large number of public functionaries 
are trustees by virtue of their office. The purchase of the 
Harleian manuscripts, also for a nominal sum, and the 
gift by George II, of the library which successive kings 
of England had accumulated, to the number of about 
twenty-eight thousand printed or written volumes, reused 
the library to a position of great importance. The new 
buildings were commenced soon after the beginning of 
the present century, and the acquisition of the Elgin 
marbles for so small a sum as 35,000/. drew popular 
attention to the museum, which immediately became an 
object of pride to every Englishman. Yet with charac- 
teristic parsimony, the authorities have never seen fit 
to provide these matchless sculptures with any better 
pedestals than the wooden cases in which they came 
from Greece. 

The first great Egyptian acquisition consisted in the 
objects taken with the French army in 1801. A grant 
was obtained from Parliament to provide accommodation 
for them, and in 1804 the Rosetta stone and several 
great sarcophagi were exhibited Naturally, the French 
Egyptologists * not only ignore the fact that the Rosetta 
stone is in the British Museum, but also forget that the 
earliest success in reading the hieroglyphic characters 
was obtained by a London physician named Young, 
who made out some of the proper names on the stone, 
but owing to the pressure of professional duties, did not 
pursue his studies further. The researches of Sir Gar- 

* M. Pierret, in his ' Dictionnaire Archseologiqne,* for example, and 
later, M. Fontane, in ' Les Egyptes,' are prominent examples of this silly 
j ealousy, so unworthy of a great nation. 


diner Wilkinson, a little later, if they did not add much 
to our knowledge, at least added largely to the number 
of Egyptian objects, many of them, no doubt, worthless, 
since we do not know whence they came, or, conse- 
quently, to what period they belong. But undoubtedly, 
except in monuments of the early or pyramid period, 
the British Museum ranks high as regards its Egyptian 
collections, and especially papyrus rolls. The Assyrian 
and Babylonian, and the coin and Greek vase collections 
are unquestionably the best in any contemporary museum, 
but owing to faults of system or of management, or of 
economy, there are several departments still sadly de- 
ficient. Among these must be mentioned that of ancient 
jewelry, and that of medieval and oriental armour. 

The zoological section has hitherto been most ridicu- 
lously mixed up with the various departments of antiqui- 
ties. The stuffed beasts and birds and other objects of 
the kind are shortly to migrate to 4 building erected for 
them, unfortunately on a very remote and in many 
respects inconvenient site. Some of the most important 
parts of the collection will then for the first time become 
visible to such of the general public as have leisure to 
visit this distant suburb by daylight. An adequate 
print-room, and an exhibition of drawings by the great 
masters are still badly wanted. It is not generally 
known that the British nation is possessed of the finest 
collection in the world of these priceless works : and 
certainly, as a recent writer observes, no other nation 
would keep them concealed. 

The present building is imposing in character: but 
where space was of such value, it was ridiculous both to 
set it so far back from the street front, and to spend 
spare and money on a perfectly useless peristyle. The 
Ionic columns are so tall that they do not protect the 


passenger from the rain, nor are they ever wanted to 
shield him from the sunshine, but they were erected in 
the height of the Grecian fashion, and give the building 
a certain dignity wanting both to the National Gallery, 
the South Kensington Museum, and the New Museum 
of Natural History, with which they obviously compete. 
It is a pity that the offer at a moderate price said to 
have been made by the duke of Bedford of the day, of 
the houses between the Museum and Oxford Street, was 
not accepted. It would certainly be interesting, to say 
the least, to be able to get Hawksmoors church and 
Smirke's portico into one view. 

Southampton House, with its great garden, stood where 
now the northern side of Bloomsbury Square gives en- 
trance to Bedford Place. It was built when Bedford 
House in the Strand was removed, and stood not quite a 
hundred years, for in 1800 it was pulled down, dis- 
mantled, and the contents sold. Evelyn says it contained 
a pretty cedar chapel, but was too low, and the garden 
too bare. Between the northern end of the garden and 
the distant hills of Hampstead and Highgate there was, 
in those days, but little to catch the eye, and that little 
not of a very attractive kind. A few hundred yards off 
was a chimney-sweeper's cottage, and where is now Little 
Guildford Street, Baltimore House, the residence of a 
nobleman, whose character was such that when, in 1768, 
he was tried for the forcible abduction and ill-treatment 
of an unfortunate young milliner named Woodcock, he 
only escaped owing to " an informality in Miss Wood- 
cock's deposition, arising evidently from* the agitation of 
her mind." The surroundings of this amiable earl's 
residence were not incongruous. The Long Fields, as 
they were called, which stretched away to the northward 
and westward, were famous as a meeting-place for duel- 


lists, and a " resort of depraved wretches, whose amuse- 

ments consisted chiefly in fighting pitched battles and 

other disorderly sports, especially on the Sabbath day." * 

At the north-east end of what is now Upper Montagu 

Street was the " Forty Footsteps Field," celebrated by 

Miss Porter as the scene of a sanguinary encounter 

between two brothers in whose tracks no grass would 

grow. This superstition is frequently alluded to by 

writers of the end of the eighteenth century, and one of 

them records regretfully his last visit, in 1800, before 

bricks and mortar finally covered the haunted site. 

The tide of bricks and mortar overwhelmed Blooms- 
bury with remarkable rapidity. Though the north side 
of Queen Square is said to have been left open, in order 
that the distant view of the hills might not be interrupted, 
^t building speculators,t who, about 1792, commenced 
operations here, contrived within a period of eleven years 
to add no fewer than 1198 houses to the parish, for 
Bloomsbury had now become a parish of itself, being 
furnished with one of the fifty new churches built under 
the Act of 17 10. There was already a chapel in Queen 
Square— distinguished as St. George the Martyr; the 
greater part of the parish afterwards annexed to it being 
taken not out of St Giles's, but St Andrew's, Holborn. 

 Dobie, p. 176. He adds some interesting particulars of •* The former 
residence of the illnstrious martyr of liberty, Lord William Russell '' {sic). 
His account is quoted without acknowledgment by almost every writer on 
Bloomsbury and its associations. 

t The greatest of these speculators was James Burton, whose villa in the 
Regent's Park is figured in Britton and Pugin (p. 88, vol. L), and who from 
small beginnings acquired an immense fortune while still comparatively 
young. He devoted the remainder of his life to getting rid of it, his 
prudence not having been nourished by success, and in various schemes 
more or less hazardous he contrived to reduce himself to a competence. 
He is commemorated in Burton Crescent ; but to his son, Decimus, who 
survived till 1881, modem London is indebted for some of its best, as well 
as some of its worst, architectural effects. 

P 2 


The new church of St George, Bloomsbury, was built on 
a site granted or sold by lady Rachel Russell, and known 
as Plough Yard. Hawksmoor's design has been ridiculed 
so long that even now, when the lions and unicorns have 
descended from their giddy perch at the feet of King 
George near the summit of the steeple, it requires some 
hardihood to praise it Yet, since some houses on the 
north and east sides have been pulled down, and a view 
opened of the body of the church, I must confess that 
to my eyes it is exceedingly picturesque ; while the 
magnificent portico, and the quaint spire, an avowed copy 
from the classical descriptions of the Mausoleum, form a 
group only rivalled by St Martin's in the Fields. Had 
St. Martin's a steeple at the side, instead of over the portico, 
it might compete more successfully with St George's. 
The statue of the king on the summit is undoubtedly an 
absurdity, and gave rise to many an epigram and scorn- 
ful jest Walpole " wonders how the devil they got there," 
speaking of the now deposed supporters. " The king of 
Great Britain," said another rhymer, " was reckoned the 
head of the Church by all Protestants, but in Bloomsbury 
he was head of the steeple as well " ; and a variation, 
quoted by Cunningham, alludes to Henry VIII., who 
" left the pope in the lurch." 

Unlike St Giles's, the parochial history of St George's is 
of the most uneventful kind, but it would be easy to com- 
pile long lists of eminent inhabitants : literary, legal, and 
artistic people have crowded its precincts. Lord Mansfield 
lived in Southampton Square when his library was burnt 
by the Gordon rioters in 1780. Charles Dickens had a 
house in Tavistock Square for many years. Sir Antonio 
Panizzi lived almost in sight of his beloved museum. 
Among the very earliest tenants of the district as it was 
seen by Evelyn, when he called it a noble piazza and a 


little town, was Richard Baxter, whose wife " entered into 
the saints' everlasting rest" here in 1681. Dr. Dodd, 
celebrated for his sermons and his forgery, was an 
"eminent inhabitant," as was the victim of his fraud, 
Lord Chesterfield. Bloomsbury retains its respect- 
ability to the present day. Rugmere has vanished ; 
St Giles's has lost caste ; but Bloomsbury is prebendal 

The fate of the other prebendal manors was very simi- 
lar. In St. Pancras there was, at the time of the Domes- 
day survey, a separate manor, held, like St. Pancras itself, 
by a canon of St. Paul's. This was, in all probability, 
the same which, passing into the hands of the Cantlo or 
Cantilupe family, acquired its name, and as Cantlers, with 
the further corruption of Kentish Town, subsists still. 
It is now subject, it is said, to a nominal rent to the pre- 
bendary, but is practically the property of the Pratt 
family, having come to Charles Pratt, earl Camden, by 
his marriage with the daughter and coheir of Nicholas 
Jeffreys, about the middle of the last century. Somers 
Town, another " hamlet " of St. Pancras, is, similarly, the 
property of the family of which earl Somers is the 

The old church of St Pancras was one of the most 
typical of Middlesex churches — small, low, mean, but 
ancient : built originally, no doubt, of wood, mended and 
patched with a little freestone begged from the builders of 
St Paul's, added to when there came to be a few more 
parishioners, discarded for a mock Grecian temple in the 
City Road, and finally rebuilt in 1848 in an absurd 
Norman style under the name of restoration. It is now 
almost surrounded with a vast network of railways, and 
its churchyard and the adjoining cemetery belonging to 
St Giles's are turned into an ornamental garden ; yet a 


visit to Old St Pancras is not without interest There is 
a tradition which should not be passed by without notice, 
that St. Pancras was the mother church of St Paul's : a 
reference probably to the old chapel of St Pancras at 
Canterbury, in which the first Christian mass in England 
was celebrated by St Austin.* There is another tradition 
to the effect that the mass was sung here later than in 
any other church after its abolition by Henry VIII., and 
the lonely situation of the church then and later favours 
its truth. Writing soon after, Norden says, "Pancras 
Church standeth all alone, as utterly forsaken, old and 
weatherbeaten." He adds that folks from Kennistonne 
(Kentish Town) now and then visit it, but not often* 
having a chapel of their own. Till very lately, service 
was only performed in the old church once a month, and 
on other days at the Kentish Town chapel. 

The church contains few monuments of interest, but a 
broken canopy remains of the tombs of the Greys, lords 
of Portpoole, who are also commemorated in the name 
of Gray's Inn. The churchyard was long a favourite 
burial-place for Roman Catholics, for which several 
reasons were assigned, one being that at a church 
dedicated to the same saint in France, masses were 
celebrated for the repose of the dead buried here. 
Three of the monuments may be noticed. One marks 
the grave of Mary Woolstonecraft Godwin, who died in 
Somers Town in 1797. Another, dated 1805, is sacred 
to the memory of Walker, author of the * Pronouncing 
Dictionary.' It has been " restored " at the expense of 
lady Burdett Coutts, and stands in a distant part of 
the ground, approached under a railway arch. In a 

* See Britton and Pugin, * Edifices of London,' i. 146. The chapel of 
St. Pancras at Canterbuiy was a pig*stye when I last visited its veoaable 
and sacred ruins. 


prominent situation is the entrance to the vault of Sir 
John Soane, his wife and his son.* 

The new parish church is in the Euston Road, and 
was extravagantly admired when it was built in 1822. 
It was one of the first results of the acquisition of the 
Elgin Marbles in 18 16. The world of taste was ab- 
sorbed in imitating Greek art The publication of several 
books on the ruins of Athens, and especially the mag- 
nificent folios of Stuart and Revett, fired the ardour of 
architects. Wren was discarded as completely as gothic, 
and the new church of St Pancras was designed as a 
gigantic imitation — ^with improvements — of a little build- 
ing on the hill of the Acropolis. The improvements 
consisted in making the design uniform, in adding a 
tower, and in projecting a semicircular apse from the 
eastern end. The futility of attempting to use a Greek 
temple for modem religious purposes is perhaps better 
exemplified in this than in any other of the numerous 
designs of the kind which sprung up in all directions. 
The Inwoods, who furnished the design, made the tower 
to consist of a series of circular temples set one above 
the other, without meaning or purpose, except to attain 
an elevation of 200 feet A caryatid portico exactly 
balanced by another, and neither having any use, com- 
plete a church as absurdly unsuitable as any in London 
for the ordinary purposes of Protestant worship. No one 
thinks of using Greek temples as churches now, but we 
still try to build in the gothic of the thirteenth century. 
The new parish church at Kensington is another example 
of failure, and for the same reason as the new church of 
St Pancras. Sooner or later reflecting and painstaking 
architects will have to fall back on the principles of Wren, 
if not upon the style he preferred : but so far they have 

 * Epitaphs of Middlesex,* by F. T. Cansick. 


found it easier to take some classical building for abject 
reproduction, or else to try, in the nineteenth century, 
and with all the conditions altered, to imitate the com- 
parative irregularity of the middle ages. The new church 
of St. Pancras, in short, is only a degree more instructive 
than the still newer old church, because the gothic archi- 
tect has put no mind into his work, while the imitators 
of the Erechtheum at least did what was thought the 
best at the time. 

Tottenhall, the manor house of which was at the head 
of Tottenham Court Road, where the entrance-gate posts 
are still visible, is mentioned as Totehele in Domesday ; 
and has been leased and re-leased till the original owner 
is forgotten. The first lessee whose name I have met is 
John de Caleton, in 1343. Charles II., to whom the lease 
had come, gave it, in satisfaction of a debt, to Sir Henry 
Wood, in 1 66 1. Soon after, it was the property of lady 
Arlington, whose daughter, the duchess of Grafton, next 
held it* Her descendant, lord Southampton, is the 
present owner ; and his family and titles are commemo- 
rated by Fitzroy Square and other local names well 
known to artists. 

Fitzroy Square seems to lie out of the usual thorough- 
fares, and is forgotten by the regular sightseer. It was 
begun in or about 1790, and the two sides completed are 
a very happy example of the skill and taste of the Adam 
brothers. The north and west sides were not finished 
when the peace came, and with it a reaction in prices 
which put a stop to many schemes more ambitious than 
the building of Fitzroy Square ; it retains a strangely 

 Henry Bennet, earl of Arlington, one of the Cabal ministry, had an 
only daughter, lady Isabella, who married the first duke of Grafton, 
the son of Barbara, duchess of Cleveland, by, as was reputed, king 
Charles XL 


double aspect of squalor and magnificence. Tottenhall, 
or Tottenham Court, long a noted tavern, with tea-gardens 
of doubtful repute adjoining, was, until the middle of the 
last century, quite as suburban as Fulham is now ; and 
another public-house, at the next corner beyond the 
Tabernacle, was reputed even sixty or seventy years ago 
"the last house in London."* The neighbourhood has 
not profited so much as some others from being the 
property of a noble family, and cannot be said ever to 
have been in fashion, though Whitefield, the preacher, 
drew great people out of town to hear him, and Totten- 
ham Court Chapel, which he built, remained for many 
years a very prominent memorial of the success of his 
ministry. In it were buried two men remarkable in their 
several ways, Toplady, the author of " Rock of Ages," 
and Bacon, the sculptor. But the restless vulgarity 
which has modernised, be-plastered and be-stuccoed 
Whitefield's simple and picturesque octagon is sad as 
well as disgusting. 

It would be easy to fill a volume with the history of 
the prebendal manors of St Paul's ; but we may pass on 
now to notice the next parish westward of Tottenhall. 
Here we have no longer the canons of St Paul's, but do 
not find that other owners managed much better. There 
is probably no district of Suburban London which has 
undergone greater vicissitudes of condition, ownership, 
and even name, than Tyburn. 

As we drive along the crowded and busy Oxford 
Street, leaving on our left the end of Bond Street, we 
descend a slight slope before we pass Stratford Place on 
our right The slope, it is easy to see, was not always so 
slight, and the lanes on either hand lead down at a steep 
incline. At two comers, on the north side, we perceive the 

* Hone, • Year Book ;' Thackeray's ' Virginians,' ii. 228. 


same name, Marylebone Lane. It seems to be divided 
into two branches, embracing a triangular piece of 
ground. It is not easy at the present day to realise that 
once a lonely road between grass meadows here dipped 
into a hollow, and crossed a brawling brook by a bridge 
under the shadow of a little country church. Whether 
or no the division of the double lane betokens a similar 
division of the brook, along whose banks it ran, and so 
gives us a clue to the name, it is at least certain ,that 
at the end of the fourteenth century Tyburn already bore 
an evil reputation, a reputation not, we may be sure, 
improved when " gentle Mortimer " and his companion 
were brought for execution to the bleak heath on the 
hill beyond in 1330. The little church was St John's, 
Tyburn. Twice over it was robbed by marauders, who 
escaped in security owing to the remoteness of the 
situation : and, in 1400, Robert Braybrook, bishop of 
London, gave leave to have it removed and a new 
church, nearer the village, and half-a-mile higher up the 
bourne, built and consecrated as St Mary's, so-called, of 
course, from the abbey of St Mary of Barking, by which 
the manor was owned. There were already close by the 
churches of St Mary Abbots, St Mary, Islington, and 
others ; so this was distinguished as St Mary ** le 
bourne." The vestry-room still remains near the site of 
St John's. When the present parochial offices were 
erected in 1829, on a spot which had formerly been the 
parish pound, bones and other signs of interment were 
erroneously attributed, not to the former existence of the 
graveyard, but to that of the gibbet 

The name Tyburn has not been explained. I have 
hazarded a guess above as to its possible origin, but am 
far from thinking it more than a possibility. In an 
ancient charter at Westminster we find the earliest form 


of the word This is a deed of gift or confirmation 
to the Abbey, and though not contemporary, may con- 
tain a correct copy of the boundaries of St Margaret's. 
It purports to be dated in 951, and to confirm a grant 
made by Offa. Tyburn is called in it "Teobume." 
Mr. Waller derives the name from the division of its 
later course into two streams.* In Domesday it is 
Tibume, and "always lay, and lies, in the church of 
Barking *' ; that is, it belonged from time immemorial to 
the abbey at that place. It was then, and long after, 
wholly agricultural. There was pasture for cattle, and 
woods of beech or oak for the feeding of pigs. In the 
time of the Confessor it had been worth a hundred shil- 
lings, but was now valued at fifty. 

Such was Tyburn at the Norman Conquest The 
brook from which the name was derived divided it from 
the manor of Lylleston, or Lisson, the second portion of 
the same parish. Its course may easily be traced still 
in the windings of Marylebone Lane, which probably 
marks the site of an ancient village on the left, or eastern 
bank. I have already endeavoured, with the help of Mr. 
Waller's map and description, to show what that course 
was with respect to the modem conditions.t 

When St John's church was removed and St Mary's 
built, the village, so to speak, turned its back on the 
Via Dolorosa of the gallows, and dropping the old name 
became known by that of the new church, a name it has 
borne ever since. Henceforth Tyburn was identified 
wth the gallows, and moved with them further and 
further west, until at length they rested finally near the 
modem site of the Marble Arch, while the thoroughfare 

 J. G. Waller, * The Tybourae and the Westboume,* read before the 
Xxmdon and Middlesex Archaeological Society. 
\ See YoL i, chap. L 


we call Oxford Street was the Tyburn Road, and Park 
Lane, which led up from Westminster, was Tyburn 

The corporation of London acquired, by lease or 
otherwise, some fields on either side of the brook, near 
the spot at which Oxford Street is crossed. As early 
as 1237 leave was obtained by Gilbert Sandford to 
convey water to the city from Tyburn in leaden pipes.* 
Here, in 1239, water-pipes were laid down, and as many 
as nine " conduits " or reservoirs f were dotted about on 
the neighbouring slopes. At an annual visit the mayor 
and aldermen inspected their springs, and a dinner, 
without which no civic occasion would have been com- 
plete, was eaten in a banqueting-house erected on the 
site of Stratford Place. On the i8th September, 1562, 
for example, we read in Strype that the lord mayor, 
aldermen, and many worshipful persons attended to see 
the conduit heads ; then, turning aside into the wild 
woodland of Marylebone, they hunted a hare ; next they 
dined, and after dinner hunted a fox, when " there was 
great cry for a mile, and at length the hounds killed him 
at the end of St Giles's, with great hollowing and blow- 
ing of horns at his death." 

The introduction of the New River in 1620 rendered 
Tyburn water unnecessary to the city, and before the 
middle of the century the conduits were leased away 
The suburbs north of the Strand had by this time grown 
large enough to require a regular supply, and a com- 
paratively large reservoir for the districts about Covent 

* Waller, ut supra, 

t It is often stated that Conduit Street takes its name from one of these 
reservoirs. This must be an error. Water does not usually run up hill. 
If there was a conduit and a conduit mead here they must have belonged 
to a different system — perhaps for the supply of St James's or West- 


Garden was established on the site afterwards covered 
by Portland Chapel.* The old cisterns, in 1737, were 
no longer wanted, and were arched over. The banquet- 
ing-house was pulled down, and its site let on lease. 
Edward Stratford, afterwards earl of Aldborough, took 
the ground and projected a magnificent architectural 
scheme : but only Stratford Place itself was built, and 
even that was not completed for many years. The 
banqueting-house stood near the highway in Mill Hill 
Field,t and we hear of a lonely tavern, where now 
Welbeck Street joins Wigmore Street, at which pedes- 
trians stopped to look to their pistols before crossing the 
fields to the village of " Lisson Green." Stratford Place, 
commenced in 1744, was not finished for about half a 
century. General Strode, an eccentric soldier who set a 
statue of the duke of Cumberland in Cavendish Square, 
placed a column opposite Aldborough House to " com- 
memorate the naval victories of Great Britain," with a 
magniloquent inscription, in which a hope is expressed 
that the column may stand for ever, " in secula stet," and 
the glory of Britain increase. In 1805 the foundations 
gave way and the perennial monument was removed, 
having stood just six years. 

The building of Stratford Place, which stands partly 
across the brook, caused various complications : and to 
this day Henrietta Street, Cavendish Square, runs up to 
the back of the houses on the east side, and begins again 
to the west 
When Pennant J speaks of a certain Mr. St. John 

• Built in 1766, but not consecrated until 1831. 

t There is still a Mill Hill Place, a lane off Wimpole Street ; the real 
conduit mead was on the other side of the brook in Lylleston, and will 
be noticed further on. 

X Pennant's 'Account,' p. ia6. 


Mildmay, who remembered having shot a woodcock on 
the site of Conduit Street, he is probably mistaken in 
referring to the neighbourhood of Bond Street, but there 
is little now to remind us of green fields or running water 
in either place. Every few years one of the walled-up 
cisterns is discovered under the foundations of old 
houses. A stone used to mark the site of one near the 
point at which Marylebone Lane crosses Wigmore Street ; 
another was found as far off as the top of North Audley 
Street in 1875, and was pronounced Roman by the 
wiseacres of the ** silly season." A third was found in 
Davies Street not long ago, and two are said to exist 
still in the cellars of Aldborough House. 

The abbess of Barking emulated the prebendaries of 
St Paul's in her care to lease away her estate. Early in 
the thirteenth century we find Robert de Vere in pos- 
session of Tyburn. His daughter carried it to the earls 
of Warren and Surrey, from whom it passed to their 
heirs, the earls of Arundel. On the death of Richard 
Fitzalan, fourth earl, in 1397, it was partitioned among 
his coheirs. Some of the best families in England seem 
to have had a share in the newly-named St Marylebone. 
Berkeleys, Neviles, and Howards divided three-quarters 
of it, and one quarter seems to have gone to Henry V., 
as heir of the earls of Derby. About the end of the 
fifteenth century, however, three of the four were united 
by Thomas Hobson, who bought them up one by one. 

I should like to know something more about Thomas 
Hobson. When I come to speak of the adjoining manor 
of Lylleston I shall have occasion to mention him or his 
son and namesake again. At one time he seems to have 
owned an estate which stretched from the Edgware Road 
to Rathbone Place, an estate which, at the present day, 
would have made him one of the richest subjects in 



Europe. He might have founded a great ducal family. 
I dare say his descendants are still extant. Perhaps one 
of them was the Cambridge carrier whose dog is cele- 
brated for his pride. Perhaps another, or the same, 
offered undergraduates Hobson's choice of horses. The 
name is not more ignoble than that of Smithson, and 
might have been improved. It is nearly as good as 
Ogle, or Holies. It is full as old as Cavendish. We 
shall meet with several of these names among the ducal 
owners of Tyburn : but not with that of Hobson, for his 
son, in 1544, exchanged the manor with Henry VIII. for 
lands elsewhere, and the Hobson family sank once more 
into its pristine obscurity. 

Queen Elizabeth let the lands of Tyburn, first to one 
lessee then to another, at a rental of 16/. 11^. 8//., and in 
161 1, James I. sold them to Edward Forset, one of 
queen Elizabeth's tenants, for 829/. 3^. ^, Forset's 
daughter and coheiress was Arabella, wife of Thomas 
Austen, and in 17 10 Sir John Austen, her son, sold 
Tyburn, or Marylebone, to John Holies, duke of New- 
castle, for 17,500/, The rental had by this time increased 
to 900/. a year : being about the rental of a single house 
in Cavendish Square at .the present day. In all these 
transactions Marylebone Park was specially reserved by 
the crown. A number of sub-leases fell in about the 
end of the last century, and the suggestion of John 
White, the architect of the Portland estate, that the 
park, which was then half farm, half village-common, 
subject to encroachments and all the usual forms of 
ill-usage, should be taken up and properly laid out, was 
acted upon, with the fine expanse of the Regent's Park 
as a result Some of the minor leaseholders are com- 
memorated by street names, as Peter Hinde, who farmed 
the park in 1 754. There were three separate farms. 


and the last of the leases, which had been purchased by 
the duke of Portland, did not fall in till i8ii. Foley 
House, the residence of lord Foley, who projected a 
mansion on such a scale that the two stone houses on 
the north side of Cavendish Square are said to have 
been intended for lodges, stopped the way from Regent 
Street to the new park, and caused the laying out of Port- 
land Place at its present extravagant width of 120 feet in 
order not to interrupt the view. The Langham Hotel, 
built on the site of Foley House, has fallen heir to this 
advantageous situation. Foley Street, originally Ogle 
Street, having fallen into disrepute, has become Langham 

But by far the largest part of the old manor is that 
which Sir John Austen sold to the duke of Newcastle. 
Here and there the duke's successors made additional 
purchases, and at the beginning of the present century 
the estate extended from Primrose Hill to Oxford 
Street ; and from the brook, at Marylebone Lane, with 
the short interruption of the city conduit estate, east- 
ward to Hanway Court. In shape, therefore, it is some- 
thing like a T reversed, and comprises almost every 
possible variety of town residence, from palaces to 

The duke of Newcastle was illustrious chiefly for his 
wealth in days when wealth meant political power and 
social advancement. He is buried in the statesmen's 
transept in Westminster Abbey, under a cenotaph by 
Gibbs which is well worthy of his architectural fame. 
Gibbs himself, who better deserved Westminster Abbey, 
is buried in the little church which was then deemed 
sufficient for the inhabitants of the duke's great manor. 
The duke's titles and offices are set forth at considerable 
length on his monument, but tlie cause of them all is 


only alluded to — *^ His personal merit gave a lustre that 
needed not the addition of the great wealth he pos- 
sessed." Burnet calls him '' the richest subject that had 
been in the kingdom for some ages/' and it must be 
allowed that his daughter, " the lady Henrietta Caven- 
dish Holies Harley," as she describes herself, spared no 
expense on the sculpture. 

Lady Henrietta was his only child, and on his death, 
in 171 1, inherited Tyburn. The same year her husband, 
by the elevation of his father, Robert Harley, to the 
earldoms of Oxford and Mortimer, became lord 
Harley, and in 1724 succeeded him in the higher titles. 

Within the last few years a quaint if not very beau- 
tiful memorial of this second earl, Edward, and his rich 
wife, has been removed. The vane of the central build- 
ing of Oxford Market bore their initials, and the date 
172 1. Oxford Mansion, a series of flats, occupies the 
site now. The northern row of houses in the Tyburn 
Road was completed the year after lord Oxford suc- 
ceeded to his father's title, and the new thoroughfare 
was named in his honour, Oxford Street. It then ex- 
tended from Marylebone Lane to Tottenham Court 
Road, or exactly from one end to the other of the manor 
of Tyburn. " New " Oxford Street was made through 
the "rookeries" thirty years ago, but in Bloomsbury, 
and serves to connect the older part of the road with 
Holbom by a more direct course than that through High 
Street, St. Giles's. Finally, the western part of the street 
— ^from Marylebone Lane to the foot of Edgware Road — 
leading through the manor of Lylleston, was completed, 
and after having long been Oxford Road, became a 
street also.* 

* Rathbone Place was built by Captain Rathbone, a lessee, in 1718 : 
and is so dated on a stone at the south-eastern comer. 



Like his father, earl Edward was a great collector of 
old books. The Harleian MSS. seem never to have 
been kept in the manor-house of St Marylebone, as 
some have asserted. In fact, I do not think the 
Holies or Harley family ever lived in the manor- 
house. It stood near the top of High Street, and was 
occupied by the lessee for the time being of the park 
farms. The gardens were celebrated for their beauty, 
and formed a public resort as early as the time 
of Pepys, who praises them ; but in the time of Gay 
they had already acquired a doubtful reputation. Yet 
here some of Handel's music was performed for the first 
time. A letter, quoted by Thomas Smith,* contains an 
amusing anecdote, in which the great composer appears 
in a more amiable light than usual. He was walking in 
the gardens with an old clergyman named Fountayne, 
who lived at that time in the manor-house, when the 
band struck up a new piece. "Come," said Handel, 
" let us sit down and listen to this piece, I want to know 
your opinion of it" After some time Mr. Fountayne 
observed, " It is not worth listening to ; it's very poor 
stuff." " You are right, Mr. Fountayne," said Handel, 
" it is very poor stuff — I thought so myself when I had 
finished it" On the site of the gardens stands Beaumont 
Street, and near it, in High Street, is a large furniture 
repository. This was the library of the Harley family. 

This celebrated collection was the result of per- 
severance and liberality exerted by the two first earls 
during a long series of years. The second earl, in par- 
ticular, spared neither pains nor expense in its formation, 
and that he was no mere collector of the kind fashionable 
a century later may be judged from his letters to the 
agents adroad and at home who found him treasures, as 

 Smith's * Parish of St. ManlebonL,' j). 33. 



well as from the notes which still remain in so many of 
the books. Great as the collection was, and priceless as 
it would be now, the trustees of the British Museum 
acquired it for 10,000/., and the arms of the Harleys, 
with their angelic supporters, are familiar to thousands 
who have cause to remember gratefully the husband of 
the heiress of St Marylebone. 

Her only daughter, Margaret, married William Ben- 
tinck, second duke of Portland, and the present duke is 
the owner of the estate. 

The wife of John Holies, duke of Newcastle, was an 
heiress of the Cavendishes of Welbeck. The Harleys 
were originally of Wigmore Castle. We are thus fur- 
nished with a clue to the names of the streets in the 
eastern part of the parish. Henrietta and Margaret 
Streets are called after the successive heiresses ; Welbeck 
and Wigmore Streets after their country seats ; Harley 
and Holies Streets after their fortunate husbands. 
Oxford Square has become Cavendish Square. 

One street, the least and latest named of all, deserves 
a separate notice. Edward Gibbon's house, in 1776, was 
in Bentinck Street : he dates the preface to the * Decline 
and Fall ' June ist, in that year, from No. 7, which, in a 
letter to his friend, lord Sheffield, he calls "the best 
house in the world." His library was at the back, as 
we gather from an expression in another letter. Writing 
from Lausanne, he says his books have been arranged in 
a room " full as good as that in Bentinck Street, with 
this difference, indeed, that instead of looking on a stone 
court twelve feet square, I command an unbounded 

The western manor of this great parish, like the 
eastern, was, at the time of the Domesday Survey, in 
religious hands. It is enumerated among lands given in 

Q 2 


alms, " in elemosina data," when it was held by a lady 
named Eideva. It had belonged T.R.E. to Edward, the 
son of Suain, a vassal of the king. As early as 1338 it 
was in the possession of the Knights of St John at 
Clerkenwell, and contained, as we are told,* twenty 
acres of meadow and a hundred acres of wood, 
the rest, we may infer, being barren heath or furze. 
Even so late as two centuries ago it was almost bare 
of houses, except near the middle, where Lisson— 
properly Lylleston — Green closely adjoined Padding- 
ton, and both formed a kind of village on the Edg* 
ware Road. Sir William of Clyf held it from the 
Hospitallers, and paid 10/. a year rent He had a villa 
on it, and probably hawked and hunted, and drew the 
long bow in the forest, as freely as if St John's Wood 
was a hundred miles from London. His house was 
probably on the spot centuries later covered by the 
manor-house, now converted into Queen Charlotte's 
Hospital. We hear no more of Lylleston for a century 
and a half; but in the meantime the gallows had 
travelled out from Tyburn and were probably well 
established at the south-western comer of the estate, 
or opposite the modern site of the Marble Arch; 
fpr in 1 5 12, when the lord prior Thomas Docwra, 
granted a lease for fifty years to John and Johan 
Blennerhasset, at least two gibbets are mentioned The 
farm thus granted for fifty years was exactly con- 
terminous with the present Portman estate. Lisson 
Green, Lisson Grove, and St John's Wood were not 
included in it : but we have a list of the fields which is 

* HospiuUers, Camden Soc, 1857, by Lambert B. Larking. So com- 
pletely had the name of LyUeston fallen into oblivion, that Mr. Larking, in 
his index, adds "query Littleton?" and makes no attempt to identify it 
with Tyburn. 


very interesting to the modern topographer.* These 
lands had been in the occupation of Thomas Hobson, 
and were let for 8/. a yean The names of the fields 
are most valuable. From them we learn not only that 
people were hanged here, but that they were hanged in 
chains : that the district was used for field sports : that 
much of it was under wood, and some of it bushy. 
Such was the corner farm on which many of the best 
streets in London now stand. .It comprised in all about 
270 acres, and may be reckoned one of the wealthiest 
estates in England. The exact situation of the six 
fields can no longer be ascertained, but we cannot be 
far wrong in supposing that the gibbets stood near the 
highway, perhaps between Quebec Street and Orchard 
Street, and the " Furzes " and " Haws," near a depression, 
formerly, perhaps, almost a ravine, which crosses behind 
Montagu House, and runs parallel to Upper Berkeley 
Street, a little to the northward. 

As we have seen already Thomas Hobson missed his 
chances of founding a great family but they were eagerly 
seized on by chief justice Portman, who, in 1532, bought 
from the executors of the Blennerhassets the reversion 
of their house, and afterwards, in the reign of queen 
Mary, obtained the land in fee simple. 

To trace the further descent to the present owners 
would be but tedious, except in so far as it explains the 
street nomenclature of the district The male line termi- 
nated with a grandson of Sir William Portman, and the 
estate went to one of the Seymours, a descendant of the 

* Among them were Great Gibbet Field, Little Gibbet Field, Hawk- 
field, Brockstand, Tassal Croft, Bojrs Croft, Farze Croft, and Shepcott 
Haws. Each of these names has its meaning. Hawkfield and Tassel Croft 
refer to falconry. Boys is, of course, the French bois^ a wood. Shepcott 
is a fold. Brockstand is the badger's stane or stone. The rest are 


great Protector, It reverted, however, eventually, to 
William Berkeley, whose mother, a Speke, had been a 
niece of the last Portman. Thus we have Berkeley 
Street, Seymour Street, and Portman Square. From 
Orchard Portman, in Somerset, and Bryanstone, in 
Dorset, we get another batch of names, while two 
Quebec Streets and two Adam Streets* furnish us with 
the general date of the buildings (1759), and the name 
of the architects. 

The farm in the occupation of Sir William of Clyf 
was at least double the size of that which was rented 
by Thomas Hobson, who, in fact, had only the south- 
western comer, which was all he transmitted to his 
successors the Portmans. The rest of Clyfs leasehold 
comprised at least four later holdings, all of which 
must be mentioned. The Eyre estate, partly on the 
slope of Hampstead Hill, but chiefly within the manor 
of Lylleston, consisting of 340 acres, was granted by 
Charles II. in satisfaction of a debt to lord Wotton. 
Another estate, lying along the Edgware Road, was 
bequeathed by John Lyon to Harrow School. A third 
was that portion of the City Conduit estate, which 
lay on the western side of the brook. This was the 
real " Conduit Mead," to which I referred above. It was 
long the property of a family named Edwardes, and from 
its interrupting the communication east and west between 
the Cavendish Square and Portman Square districts is 
frequently mentioned in the parish annals. By the 
threat of an Act of Parliament, the tenant was eventually 
brought to reason, and Wigmore Street was continued as 
Edwardes Street,t Lower Seymour Street, the south side 
of Portman Square, and Upper Seymour Street to 

* One now re*named Sejrmonr Place, 
t Now merged in Lower Seymour Street 


Edgware Road This was about 1780, and the neigh- 
bouring Manchester Square was completed about the 
same time.' The Spanish chapel close by was built for 
the accommodation of the Spanish ambassador, who 
rented Manchester House ;* and the spiritual wants of 
the parishioners of all denominations are well supplied, 
so far as church room is concerned. 

The church of the whole parish of St Marylebone, 
removed from the lonely comer at Tyburn, was planted 
in High Street, and still, substantially, stands, though 
more or less completely rebuilt at different times, as " the 
parish chapel." There is not much of the picturesque 
left in it, but the interior has been immortalised by 
Hogarth as the scene of the Rake's Marriage. The living 
went through all the usual vicissitudes, but the abbey of 
Barking does not seem ever to have held the advowson. 
At one time it belonged to cardinal Wolsey, at another 
to Thomas Hobson — ^who, by the way, paid the clergy- 
man 1 3 shillings a year — and having eventually come to 
the Forsets, went at last to the dukes of Portland, and 
was bought, under an Act of Parliament, by the govern- 
ment in 1821. In 1650 the minister had 15/. a year; 
but as the population increased it is to be hoped the 
emoluments were higher. A manuscript diary, which 
occurs appropriately enough among the Harleian Collec- 
tion, contains a notice of Mr. Randolph Ford, who served 
the parish between 171 1 and 1724, from which it appears 
that on a single day his duties were as follows: — He 
began the day by marrying six couples — perhaps 
Hogarth's Rake among them — then he read service and 
preached, churching six women afterwards. In the 
afternoon he read and preached again, but it was not till 
then that the real work of the day can be said to have 

* Now Hertford House, the residence of Sir Richard Wallace. 


commenced, for we are told that he christened thirty- 
two children, six of them at home, and proceeded to 
bury thirteen corpses, reading the whole service over 
each of them separately. From his address in the register 
book It appears that this indefatigable clergyman lived 
** at the Highlander, Little Suffolk Street, Charing Cross," 
and had probably, therefore, a long walk before and after 
his day's labours. 

In Hogarth's print a spider has spun a web over the 
poor-box, and that his view is probably accurate may be 
Judged from his reproduction of the lines by which 
Edward Forset, whom I have mentioned already more 
than once, pointed out his burial-place : — 

** These : Pbwxs : vnscrvd : and : tan : in : svnder 
In : STONE : thers : graven ; what : is : vnder 
To : wit : A : valt : for : bvrial : there : is 
Which : Edward : Forset : made : for : him : and : his." 

The new church was built in 1817, after many delays, 
and though one contemporary writer calls it " one of the 
handsomest structures of the kind in the metropolis," it 
is eminently commonplace, and not worthy to compare 
for a moment with Hawksmoor's long-despised St 
George's. In a century architectural taste had not 
greatly improved ; but the chapels of ease of this parish, 
which are older, are not more beautiful. St Peter's. 
Vere Street, formerly Oxford Chapel, had the advantage 
of Gibbs for its architect, but is a very poor specimen of 
the " Queen Anne " style ; and is chiefly remarkable now 
as the scene, for many years, of the labours of Frederick 
Denison Maurice. The interior has recently been 
"restored" in the so-called queen Anne style* The 

• Thi^ is, I believe, the first application of this style to a purpose for 
which gothic has so long been used. Quebec Chapel and Brunswidc 
Chapel have been gothicised. 


other chapels in the eastern part of the parish are 
St James's, in Westmorland Street, formerly Welbeck 
Chapel ; and St Paul's, of which I have spoken 
above. There are modem district churches also, built 
about the same time as the new St Marylebone ; 
and a small chapel situated in Margaret Street, first 
used in 1789, was on the site of a church now cele- 
brated as one of the most magnificent buildings of its 
kind in London. 

The church of All Souls, Langham Place, has been 
alternately admired and criticised, till all that can now 
be said about it is that the design suits the situation 
admirably, and that if it is absolutely necessary to fit a 
gothic spire to a heathen temple in order to make 
a Christian church of it, Nash's very original device 
will do as well as another. The church was consecrated 
in 1824. 

In the western half of the parish is also a large 
number of new churches, of which very few require 
notice. The old chapels, in Baker Street (Portman 
Chapel), Upper Berkeley Street (Brunswick Chapel), 
and Quebec Street (Quebec Chapel), are chiefly remark- 
able for the way in which the interiors have been 
modernised without undue interference with the original 
fabric. At Quebec Chapel the overflowing congregations 
brought together by the late dean Alford and the 
present bishop (Magee) of Peterborough, are still remem- 
bered. St Thomas's, Orchard Street, is a new and 
handsome gothic structure, and so is the church in 
Nutford Place, erected on the site of a cholera hospital, 
which during the great epidemic of 1849 was never re- 
quired for the parish, there not having been a single 
case in St Marylebone. It is appropriately dedicated 
to " St. Luke, the beloved physician." 


St. Maty's, Bryanston Square, which is now the mother 
church of this division of the parish, was built by Smirke 
in 1824, and shows how, with Nash's round temple for a 
portico, a handsome tower or spire of suitable style may 
be erected. " Froggy Dibdin," the bibliographer, was the 
first incumbent 

It would be impossible to make anything like a com- 
plete list of the eminent inhabitants of the parish of 
St. Marylebone. I have already spoken of Gibbon, but 
he is only one of a large number of literary men who 
have lived in it at one time or another. Sir Arthur 
Helps died in Lower Berkeley Street, where he was on 
a visit, in 1875. Talleyrand once lived in Manchester 
Square. Mrs. Siddons died in Upper Baker Street, in 
the last house on the east side, almost facing into 
Regent's Park. " George Eliot " lived for many years at 
South Bank. Landseer died at his house in St. John's 
Wood Road, in 1873. Sir Thomas Picton, who fell at 
Waterloo, had a house in Edwardes Street 

Of the illustrious dead buried in the old church, I 
may mention besides James Gibbs, the architect, who 
died in 1754, Humphrey Wanley, the Harley librarian 
(d. 1726). Dr. Johnson's friend Baretti (d. 1789), and 
Charles Wesley, the hymn-writer (d. 1788). In the 
parish cemetery, Paddington Street, a large number of 
remarkable people were buried before its final closure : 
from Canning's father ; Hoyle, who wrote on games ; and 
** the gallant, good Riou," one of Nelson's captains, killed 
at Copenhagen ; down to Mr. Rawlinson, " First Master 
Cook to his most beloved and revered Royal Master, 
George HI.," and Mr. John Castles, "late of the Great 
Grotto, whose great ingenuity in shell-work gained him 
universal applause." 

If the name of Tyburn can be said to survive at all, it 


is in a district far west of the original manor, as I have 
endeavoured to show. Tybumia at the present day is 
the city of palaces north of the park, along the Bays- 
water Road, and is all within the parish of Paddington. 
An iron tablet in the park railing facing Edgware Road 
marks the site of a turnpike, and dates its removal : — 
"Here stood Tyburn Gate, 1829." 

It is difficult, even with the help of the prints, maps, 
and drawings of the Grace and other collections to form 
an idea of the aspect of this comer a hundred years ago, 
or to recall the scenes of horror which took place at 
executions on the bare hill to the westward. But, 
instead of the great street of Edgware Road, with its 
double row of large shops, instead of the tall houses of 
Gonnaught Place, instead of the seemingly endless vista 
of terraces and gardens facing the park there were no 
houses on the left hand, looking along Edgware Road, 
and none on the right, looking along the Uxbridge Road. 
There was a wall, by no means uniform or regular, 
dividing the park from the road ; and about half-way to 
Kensington Gardens was the ranger's lodge, opening 
with a pair of g^tes nearly opposite the modem Albion 
Street. The inclosure for the burial-ground of St. 
Geoi^e's stood out as a prominent feature in the land- 
scape — a landscape which showed, here and there a 
farmhouse or a strawyard ; here and there a lonely 
tavern with a swinging sign and a water-trough ; and for 
the rest was made up of a long slope down to the Bays- 
water, or Westboume, with, in the foreground, crossed 
by footpaths, a bare triangular space decorated only by 
the awful presence of the gallows. 

This space can hardly be defined now, the local land- 
marks having been carefully erased in the laying out of 
the streets and roads. A house at the comer of Con- 


naught Square and Stanhope Place is often asserted to 
be actually on the site occupied by the gallows — an idle 
tradition, as the gallows were not always on the same 
spot, and were certainly, during the last few years, only 
erected for each execution, and then on the roadway 
itself. Another idle story is, that remains indicating the 
burial of bodies under the gallows were found at the 
comer of Connaught Place. In one publication it was 
asserted that a cartload of bones was removed and 
buried in a pit dug in the mews ; and that this cartload 
''doubtless'* contained the bones of Cromwell.* As a 
matter of fact no such discovery was ever made. When 
the houses in Connaught Place were built, a careful 
search was instituted lest any such fragments should 
exist A single bone, which may be a portion of the 
lower jaw of a human being, was found, and is carefully 
preserved. But that was all. There are few parts of 
London, especially along the course of an ancient 
Roman road, where remains of some kind, and generally 
sepulchral, may not be found. 

This comer, and the inclosing sides, north-west by 
Edgware Road to Kensal Green, and west by the 
Uxbridge or Bayswater Road to the boundaries of 
Kensington, near what used to be the Gravel Pits, but 
has now become Notting Hill Gate, is the parish of 
Paddington, and includes the two manors of Paddington 
and Westbourne. They were divided by the little stream 
which was the original source of the Serpentine, but is 
now lost to sight in an underground sewer. Brook 
Mews marks the spot where it was last seen. In tracing 

* I foUowed this tradition implicitly in my * In and Out of London'; and 
was kindly set right by the best authority, the owner and occupier of 
Arklow House itself. The words " numerous bones " were used by a 
writer in * Notes and Queries,' 9th May, i860, p. 400. 


the history of Westminster, we have had occasion to 
show how Westbourne was probably at a very early 
period separated from the original " manor of the church 
of SL Peter," and that it may be identified with ^the 
holding of Bainiard. Of Paddington we only know that 
if it was separated from the manor of Westminster at 
some time between the Domesday survey and the 
middle of the twelfth century, it was restored to its 
original owners through the care of abbot Walter, who 
in 1 191, bought it from Richard and William de 
Padinton, and left it to the abbey for the good of his 
soul, and to provide "fine manchets, cakes, crumpets, 
cracknells, and wafers," with a gallon of wine for each 
monk, and other indulgences, on the anniversary of his 

By what means the manor of Westbourne came to 
belong to the abbey of Westminster I have not been 
able to ascertain. In 1222, a decree was made in order 
to terminate a dispute between the abbey and the see of 
London. In this decree Westbume and Padyngtoun are 
named together among the possessions of the abbey, or 
to speak more exactly, are said to *' belong to the parish 
of St Margaret" 

When the religious houses were suppressed Henry VIII. 
made Paddington part of the endowment of the new see 
of Westminster.! This was in 1541, and the manors, 
though now both in ecclesiastical hands, were never 
united again, as, when the new bishopric was abolished, 
Paddington went towards the endowment of the see of 
London, while Westbourne remained to the dean and 

* There is a donbtful charter in Kemble's 'Codex Diplomaticus < 
(mccxxiii.), in which St. Dunstan has the credit of adding Paddington to 
the possessions of the Abbey. The two statements are not inconsistent, as 
Richard and William may have been leaseholders, but it is improbable. 

t See chap. xvi. 


chapter of Westminster, who had received it from 
Henry VIII. and have retained it ever since. 

The bishops now exercise their rights through the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners ; but a very determined 
attempt was made by a dignitary, no less resp>ectable 
than archbishop Sheldon, to alienate Paddington, as 
the canons of St. Paul's had alienated their estates. At 
the time of the Commonwealth, Paddington, like other 
church estates, was sold ; but at the Restoration, Sheldon, 
then bishop of London, claimed it for his use, and 
obtaining it, gave it on a long lease to his sons, Joseph 
and Daniel. His family are said to have enjoyed the 
revenues of the manor for above eighty years. Although 
holding under so unjust an arrangement, the Sheldons 
deserved well of the place, and when the old church, a 
kind of chapel, originally, to St Margaret's, became 
ruinous, they built a new one. This new church, which 
was consecrated in 1678, was dedicated to St James. 
The older one is sometimes supposed to have been 
dedicated to St Katherine, but on insufficient evidence.* 
The existing church of St Mary, Paddington Green, was 
built by local subscription in 1788, and is described 
shortly afterwards as "seated on an eminence, finely 
embosomed in venerable elms." After some years, even 
this new church became too small for the rapidly 
growing parish ; and there are now not only some half- 
dozen district churches, but the church at Paddington 

* The history of Paddington, little as there is to tell, is ttnnsaallj 
involved, owing to the carelessness of the historians. Timbs sajs the 
Sheldons built their church in the reign of Charles I. ; but this statement 
is capped by another writer, who, after assigning the right date to 
St. James's, goes on to say it was decorated in accordance with the wishes 
of queen Elizabeth, and confounds the burial-ground with that in 
Paddington Street, St Marylebone, and Paddington Green with West- 
bourne Green, 


Green has been deposed from its ascendancy. The parish 
for the fourth time changed its patron and reverted 
to its former saint, when the new and handsome but 
terribly stiff perpendicular church of St James was 
erected in 1845, and made parochial. This revival or 
awakening of religious enthusiasm in Paddington took 
place at an unfortunate moment in the history of archi- 
tecture. The least objectionable of the new churches 
is that in the square known as Lancaster Gate. It is 
absurdly and incongruously placed among stucco palaces 
of an Italian style, but from the Serpentine bridge, 
where the spire alone can be seen reflected in the water, 
through a vista of trees, it forms a pleasing feature 
of one of the few " bits " of landscape in London. On 
the whole, I am inclined to prefer the quaint classic- 
ality of old St Mary's to the mock gothic of any of its 

Until lately Paddington has had few eminent inha- 
bitants — nay, few inhabitants of any kind. The bishops, 
after whom so many of the streets and roads are called, 
never lived in their manor-house on the east side of the 
green ; and a few years ago the house itself was pulled 
down. By a curious chance, however, though many of 
the great folk of the world did not affect Paddington in 
their lives, it has been the burial-place of more remark- 
able people than even Westminster Abbey itself. In 
1764, the churchwardens of St George's, Hanover Square, 
lord Boston and Mr. Long of Rood Ashton, in Wilt- 
shire, bought for their newly-established parish a plot of 
land for a burial-ground. It was situated a long way 
out of town on the bare hillside, westward of the place 
of execution, at the comer of Edgware Road. It must 
have presented a sufficiently forbidding aspect when 
first inclosed. Now it looks rather pleasant, and green 


with trees and flower-beds, when viewed from the 
backs of the houses on the west side of Connaught 
Square, or the south side of Connaught Street* Here 
were buried some whom the world will not easily forget, 
though they may never even have seen their last resting- 
place in the time of their mortal lives. In 1768, Laurence 
Sterne's body was brought to it from the lodging-house t 
in Bond Street, where he died ; and was buried without 
so much as a gravestone. Some years later two Free- 
masons, out of admiration for his genius, set up a stone 
against the western wall with a long inscription ; but it 
would be rash to say it stands at the actual place of his 
interment In the "reserved portion" of the ground, 
where rich people were able to protect their bodies from 
contamination with meaner mould, are some interesting 
monuments ; and among them the urn of a lady who 
was cremated in accordance with the provisions of her 
will in 1808. The cemetery is entered under an arch- 
way which passes between a chapel and the house of 
the keeper. In the chapel are some curious tablets, 
including that of the famous Mrs, Molony (d. 1839), who 
" was cousin to Burke, commonly called the sublime," 
who was " a superb drawer in water-colours, which was 
much admired in the exhibition," and of whom Mr. 
Edward Molony, of Castle Molony, her husband, asserts 
that " of such are the kingdom of heaven." J Here is also 
a tablet to the memory of Sir Thomas Picton, whose 
body, having lain in state at his house in Edwardes 

* Formerly Upper Berkeley Street West The charchwardens took it 
from Sir Thomas Frederick, who had a lease for three lives from the 
bishop. It is described as "five acres in Tybura field.'' 'Malcolm,' 
iv. 236. 

t No. 41, "a silk<ibag shop," now Agnew & Co.'s, the picture dealers. 

X The whole inscription may be found in Mr. Ravenshaw's ' Antiente 
Epitaphes,' p. 184. 


Street, was buried in the little vault under this chapel. 
After the death and funeral of the duke of Wellington, 
it was removed to St. PauFs Cathedral. 

At the most distant spot that can possibly be found 
within the limits of the parish is the great cemetery of 
Kensal Green, the bleakest, dampest, most melancholy 
of all the burial-grounds of London. Many a body 
brought here to the grave has been the cause of other 
deaths. The mourners at one funeral have been the 
mourned at another. It would be impossible to enu- 
merate the names of all the memorable dead who sleep 
in this heavy clay ; but here are Sydney Smith and 
Thackeray, Mulready and John Leech, cardinal Wise- 
man and the duke of Sussex. Two other names only 
will I mention. Who that has read the * Tales of a 
Grandfather' can forget "Hugh Littlejohn, Esq.," to 
whom they are dedicated ? Who that has felt himself 
no nearer to heaven "than when he was a boy" can 
fail to look with interest on the grave of Thomas Hood ? 
The line on his monument was suggested by Mark 
Lemon — 

" He sang the Song of the Shirt." 

The West Bourne, or as we sometimes find it written 
Wesbom, divided the manor from that of Paddington, 
both lying originally, as we have seen, in the same 
parish. The extension of building over the western 
manor has only taken place within living memory, 
although an old village or two stood on the slope 
between the brook and the boundary of Kensington 
parish, near the top of the hill. Westboume Green is 
now wholly obliterated by railways, the great Paddington 
station, properly in Westboume, and the numberless 
lines running into it or from it, to the city and to 

VOL. 11. R 


Addison Road, meeting on the very spot which was so 
long the village common. At the beginning of the 
present century, and long after, it was remarkable for its 
rural appearance. Westbourne Farm was the country 
residence of Mrs. Siddons, and Westbourne Place was a 
villa built for a city merchant by Isaac Ware, of whom 
a contemporary declares that though originally only a 
sweep, he was a born architect. Be this as it may, both 
villa and farm have long been destroyed, and West- 
bourne Green is consumpta per ferro^ razed literally with 
the level ground, and covered with hundreds of lines of 
i ron railway. Westbourne Green Lane survives, but is 
now known as Queen's Road, Bayswater. A few trees 
and a nursery garden or two remain, but all the rest is 
railway station, shops, and taverns. To judge from 
the changes the lane has undergone in a few years, it 
will soon form a line of street as continuous and un- 
broken as Edgware Road, or Westbourne Grove itself. 
The whole district has grown up in a short time round 
one or two older centres, such as Orme Square, built in 
1815, or the original Bayswater, a hamlet near what is 
now Gloucester Terrace. The site of St. Stephen's 
church was, till 1842, a racing ground, known as the 
Hippodrome ; and Christ Church, Lancaster Gate, 
stands as nearly as possible where the old ponds of 
Baynard's Watering became successively Bear's Water- 
ing, Bayswater, and Hopwood's nursery. A little further 
west was the villa of lord Craven, inaccurately described 
as " at the Gravel Pits," which has given its name to a 
round dozen of modem streets, squares, gardens, places, 
and terraces. The ground is marked in old maps as the 
" Pest Field." The good earl of Craven, in the time of 
the Great Plague, had given a site in Soho both for a 
burial ground and for a kind of cottage hospital, as we 



should call it, for the use of the suburbs. The pest field 
was situated between Golden Square and the ** Tyburn 
Road," now Oxford Street; but some time about the 
beginning of the last century it was decided to close the 
burial ground and build over the whole area. The then 
remote and desolate Upton Farm, " near the Kensington 
Gravel Pits," was accordingly purchased for the repre- 
sentative of lord Craven, in lieu of any rights or con- 
tingent rights he might have over the Pest Field ; but 
according to the terms of the exchange, the new Pest 
Field, previously Upton Farm, was, in case of plague, to 
be g^ven up for the burial of victims from the parish of 
St. Anne. In some old maps Pest Field stands on the 
Bayswater Road, a little to the west of the old Bays- 
water Conduit. 

When the princess Anne gave birth to the little son 
whose story has been so quaintly told by Jenkin Lewis, 
his servant,* **her Highness sought after a house near 
town fit for his nursery ; and, pitching upon Kensington 
as a place of good air, she chose my lord Craven's house, 
at Kensington gravel pits, which his lordship readily 
lent her for that purpose. The young prince continued 
there about twelve months, thriving apace ; and went 
out every day when dry, in the afternoon, in his little 
coach which the duchess of Ormond presented him 
with, and often times in the forenoon ; nor was the 
severity of the winter's cold a pretence for his staying 
within. The horses, which were no larger than a good 
mastiff, were under the guidance of Dick Drury, his 
coachman." Lord Craven's house proving too small for 
the prince and princess with their attendants, after a 
year's residence they removed to Campden Hill. 

There is something touching in the glimpse here given 

* Reprint, 1881 (Stanford), p. 36. 

R 2 


us of the stout old earl. He had fought for the daughter 
of James ; he had seen one king beheaded and another 
exiled ; he had lost an estate under the commonwealth, 
and gained an earldom at the Restoration ; he was univer- 
sally believed to have married the widowed queen of 
Bohemia, and to have comforted her declining years in 
a princely retirement at Hampton in Berkshire, while 
the mention of the Pest Field reminds us that he, with 
the duke of Albemarle, remained in town during the 
Great Plague of 1665, succouring, and directing when 
every one else had fled or become crazy with fear. And 
now in his old age we see him stooping over the cradle of 
the poor decrepit child in whom the hopes of the nation 
and the dynasty were so fallaciously centered. When 
the little prince died, in 17CXD, the good earl had already 
gone to his well-earned repose ; but if he had lived three 
years longer he would have seen the succession to the 
English throne settled on the daughter of the beloved 
queen, whose widower he remained for six and thirty 

The name of " Dick Drury," the prince's coachman, 
may point to the earFs connection with Drury Lane, or 
may be accidental; but his liberality in offering his 
house rent free to the princess, whom, in truth, he may 
have looked on as a niece, was not imitated by the 
owner of Campden House, to which the child was 
removed in 1691. 

From Craven Hill and its gardens to Orme Square 
the ground rises gradually, so that when the border of 
the parish of Kensington is reached, we are ninety-five 
feet above the mean sea level. Naturally, this slope 
facing Kensington Gardens is looked upon as one of the 
best situations for fine houses, and is accordingly by 
degrees assuming an appearance to be compared only 


with that of Park Lane. But many small houses, shops 
two storey villas, and taverns still remain ; and it is a 
question how far really substantial buildings can be 
erected unless upon longer leases than are at present 
granted by the dean and chapter. 

Bark Place, like Orme Square, takes its name from 
an old lessee, while Petersburgh Place and Moscow 
Road are said to commemorate the visit of the czar 
after the conclusion of peace in 1815, when this district 
was first covered with houses. 

High as is the ground of Orme Square, it is over- 
topped by the neighbouring hill on whose north side is 
Notting Hill Gate, and at whose southern foot is the 
ancient village of Kensington.* 

It is customary to speak of Kensington as ''the old 
court suburb," and if the name is correctly derived from 
the Anglo-Saxon Conning^ or Cyningy there may be 
good ground for connecting it with royalty. But so far 
back as direct history goes, Kensington has had nothing 
to do with kings and queens. Swift talks of "kingly 
Kensington " ; and other writers innumerable have fol- 
lowed him. In the Domesday Book, however, we find 
no mention of kings among the owners, except when we 
are told that Edwin, a vassal of king Edward the Con- 
fessor, owned the manor and could sell it, showing that it 
was his absolute freehold. At the time of the survey 
it was held by Aubrey de Ver, not of the king, but of 
the bishop of Coutances. It would thus appear that this 

* The meaning and derivation of '* Kensington** are not easily dis- 
covered. It is usual to speak as if Kensing was a corruption of Cyningy 
and as if Kensington means Kin^s Town. But the Chenuit of Domesday 
is against this interpretation ; and there is no parallel, so far as I know, for 
turning Cyning into Kerning, On the whole I am inclined to see in 
Kensington the name of a mark, and there are Kitnsings in other places, 
which afford a better derivation than can be made from Cyning. 


manor was singularly independent of royalty at the 
earliest * period at which we have any mention of it ; 
and it may be added that Kensington has maintained to 
the present day its ancient condition in this respect 

Aubrey " de Ver," as he is called in the Domesday 
Book, became the ancestor of the Veres, earls of Oxford, 
and the manor of Kensington remained theirs for many 
generations, although Edward IV. gave it to his brother 
Richard, and it was held for a time by Sir Reginald 
Bray. But a very large slice of the manor was granted 
about 1 107 to the abbot of Abingdon, near Oxford, 
by the first Aubrey, "for the soul's health" of his 
eldest son, and as the church was included in the gift, 
and actually stands on this part of the land, the parish 
obtained the name it has ever since borne of St Mary 
Abbot's.f The Abingdon estate became itself a sub- 
manor, and perhaps the manor house, now known as 
Holland House, is the most celebrated building in 
Kensington. The earl's manor house was, as the name 
imports, in Earl's Court Road, and we shall probably 
not go far wrong if we identify it with the house long 
occupied by the great John Hunter, and lately standing 
near Earl's Court Station. 

Of the other, or Holland House, we have heard almost 
too much of late years. To believe Macaulay no house 
ever contained within its walls so many eminent men at 
the same time. Certainly, one of the most influential of 
the many mutual-admiration societies, which are to be 
found mentioned in English history, occasionally met in 

* There is a Cheiustun in a charter (Kemble, 992) of the reign of 
Caedwalla of Wessex, but it has not been identified. 

t Oddly enough, one of the most voluminous and ambitious of modem 
London historians devotes three long chapters to Kensington withoat a 
mention of the abbot of Abingdon* 


Its dining-room. But though Wilkie may here have gazed 
at a picture by Reynolds, and Mackintosh have "turned 
over Thomas Aquinas," and Talleyrand have related an 
adventure with Lannes,* there have been greater men 
assembled together under one roof than Wilkie, Mackin- 
tosh, and Talleyrand, even if we throw in Macaulay, 
with Marshall Lannes, Reynolds, and the saint Many 
of us, looking back through a longer perspective, may 
think some of the club meetings in Soho, such as that 
lashed by Goldsmith in his " Retaliation," would bear 
comparison with the best party ever assembled at 
Holland House, though among them were several 
eminent Whigs, together with Sydney Smith, Byron, 
Thomas Moore, and Thomas Campbell. Lady Holland 
appears to have been a very disagreeable person, of 
character so questionable that ladies could not appear 
at her table ; and though she was the great and typical 
** Mrs. Leo Hunter " of her day — ^hospitable, clever, and 
managing — it is impossible to admire her. 

There are fortunately older and better memories about 
Holland House. The third lord Holland, Macaulay's 
contemporary, was the son of Stephen, second lord, who 
died early, and nephew of Charles James Fox. When 
Fox was young, his lovely aunt, lady Sarah Lennox, 
here received her many admirers, made hay upon the 
lawn, petted her squirrel, grieved over the birds her 
nephew killed,t nearly broke a king's heart, and cried 
for the loss of a crown as if it had been a plaything. It 
would be easy to linger over this charming figure.} 

Casting our eyes a little further back still we come to 
another remarkable name. Before the time of Henry 

* * Macaulay 's Essays,' ii. 180. 

t According to the picture by Reynolds. 

\ There is a chapter on lady Sarah in my ' In and Out of London.' 


Fox, the first baron, who having bought the house took 
his title from it, the family of Rich, earls of Warwick 
and Holland, had owned it. The last earl but two left 
a widow, Charlotte, the daughter of a Welsh baronet 
In 17 16 she married Joseph Addison, and in Holland 
House, three years later, the Spectator looked his last on 
the world. Here he is said to have shown his stepson 
how a Christian can die, and we may hope the young 
earl took advantage of the example, for he only outlived 
Addison a couple of years. 

The Rich family boasted of a martyr in the royal 
cause. The earl of Holland obtained the house by 
a fortunate marriage and had been concerned with 
** Steenie " in the Spanish project He had first defied 
Charles, who imprisoned him, and afterwards Cromwell 
by whose orders he was beheaded. He took his minor 
title from Kensington, and his earldom from the *' parts of 
, Holland," in Lincolnshire. He died before Westminster 
Hall in a satin doublet and silver lace, at the very place 
where thirty years before Raleigh had met the same 
fate. He enjoyed good company to the last, for the duke 
of Hamilton preceded him to the block, and lord Capel 
followed him. He was the least worthy of the three, 
and his family do not seem to have mourned for him 
long, for we find Holland House mentioned soon after 
as one of the places in which private theatricals were 
performed during the mirthless days of the protectorate. 

Sir Walter Cope had obtained from James I, all the 
abbot's manor, and there is every reason to suppose that 
he built his new house on the old site. On the other 
hand, while manorial customs prevailed, it was to a 
house near the present vicarage that the inhabitants of 
St Mary Abbot's resorted to do suit and service ; and 
it is not impossible that the abbot of Abingdon did not 


live very far from the church. Be this as it may, Sir 
Walter spared neither money nor good taste, and the 
result is a house of which it can only be said that it is 
among the most picturesque of London suburban 
dwellings. It is said that Thorpe was the architect, but 
Inigo Jones and Nicholas Stone also left their mark on 
it, and though there have been modem alterations, even to 
the extent of changing the face of the house, it remains 
substantially as it was in the reign of the first Stuart 

Among Sir Walter Cope's associates was a rich city 
merchant, of obscure birth, named Hicks. To this 
worthy, so runs the tale, Sir Walter lost at the gaming 
table a few acres of the hill which rose between his own 
house and the church. Sir Baptist Hicks took advantage 
of the site to erect a villa by no means unworthy of its 
great neighbour, and planting an avenue of elms from 
his hall-door to the village High Street, finished it with 
a pair of brick gate-posts, surmounted by the hounds 
which on his elevation to a peerage formed his supporters. 
Like Sir Walter Sir Baptist had no son, and Campden 
House, as he named it, went to his elder daughter, on 
whose husband, Edward Noel, the title was entailed, 
together with the manor of Chipping Campden, in 
Gloucestershire, from which it was derived. 

The Noels lived at Campden House after the death of 
Sir Baptist in 1629. His will contains so many charitable 
bequests that Stow's continuator devotes a whole chapter 
to it, and to " an epitaph made in his Memoriall," which 
commences with 

Faith ♦rue 

Hope firm, 

Charity free, 

Baptist, Lord Campden, 

Was these three, 

five lines from which the tenor of the rest may be easily 


inferred. His bequest to Kensington consisted of a sum 
of 200/. " to be yearly employed for the good and benefit 
of the poor." This legacy was invested in the purchase 
of " two closes, containing fourteen acres, called Chare 
Crofts, situated near Sheppard's Bush Green, in the 
parish of Fulham." Chare Crofts bring in now 480/. a 
year, and the trustees have some 10,000/. in consols. 
Lady Campden, the widow of the second viscount, also 
left a legacy to the parish, with which the authorities 
bought, in 1644, " a close, called Butt's Field, containing 
5 acres, 2 roods, and 30 perches, and also 3 roods to be 
taken out of Middle Quayle Field."* These lands 
adjoined Hogmore, or Hogmire Lane, now Gloucester 
Road and Palace Gate, and bring in some 36oil, while 
about 40,000/. have accumulated. 

The Noels became extinct, in the male line, early in 
the eighteenth century, but the trustee of the last of them, 
a Mr. Bertie, is said to have asked* the princess Anne 
such a rent for Campden House " that it was imagined 
any other person might have purchased it for les&"t 
Yet the house was too small for the princess and her 
son, and a building now known as Little Campden 
House was added on the western side. 

The poor little prince is carefully described by his 
faithful servant ; even his height and weight and the size 
of his head are recorded. We read of his medicines, his 
blisters, his very mild birchings, his new clothes and stiff 
waistcoat, his tumbles, and his refusal to say his prayers. 
William IH. appears in a new and amiable light, caressing 
his little nephew. He named him duke of Gloucester, 
a title never formally used, and when he was six 
years of age, " as a Garter was vacant by the death of 
Lord Stafford, the King came to Campden House and 

* Report of the Vestry, 1810, p. 41. f Lewis, p. 36 (reprint). 


told the princess she should have St James's Palace to 
reside in, and that he would bestow the Order of the 
Garter on the Duke: he also informed her Highness 
why he had not done it before. Accordingly on the 
4th of January, 1696, the Bishop of Salisbury came to 
tell the Duke that he should have the Garter within two 
days ; and asked him if the thoughts of it did not make 
him glad ? * I am gladder of the King's favour to me,* 
he said without being prompted to it"* 

The child was devoted to military pursuits. Every one 
has heard of his boy regiment His attendants made 
him fortifications in the grounds of Campden House, and 
when the king visited him he fired a salute from real 
guns with real powder. His boy regiment was partly re- 
cruited from London. Kensington was not yet perhaps 
sufficiently populous to furnish more than a couple of 
score or so. They assembled on holidays and were put 
through their exercises by the little duke, who enforced 
strict discipline and administered the military punish- 
ments in vogue at that date. Yet we hear of complaints 
of their insolence when dismissed from parade. When 
they were coming from London, or going home, they 
were often very rude and would " fall on many people.*' 
It was a proud day for the little duke when William 
came to review them. " My dear King,**, he exclaimed, 
"you shall have both my companies with you to 

The duke died in 1700 at Windsor, and Campden 
House was next occupied by the dowager countess of 
Burlington t and her clever son, afterwards known as the 
" Architect Earl.** He may have imbibed some of his 

 Lewis, p. 97* 

f She was the daughter of Henry Noel, second son of the third Viscount 
Campden, and viridow of Charles Boyle, Earl of Burlington, who died in 


architectural taste from contemplating the beauties of 
the old house, with its muUioned windows richly dight in 
stained glass, and its magnificent oak carvings. 

In 1 7 19 it was sold to Nicholas Lechmere, who be- 
came a peer in 172 1, and died childless in 1727, being 
now chiefly remembered for a lampoon of Swift's* 
which he provoked. The house went into Chancery and 
appears to have been unoccupied till 1735, when it was 
decreed by the Court to Edmund Lechmere, M.P. for 
Worcestershire. He did not keep it long ; and the next 
owner, Stephen Pitt, a relation in all probability of the 
Chatham family,t lived in Little Campden House, and 
let the older building to some ladies who kept an 
" eminent boarding school for young ladies." 

Pitt married the daughter and heiress of a man 
named Orbell who would probably be forgotten by 
posterity but for the fact that the great Sir Isaac 
Newton used to come to Kensington for change of air, 
and died at last in Orbell's Buildings in 1727. Orbell's 
Buildings are now called Bullingham House, and a 
tablet let into the wall records Newton's name.^ The 
BuUinghams were an old Kensington family, one of 
whom was bishop of Gloucester in the reign of queen 
Elizabeth, and was buried in the old church. When 
Orbell died in .1734, Pitt inherited or already possessed 
a considerable estate on the hill, and to him we may 
attribute many alterations, such as the shortening of the 
old avenue, the removal of "The Dogs," and perhaps 
the building of a mock ruin at the comer of the wall 
next Sheffield Terrace. When the underground railway 

 "Duke upon Duke." 

t Anne Pitt died at her house in Pitt Place, Kensington GniTel Fiti, in 
178a (' Old and New London,' ▼. 139.) 

% Some confusion as to the exact place of Newton's death was resolTed 
by a letter from Mr. Jopling in ' Notes and Queries,' 3rd Series, L 29^ 


was made, a tunnel ran through the garden, which is not 
however, apparently much injured by it In 1862, being 
at the time in the occupation of a Mr. WooUey, the 
house was completely gutted by fire,* but rebuilt im- 
mediately. It now belongs to Mr. Elder, by whom the 
grounds are well kept up, and materially help Campden 
Hill to retain its ancient look of umbrageous verdure. 
In the east wall is the old gateway, now built up, which 
opened towards Kensington Palace, when William III. 
lived there, and when there was nothing but a gardener's 
cottage between the two houses. The wall now faces 
Sheffield Gardens, which with other local names reminds 
us of the existence of a villa on this hill belonging to 
lord Sheffield, the friend of Gibbon. 

The Pratts, from whom the marquis Camden is de- 
scended, were an old Kensington family. The great 
Chancellor may have had Campden Hill, or as it was 
then usually spelled Camden Hill, in his mind, when he 
chose that name for his peerage, though it is always at- 
tributed to his veneration for Camden, the antiquary, 
whose house at Chislehurst he had boughtf 

* There is some account of this fire in the amusing memoirs of Serjeant 
Ballantine, i. 270. 

t In my edition of Jenkyn Lewis there is mention of a Mr. Prat, who 
was tutor to the duke of Gloucester (p. 9), and I have endeavoured to 
connect him with the Pratts of Kensington. I have since discovered, 
through the kindness of Mrs. Wilkinson, a descendant of his, that I was 
mistaken. Samuel Prat, in whom I have another cause for interest 
because he was chaplain of the Savoy, always spelled the name with one 
T, as did his descendants to the present day. He is buried in St. George's 
Chapel at Windsor. He was created D.D. at Cambridge, by the king's 
desire, in 1697. He wrote a Latin Grammar and published some sermons. 
He was bom at Stratford in £Issex, and died in 1723, having been vicar 
of Kensington (resigned 1693), Ooudhurst (resigned 17 13), Tottenham and 
Twickenham, chaplain of the Savoy, canon of Windsor, and in 1697, dean 
of Rochester. A memorial ring for the little duke and a prayer book 
which belonged to queen Anne are stiU in possession of the Prat family. 


The north-western and south-eastern extremities of 
Kensington have so little to do with the central 
village that it is sometimes difficult to remember that 
Notting Hill and Brompton are equally within the old 
parochial boundary ; though the palace is within that of 
St. Margaret, Westminster. The Notting Hill extremity 
presents few features of interest It is for the most part 
cut up into small holdings, some free, some leased, 
Ladbroke Grove commemorates its builder, and Lad- 
broke Square has somewhat absurdly been renamed 
Kensington Park. St John's Church stands on the site 
of the Notting Hill farmhouse, described by Faulkner 
in 1820 as an ancient brick building, surrounded by 
spacious barns. This church, which is in a poor style of 
gothic, was for a brief period the incumbency of the 
lamented Craufurd Tait, only son of the late archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

The summit of Campden Hill is very conspicuous 
from St. John's Church, as it rises 120 feet above the 
sea-level and is crowned with a chimney 200 feet high, 
belonging to the Grand Junction Water Works. Close 
to the chimney is a cluster of villas, including a ridiculous 
plastered tower in " the Norman style," and some plain 
old-fashioned houses locally known as the Dukeries. In 
one of them, Holly Lodge, lord Macaulay died in 1859. 

In Church Street, and also in Lower Phillimore Place 
(called after its builder, who died in 18 19), Sir David 
Wilkie long resided. John Leech died in a house on 
what is called The Terrace. In fact, to attempt any 
enumeration of the eminent inhabitants would be absurd. 
As we pass towards Brompton, however, two at least 
should be noticed. If we turn out of High Street by 
Young Street (called also after one Young, who built it), 
we reach Kensington Square. The last house but one 
in the street, now unfortunately and purposelessly re- 


numbered, on the right hand, was long the residence of 

Thackeray, whose later years were passed in a new 

house within the avenue of Palace Gardens. The 

square was built as a speculation when king William 

first came to reside at the palace, and contains still some 

charming little " bits " of the Wren period, one of the 

best being a now divided tenement at the south-eastern 

corner. Through a narrow lane leading from this comer 

we reach a labyrinth of small streets, some of them old, 

some new, and crossing it as best we can emerge in 

Cornwall Gardens. Here, covering the ground now 

occupied by the gardens, and by Gloucester Road 

Station, was Glo'ster or Onslow Villa, in which lived 

George Canning, and here his son, the future governor- 

general, was born, and another son, who lies buried in 

Kensington Churchyard with a touching epitaph by the 

great statesman. 

We thus reach Brompton, famous once upon a time 
for its gardens, but now covered with a new quarter of 
fashionable houses, even its own name being suppressed 
as vulgar and "South Kensington" substituted. It is 
not necessary here to describe the ever-changing glories 
of the famous local institutions, the three museums, the 
portrait gallery, and the Hall of Science and Art, all of 
which, as some believe, might better have been placed 
where they would be accessible to the general public. 

It will be sufficient to say that the science and art 
museum is under the control of the Education Depart- 
ment, and, since its establishment, in 1857, ^^^is proved a 
serious rival to both the British Museum and the National 
Gallery. It is understood that the unseemly spectacle 
of rival public galleries bidding each other up in an art 
sale is not to be witnessed again, but it is unquestionable 
that the early managers of the institution did much not 
only to bring it into disfavour with many people, but, by 


the way in which they sheltered themselves behind the 
lamented Prince Consort, added greatly to the unpopu- 
larity of his efforts to further culture in this country. 
Meanwhile a new town has grown up round the Albert 
Hall and the South Kensington Museum. They are still 
inaccessible to a large number of the class for whose 
benefit they were opened, but on the whole it must be 
conceded that, in general arrangements, in careful cata- 
loguing, in the provision of comfortable reading and 
refreshment rooms, and many other particulars, they set 
a good example to older museums. 

Two houses designed by Mr. Norman Shaw, and so 
contrived, unfortunately, that like two negatives they 
destroy one another, are at the comer of Exhibition 
Road, facing the park. In old times this comer was 
Kensington Gore, and very lately the remains of lady 
Blessington*s house were still to be seen. Here Wilber- 
force resided for many years, and here, if I mistake not, 
his son the bishop of Oxford was born. 

There is something more than tradition to connect the 
name of Cromwell with Kensington, but only tradition 
to connect it with Brompton. It is tme Kensington 
was much affected by Cromwell's friends. General 
Lambert is mentioned in the parish register as lord 
Lambert, and there is also the name of Sir William 
Strickland, another of Oliver's peers, and of Sir Thomas 
Foot, a third, as well as of Sir Edward Bering, the 
eccentric Kentish baronet, whose precise political position 
at any particular time it would be difficult to assign. 
The register contains one entry which refers directly to 
the family of the protector. In 1653 **Mr. Henry 
Cromwell" was married to Elizabeth Russell. The 
entry proves nothing. It points to the probability that 
the family of Elizabeth Russell lived in the parish. But 


tradition will have it that he, and also that his father, 
the great Oliver, lived in a house near what is now the 
South Kensington Museum, and accordingly a street, 
one of the longest and widest in London, Cromwell 
Road, is called after them. In an enumeration of the 
Kensington parochial charities * is an account of a " deed 
of feoffment," dated June i8th, 1651, by which Thomas 
Coppin in consideration of 45/. conveyed to Sir John 
Thorowgood, and eleven others, and their heirs, " all that 
land with the appurtenances at the Gravel Pitts in 
Kensington, containing two acres in the occupation of 
Richard Barton." No trust was declared in the deed, 
nor was it said how the 45/. was obtained, nor for what 
purpose, but the land, on which are now some houses in 
High Street, Notting Hill Gate, has long beep called 
Cromwell's Gift 

This is not very clear or satisfactorj' evidence; nor 
have we much more respecting another "eminent 
inhabitant" Lord Burleigh is sometimes reckoned 
among Kensington worthies. The fourth earl of Exeter, 
"John Cecill, son and heir apparent" of John, lord 
Burleigh, was bom at Mr. Sheffield's, and baptised in 
the parish church in 1674. But the great lord Burleigh 
is known to have lived at Brompton Hall, and his 
house was still pointed out, but doubtfully, fifty years 
ago. The Brompton part of the parish has, in fact, 
been so long broken up into small holdings that a 
mere enumeration of the successive owners of estates 
would include some very remarkable name&t 

 ' Vestry Report,' iSio^ p. 92. 

f For such an enumeration see Croker's 'Walk from London to 
Fulfaam.' Curran died at Amelia Place, in 181 7 ; Mme. Guizot at Pelham 
Crescent, in 1848 ; Shaftesbury, the author of the ' Characteristics,' lived 
in Little Chelsea, 17x0; and so on. 



Kensington Church, as I remember it in my boyhood, 
was one of the few really picturesque buildings of the 
kind near London. It was, of course, by no means 
worthy of a parish which can boast of such aristocratic 
residents and neighbours as the Kensington of to-day, 
but it harmonised well with what is left of old Ken- 
sington Square ; and the cupola on the palace, and 
the old vestry-hall and its blue-coat children, now 
sent in disgrace to the back entrance ; and with Colby 
House, and Kensington House, formerly known as Little 
Bedlam. Almost all tRese relics have disappeared. One 
of the most hideous buildings in Europe occupies the 
site of Colby House. No lunatic in the old house could 
have imagined, in his wildest dreams, the pretentious 
ugliness of the mansion fitly called " Grant's Folly." * 
It is now being pulled down, but that will not replace 
Colby House and its companion. The town hall is 
new and commonplace, the officials having unfortunately 
refused a "Queen Anne" design for it. The old 
church, with its quaint curved gable to the street comer, 
and its well weathered red brick, has also disappeared. 
Why the parish authorities did not follow the good 
example of St. Marylebone, and build their new church 
on a new site, say at the top of the hill, the finest 
situation in the world for such a building, and now 
occupied by the little tower and spire of St George's, I 
cannot but wonder. However, all is gone, the reading 
desk and pulpit, with the initials of William and Mary, 
and the royal pew with its curtain, and the seat occupied 
by Macaulay, and the rails where the duchess of Kent 
was churched after the birth of queen Victoria. 

* Kensington House is said, truly or falsely, to have been erected for s 
Mr. Grant, a London merchant, who, however, has not that I am aware 
ever resided in it. 


Th^ new church is very handsome, and boasts of the 
highest spire in London ; indeed, it is said, the highest 
pointed spire on any parish church in England. In- 
cluding the metal cross on the top it is within an inch or 
two of measuring 300 feet, and is not only a very con- 
spicuous but a very pleasing object when seen from 
Kensington Gardens, reflected, perhaps, in the Round 
Pond, and with the glow of a sunset behind it. Sir 
Gilbert Scott who designed the church did not live to 
see the spire completed. 

There are many churches in different parts of the 
parish. Holy Trinity, Brompton, has long been reckoned 
a parish church. It was designed " in a neat gothic 
style," and built in 1829. Close to it, overshadowing it, 
in fact, is the rising dome of a new church for the 
Oratorians of St Philip Neri, of which the Oratory at 
Birmingham, over which cardinal Newman has so long 
presided, is the head. Faber, the hymn writer, was 
before his death the superior of the Brompton establish- 
ment The new church will be a very prominent example 
of the Italian style when it is completed. The Roman 
Catholics have many other churches in Kensington, the 
largest being the so-called Pro-Cathedral in a court off 
High Street, It is too short for its great height, owing 
to its lofty clerestory, and is very conspicuous from the 
exterior; but the interior is unsatisfactory. The late 
Dr. Rock was priest of this church, and is remembered 
with regret by all who knew him, and especially by 
those who had occasion to test his unrivalled knowledge 
of some of the more obscure departments of mediaeval 

Divided from southern Kensington, or Brompton, only 
by the width of the Fulham Road, and bounded on the 
other side by the course of the Thames, Chelsea has 

s 2 


long been a very urban suburb. The manor is called 
Chelched in "Domesday," with an alternative reading, 
Cercehede, It belonged to Edward de Sarisberie, and 
before the Conquest to Wlwene, "a vassal of king 
Edward," who " could sell it to whom he pleased." 
The further descent of the manor is involved in obscurity 
for some centuries, but, in 1368, Robert de Heyle leased 
it to the abbey of Westminster for his own life. In 
the reign of Henry VII. it belonged to the great Sir 
Reginald Bray, the architect of St George's Chapel at 
Windsor. His niece, lady Sandys, inherited it ; but 
had to exchange it for other lands with Henry VIIL 
The king settled it on Katherine Parr, his sixth wife. 
She was succeeded by her sister-in-law, the widow of 
the protector Somerset, who was a Stanhope ; and 
through her mother, a Bourchier, descended from 
Thomas of Woodstock, one of the sons of Edward III. 
On her children, to the prejudice of her stepson. Sir 
Edward Seymour, the dukedom of Somerset was settled 
when the protector conferred that honour upon himself 
in 1 547. It thus came to pass that a later Sir Edwaid 
Seymour could tell William of Orange that the duke of 
Somerset belonged to his family, when the prince, at his 
landing, had asked him if he belonged to the duke's family. 
The manor was also held by a relative of the duchess, 
the first lord Stanhope of Harrington, and by Katharine, 
lady Howard ; but in the time of Charles I. it had 
reverted to the Crown, and was granted to that duke 
of Hamilton, or Duke Hamilton, as his contemporaries 
called him, whom we have already seen accompanying 
the lord of the adjoining manor of Kensington to the 
scaffold at Westminster. In the Hamilton family the 
manor remained for a time, till it was bought by lord 
Newhaven, whose surname survives in Cheyne Walk and 


Cheyne Row, lately so celebrated as the residence of 
Thomas Carlyle.* 

In 17 1 2 Sir Hans Sloane bought the manor of 
Chelsea from the Cheyne family; and his daughter 
and coheiress, Elizabeth, married the famous general 
Cadogan, a colonel of horse guards in Marlborough's 
wars, whose descendant, earl Cadogan, is now lord of 
the manor and viscount " Chelsey." Sir Hans is com- 
memorated in Hans Place and Sloane Square ; the 
Cadogans in Cadogan Place and Cadogan Square ; and 
the Lawrences, who lived in the old manor house, by 
grant from Henry VHI., in Lawrence Street, near the 
old church. 

Such is the written history of the manor. It would 
be interesting if we might identify it with Chalk-hythe, 
or Cealchythe, a place of which the Saxon Chronicle makes 
mention under 785 or 787 — the exact date is variously 
given — "This year there was a contentious synod at 
Cealchythe." A similar name occurs in several early 
charters,t but the judicious Kemble has failed, or refused, 
to identify them, and there are many reasons to the 

The situation of Chelsea on the river's bank, and 
its proximity to London, made it early a suitable site 
for suburban villas. When the chancellorship left 
Lambeth, and a layman instead of an archbishop became 
keeper of the king's conscience, no more convenient 

* He died at 5 Great Cheyne Row in 1881. 

t See Kemble, pcusim. Mr. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., who has made a special 
study of the subject, is strongly of opinion that Chels-ey has the same 
origin as Chels-field and other names which refer to flints, the best known 
example being that of ** Chesil Beach," and seems to signify " the gravelly 
island or eyot" Cealchytte, or Cbalkhythe, is high up the Thames on 
the Oxfordshire side, and derives its name from the chalk. I have to 
thank Mr. Jones for leave to use his note on the subject 


place could have been found for Sir Thomas More's 
residence. It was, no doubt, when visiting More at 
Chelsea that Henry VIII. cast his covetous eyes on the 
manor. He gave the old manor house to the Lawrences, 
as I have said, and built another close to the water's 
edge.* Adjoining it was long a residence of the bishop 
of Winchester. Both have now disappeared. Cheyne 
Walk is on their site. More's house was partially rebuilt 
by Sir John Danvers in the reign of Charles I., and was 
wholly removed in 1696, when Danvers Street was built 
on the site. Beaufort Street commemorates Beaufort 
House, once a residence of the dukes of Beaufort; 
the Cremome Gardens, so long a nuisance to the 
neighbours, occupied the grounds of Chelsea farm, the 
residence of an old viscountess Cremome for many 
years ; Lindsey House was the villa of the Berties, 
earls of Lindsey, and has given place to streets called 
after them ; and, in short, it may be said of Chelsea 
in the seventeenth century, that it was to the London 
of that day what the Strand had been in the reign of 
Richard II. 

All the figures which pass and repass along the bank 
of the river at Chelsea are less distinct and less interest- 
ing than that of Sir Thomas More. Had his jealous 
master but allowed him, he might here have ended his 
days in peace. We see him one day walking in his 
garden with Erasmus, or sitting to Holbein, another 
bearing the heavy honour of Henry's arm about his 
neck. On Sunday he goes into the choir and sings in a 
surplice, '* like a parish clerk," as the duke of Norfolk 
observed contemptuously. When he has resigned his 

* Aimeof Cleves died in 1557, at the "King and Qaeen's oujest/s 
palace of Chelsey beside London." Some have absordlj supposed Ibis 
was More's house. 


office, it is his wife that suffers, as so often in such 
cases * and the attendant no longer goes to her pew to 
announce the departure of " My Lord." In everything he 
is simple and unaffected to the verge of affectation, but 
when we come to read an anecdote of More, which we 
do not chance to know already, we somehow always feel 
sure, however he may approach that boundary, he will 
never pass it His charities are described as being cut 
after the plainest gospel pattern. He seldom feasted the 
rich, but his poor neighbours often ; and when he was a 
practising lawyer, " he took no fees of poor folks, widows, 
or pupils." 

In the old parish church, near the river, More's monu« 
ment still stands. The church is an interesting building 
of the most mixed character ; so far, happily, not very 
much hurt by restorers. More made a chapel for his 
family tomb at the east end of the south aisle, and put 
up a black slab to record the fact It has been twice 
** improved," and is said to have originally contained a 
reference to his persecution of heresy, for which a blank 
is now left in the renewed inscription, just the kind of 
evasion one can imagine the straightforward chancellor 
would himself have particularly disliked.t The archi- 
tectural ornaments of the monument are in what 
was then the new Italian style. It is uncertain 
where More is buried ; some say here ; some say in the 
Tower chapel. His head is certainly in the church of 

* One is tempted to refer to Sir Clondesly Shovel's proposal that the 
king should knight his wife. 

t Was it in anticipation of his own fate that More concluded his wife's 
epitaph with these lines ? 

" O simul, O juncti poteramus yivere nostros 
Quam bene, si fatum religioque sinant. 
At societ tumulus, societ nos, obsecro, caelum ! 
Sic mon, non potuit quod dare vita, dabit." 


St. Dunstan, at Canterbury,* having been rescued by 
Margaret Roper, his daughter, from London Bridge. 
There are several members of his family buried at 
Chelsea, including both his wives. Some of the other 
monuments are curious. One of them commemorates 
Jane, duchess of Northumberland, widow of the pro- 
tector, mother of queen Elizabeth's favourite, Leicester, 
and grandmother of Sir Philip Sydney. Another is 
that of her daughter, lady Huntingdon, and there are 
many tablets to the Lawrences, Cheynes, and other 
residents in the parish, including one to Mrs. Anne 
Spragge, who having fought the Dutch in boy's clothes 
on board the ship of her brother, Captain Chamberlayne, 
died in child-bed, in 1692. The epitaph laments that 
she should have failed to become the mother of a line of 
heroes. Sir Hans Sloane and Magdalen Herbert, mother 
of George Herbert, the poet, are buried in the church- 

The newer church of St Luke stands much further 
inland, and is in the style of gothic that might be 
expected from its date. It was consecrated in 1824. 

Chelsea Hospital for old and disabled soldiers has 
always been a very popular institution, especially with 
artists. Wilkie painted the Chelsea pensioners exulting 
over the news of Waterloo, for the duke of Wellington, 
and in our own day a picture of the veterans in chapel 
engaged the attention of the crowd at Burlington House. 
It owes its foundation to Charles II., who, at the instiga- 
tion, it was supposed, of Eleanor Gwynn, authorised for 
the purpose the purchase, from the Royal Society, of 
the site of a theological college, founded under the half- 

* It was foand many years ago in the vaults, and is preserred behind 
an iron grilL My late friend, Thomas Godfrey Faussett, told me of having 
seen it, and of having no doubt of itJ authenticity. 


hearted patronage of James I., by dean SutcHffe, of 
Exeter. Laud's influence was all against the college, as 
stirring up controversy with the Roman Catholics. The 
story of the college buildings, their presentation to the 
Royal Society, their resumption, after payment, by the 
crown, and, finally, the slow progress of the hospital are 
detailed by Evelyn. Sir Christopher Wren was the 
architect, but, though the cost is believed to have 
amounted to 150,000/., and though the buildings were 
not finished till 1690, there are none of the magnificent 
features of the same architect's sister hospital at Green- 
wich. Yet Chelsea Hospital is, like all Sir Christopher's 
work, full of the beauty which proportion and fitness can 
give a plain design. 

( 266 ) 



The manors and estates which form the southern 
suburbs have, with one exception, very h'ttle of the 
historical interest which still hangs round Maiylebone 
and Tyburn, Kensington and Chelsea. They lie for the 
most part on land which has always been suited for 
villa building. Had it not been for a peculiarity of the 
position opposite London, even suburbs would hardly 
have been made on ground which can only be called 
dry because the incursions of flood tides are kept out by 
artificial means, if they are kept out at all. As we had 
occasion to see in going over the geographical aspect of 
the so-called " Metropolitan Area," * the ground opposite 
London and Westminster is a kind of peninsula, half 
surrounded by the river. Before reaching London the 
Thames makes a great bend to the north at Chelsea 
Reach. It bends again, this time to the south, after 
London is passed, at Limehouse Reach. The space 
thus inclosed, some four miles in width from Lambeth 
to Greenwich, is bounded on the south by low hills, of 
which the best known is crowned by the Crystal Palace. 
The peninsula bears evident traces of having but recently 
emerged, and we have- a kind of historical evidence as to 
part of it, as "royal foreshore," and a more tangible 
proof in the frequent floods which alarm the inhabitants. 
In short, we are constantly reminded, as well by local 

* See chap. L vol. i. 

uAc A€uiu yjk uic ui<uiui was uui uiure uian a quarter atter 


1. 1« 


names, such as Lambeth Marsh and Newington Cause- 
\^ way, as by such outbursts of the tide as that of 1850, 
that the greater part of the district is only a few feet 
above, and a considerable part of it is actually below 
«;^ high water mark. 

^\ But if we look for a moment at a map we shall see 

that Southwark forms, as it were, the handle of a fan, 
with London and its suburbs spreading all round it. We 
also observe that the Thames, which is more than 
1200 feet wide at Westminster, is only 900 feet between 
the extreme north point of the peninsula and the opposite 
shore at Billingsgate. Even before the bridge was built, 
the spot at which it spans the river must have been of 
importance, for it is nearer the city than any other point 
on the southern or right bank for several miles above or 

Confining our attention for the present to the outer 
ring of the southern suburbs, we find early evidence as 
to the lowness and dampness of the site of Lambeth, 
Kennington, and Bermondsey. It will not do to press 
too far the argument that Kennington was always the 
king's property, because it was "foreshore," and was 
occasionally submerged at high tides. But a consider-* 
able number of acres in the manor must have been under 
water before the river bank was raised ; and it is cer- 
tain that kings did claim foreshore at a very early 

There is also another point which, though like the 
former one, it must not be pressed too far, is yet worth 
mentioning. In the 'Domesday Survey* we read that 
Kennington — there spelled Chenintun — ^was assessed in 
the reign of the Confessor for five hides, but that it now 
contains only a hide and three virgates ; in other words, 
the land of the manor was not more than a quarter after 


the Conquest of what it had been in the peaceful times 
of Edward We find precisely the same state of things 
in the adjoining manor of Lambeth, which had declined 
from ten hides to two and a half. Even if we did not 
know of the probability of a great irruption of the river 
to cause this discrepancy, a flood of some kind would be 
one of the most obvious explanations. 

If we suppose, therefore, that after long occupation 
and cultivation by the hard-working churls of the little 
"Suther Rige," or Southern Kingdom, the land had 
gradually been won for the king ; that great embank- 
ments had been made, and annual labour bestowed to 
keep them in repair ; but that, under the oppressions of 
the Normans the land was allowed again to fall a prey 
to the restless tide, we may, it is more than probable, 
have formed a good working theory for the early history 
of the southern suburbs. 

Kennington and Lambeth are both in the same great 
parish of St Mary. It would almost seem, when we 
remember all the St Mary's we have enumerated on 
the northern and western sides of London, as if it had 
been determined to surround the city with a circle of 
churches dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. The name of 
Lambeth — ^almost obviously Lamb-hithe — ^has given rise 
to the most amazing guesses. In Domesday it is oddly 
spelled Lancheiy probably by a mistake of the scribe.* 

* Allen, ' History of Lambeth,' 1827, says of the Dame : " In the ancient 
historians it is spelt Lamhee, Lamheth, Lambyth, Lamedh, and seTeral 
other yariations, the principal of which were probably occasioned by the 
errors of transcribers. Most etymologists derive the name from lam, dirt ; 
and hyd or hyde, a haven. Dr. Ducarel differs with this explanation of the 
name, and considers that it is derived from lamb, a iamb; and hyd, « 
haven ; but that eminent antiquary, Dr. Gale, derives it from the circom- 
stance of its contiguity to a Roman road, or ieman^ which is generally 
supposed to have terminated at the river at Stangate, from whence was a 
passage over the Thames," 


But in a charter of king Edward (1062) it is Lambehith,* 
and the name seems very suitable in this form to the 
circumstances of the situation, an embarking place for 
agricultural produce, whence easy access could be 
obtained by ferry to the more densely populated districts 
of the left bank. King Edward's charter, which seems 
to relate to a portion only of Lambeth — ^that now 
known as Stockwell — and speaks of the fields, pastures, 
meadows, woods, and waters belonging to it, grants them 
all to the abbey of Waltham. 

This was but four years before the Conquest, and the 
charter took effect under Harold, but Edward's sister, 
" the Countess Goda," seems to have been in possession 
of the original manor, and before her death she and her 
husband, Eustace of Boulogne, joined to give it to the 
bishop and monastery of Rochester. This gift seems to 
have failed ; but it is impossible to unravel the confusion 
which exists between the different statements ancient and 
modern, the more so as we can seldom feel quite sure 
which manor is referred to, until William Rufus,t by one 
of the few acts of the kind recorded of him, gave Lam- 
beth to the convent at Rochester, in avowed reparation 
of the injuries he had done the church there in his siege 
of the place. This gift may have been merely a confirma- 
tion of the previous gift of Goda ; but from it as certain, 
we may date the connection of Rochester and Lambeth. 

 * Codex Diplom.* No. 813. One William Lamhith was clerk of the 
works in the Tower in 136a See Britton and Brayley, 337, and * Close 
Rolls,' 34 Edw. III. m. 15. 

t We may dismiss altogether a notion supported by some writers that 
Harold ever held Lambeth. Mr. Freeman has shown the improbability 
of the story that he placed the crown on his own head at Lambeth. The 
countess Goda held it till the Conquest, and gave it, perhaps ineffectually, 
to Rochester. William Rufus makes a new grant, which is perhaps to be 
taken as in reality a confirmation. His charter is in the British Museum. 
It is signed with a cross, but is undated. 


The first exercise of the new authority is characteristic 
at once of the times and of the condition of the manor. 
Bishop Gundulf ordered his vassals to supply him an- 
nually with " half a thousand " of those lamprey-eels, to 
which we have so many references in medieval history, 
for the better exercise of episcopal hospitality. Emulf, 
the next bishop but one, added a salmon to the require- 
ments of the monastery, for the anniversary of bishop 
Gundulf. Ascelin claimed too much personal interest 
in Lambeth, and the higher authorities determined that 
the bishop had only his share of the manor with the 
monks, although, when business required his attendance 
in London, he had a lodging assigned him in the manor- 
house, with forage and fuel. 

The convenient situation of this manor-house at Lam* 
beth with regard to the court at Westminster is thus 
already indicated. Very soon the archbishop of Can- 
terbury began to see that what was convenient for the 
bishop of Rochester was convenient also for him. He 
rented the house from the bishop, and at a synod here 
in I ICO the lawfulness of the marriage of Henry H. with 
Maud of Scotland was determined. A consecration took 
place at Lambeth in 1 121, when archbishop Ralph was 
assisted by five bishops, his own successor in the see of 
Rochester, which he had held between 1 108 and 1 1 14, 
being among them. This identity of the primate with the 
late bishop of Rochester may have given rise to the arch- 
bishop's regular residence in the suburban manor-house. 
The archbishop continued to live where he had lived 
when he was only bishop. To judge by the frequency 
of Lambeth consecrations* in the succeeding years, 
not only Ralph, but William of Corbeuil, and Theobald, 
his successors in the primacy, habitually resided here. 

* See Stubbs, ' Episcopal Succession,' p. 26, &c 


Of Thomas Becket two consecrations only are recorded, 
and they are both at Canterbury. There is, in fact, 
nothing to connect the great martyr of the twelfth cen- 
tury with Lambeth, though by one of those curious 
coincidences which history so constantly offers, the sole 
institution dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury which 
has survived the zeal of Henry VIII. is now, so to speak, 
next door to the manor-house of Lambeth. A house 
belonging to Geoffrey Becket, the saint's father, at South- 
wark, where, according to some accounts, the saint himself 
was bom, had been made, in the reign of Henry III., into 
a hospital. At the dissolution, St. Thomas's Hospital, 
purchased by the citizens, became an infirmary for the 
poor. In 1 87 1 it was removed * to its present situation, 
over against the Houses of Parliament, where the frag- 
ment of an embankment protects it, and the archbishop's 
house beside it, from the incursions of the tide. Strange 
that the hideous redness of its ungraceful pavilions should 
spoil the best views of the time-worn towers of St. 
Thomas's successor at Lambeth I 

Many public ceremonials took place at Lambeth 
during the primacies of Richard and Baldwin. The 
place gradually became identified with the archbishops ; 
so much so, indeed, that Baldwin, during his quarrel 
with the priory at Canterbury, actually proposed to 
remove the bones of St Thomas and to found a church 
in his honour, some say at Lambeth itself, some say at 
Southwark close by. A church of St Thomas " in the 
Green " is spoken of about this time as being among the 
possessions of the canons of Rochester. It may be the 
same with the church of St Thomas ** in the hospital." 
When Hubert Fitzwalter had been three or four years 

* To make room for the railway from Charing Cross to London Bridge 
and Cannon Street. 


seated in the chair of St Thomas, a negotiation was 
begun and partly completed, by which, in exchange for 
the manor and advowson of Darenth, in Kent, the bishop 
and monastery at Rochester gave Lambeth, manor and 
church, pastures and woods, salmon and lampreys, abso- 
lutely to the archbishop and his successors, by whom it 
was speedily annexed to the see of Canterbury. 

The manor-house of Lambeth has continued ever 
since the chief residence of the archbishops.* Arch* 
bishop Potter (171 5 — 1737) was the first to call it a 
palace, but official documents are still dated apuddomutn^ 
"at our house," at Lambeth. When Addington was 
bought, Lambeth had been for some years the only 
remaining residence of a prelate who, in the middle ages, 
had been able to travel from Harrow to Canterbury and 
from Canterbury far into Sussex without resting a night 
in any but his own houses. The difference between an 
episcopal palace and a "house" seems to have been 
correctly drawn in the definition of a palace as " a term 
appropriated to the mansion of the bishop in the city 
that gave name to the see." t If it be so, the archbishop 
of Canterbury has no palace ; and the bishop of London 
is in the same predicament ynless London House, in St 
James's Square, "in the city of Westminster," can in 
any sense be described as " in the city that gives name 
to the see." 

The great state kept here in old times and down 
almost to the present by the archbishops is often noticed 
in contemporary accounts. When Laud was appointed, 
in 1633, the king expressly ordered him to carry himself 
with the same state and dignity as bis predecessors had 

^ A veiy interesting account of archiepiscopsl Lambeth, in its political 
aspects more particularly, may be found in Mr. Green's * Stray Stndics.* 
t Denne. quoted by Allen, ' History of Lambeth,* p. 183. 


before used and enjoyed ; an injunction which he took, 
as it was probably meant, to refer not to his immediate 
predecessors, but to the great archbishops before the 
Reformation, when, to speak of the hospitality alone, 
there were generally three tables spread in the hall — one 
for the archbishop and his guests, persons only of the 
upper nobility or high in office; the second, at which 
sat the upper clergy, such as bishops and abbots, under 
the chairmanship of the almoner ; and the steward's 
table, at which sat ordinary people, such as mere gen- 
tlemen. It was thought very condescending of Cranmer 
that he admitted his suffragan, Thomden, bishop of 
Dover, to his own table. Parker had a table set at the 
lower end of the hall, "whereat was dailie entertained 
eight or ten of the poor of the town by turns." This 
archbishop dined in state three times a week, when he 
would invite, among others, the state prisoners whom 
queen Elizabeth had quartered on him, such as Essex, 
before he was sent ,to the Tower, and Sussex, his friend, 
and a brother of the duke of Norfolk. Melancholy 
parties they must often have been, with Westminster 
Hall in sight and Tower Hill in a not very distant 
perspective. The archbishop lodged them handsomely 
and charged them nothing, "saving at their deths he 
had from' them some part of their libraries that thei 
had than" * 

The collection of a library by other means than the 
impounding of the books of poor noblemen who had 
lost their heads was the care of many archbishops. At 
the great rebellion, when the manor-house was sold for 
7000/. to Scott and Hardy, who speedily quarrelled over 
their bargain, the books were with difficulty saved. 
Selden claimed them for the University of Cambridge, 

• Parker, quoted by Allen, p. 239. 



under some forgotten provision in archbishop Bancroft's 
will, and though they had already gone to Sion College, 
and many had been lost, a fair number survived to 
return after the Restoration and remain still at Lambeth. 
One volume only bears the arms of the unfortunate 
Laud,* and one those of Parker, but many must have 
belonged to both, being sometimes religious works of 
doubtful orthodoxy retained by the archbishop when 
they were sent for his imprimatur. Among them are of 
course books which occur nowhere else, and are for that 
reason, if for no other, very valuable. Old accounts of 
the library always notice a volumef among the manu- 
scripts which was supposed to contain a portrait of 
Caxton, the first English printer, though how his likeness 
could come to be in an unprinted book written by another 
person was not explained. Another book which bore a 
false character was only identified a few years ago as a 
portion — the New Testament — of the famous Bible, un- 
dated, which is believed to have been the first book 
printed with movable type. After passing for centuries 
as a manuscript, for it is printed on vellum and 
beautifully illuminated, it was found to be a printed 
book in 1871.J 

The chapel is probably the oldest of the existing 
buildings, being always attributed to Boniface of Savoy, 
who is sometimes said to have built it as a reparation 

* I have seen «t a sale a folio prayer-book wiUi the arms of Loud quite 
visibly impressed on pasteboard covers from which the leather had been 

t 'The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers,' translated by earl 
Rivers, who is represented introducing his scribe or illominator to 
Edwaid IV. Dated 1476. 

X * Arch. Joom.,' 1872. It was a complete copy of this book which 
fetched 3600^. in the Perkins sale in 1873. ^^ & full description of the 
MSS., see Kershaw's ' Art Treasures of Lambeth Library.' 


for the scandal he had caused by his assault on the 
prior of St Bartholomew. It is difficult to see how a 
chapel at Lambeth could atone for an injury at Smith- 
field, and it is very possible that Boniface only completed 
what others had begun. At Canterbury his contribution 
to the rebuilding of the palace was the payment of the 
expenses left him by his predecessors : " I seem, indeed," 
he complained, with some reason, "to be truly the 
builder of this hall, because I paid their debts." 

Laud found the old windows very much broken, and 
set himself, with the help of his secretary, to make out 
the story of each and repair them. The Commons, at 
his trial, alleged against him that he had taken the 
pictures out of a mass book. They contained the whole 
history of the world from the Creation to the Day of 
Judgment, with types and antitypes, and must have 
closely resembled the windows which still in part remain 
at Canterbury of a slightly earlier date. All were de- 
stroyed in 1643, when, as one historian quaintly says in 
the words of Scripture, the Reformers " under pretence 
of abhorring idols, made no scruple of committing 
sacrilege." They were not content with this desecra- 
tion, but Hardy, the first purchaser of the house, dug up 
the body of archbishop Parker, which had been buried 
at " that part of the chapel where he used to pray," and 
selling the coffin for old lead, deposited the remains in 
the stable yard, whence they were afterwards recovered 
by the care of Sir William Dugdale, under the orders of 
Juxon, and are now buried under a plain altar tomb at 
the south side of the western end. 

A complete history of the archbishops* residence at 
Lambeth would be a history of England. Many ancient 
chambers perished when archbishop Howley rebuilt the 
domestic part of what must have been a very incon- 

T 2 


venient dwelling-house. But we can still identify the 
court into which More looked down from a window 
while the clergy pressed to take the new oath of alle- 
giance,* though the chamber, in which he assured 
Cranmer of his own final refusal, is gone. It was pro- 
bably from the same gallery that queen Elizabeth heard 
a sermon when a movable pulpit was placed in the 
court for the preacher. The gate is much as it was left 
by cardinal Morton, the Chancellor of Henry VII., but it 
has recently been scraped and pointed by way of "re- 
storation." The hall is Juxon's, and now contains the 
library, but in the original building Pole's body must 
have lain in state for the forty days before it was 
removed to Canterbury ; and here, long before, the duke 
of Brittany did homage to Edward III., and the rebels 
of 1 38 1 drank the archbishop's wine. 

Of the memorable scenes at Lambeth in later times it 
would be impossible to make even a catalogue here. But 
it is not easy to pass the comer by the gate and the 
church tower and not remember the winter night in 1688 
when queen Mary of Modena cowered with her infant 
beneath the old walls, while the rain beat on her head 
for an hour before even a common coach could be pro- 
cured to take her to Gravesend ; or that June evening, 
three years later, when Dr. Bancroft, sometime arch- 
bishop, walked out from under Morton's archway, and 
took a boat for the Temple, on his way into the retire- 
ment ot his native village; or the strange scene presented 
by the appearance of czar Peter in the chapel at the 
ordination of a priest by archbishop Tenison. 

In Lambeth church were buried archbishops Bancroft, 
Tenison. Seeker, Hutton, and Cornwallis, as well as 
bishops Thurlby and Tunstall, who had been prisoners 

* Green's * History,* voL iL p, 168. 


in charge of archbishop Parker. Ashmole, the antiquary, 
was buried in the church, and Tradescant, whose collec- 
tions went to augment those of Ashmole at Oxford, in 
the churchyard. 

Stockwell and Vauxhall are ancient manors in the 
parish, which extends uphill from the river's bank to the 
Crystal Palace, and Is a good example of the long, 
narrow pattern after which so many old parishes were 
modelled, comprising a piece of high ground, a belt of 
forest, and a meadow in the valley. A third manor is 
more interesting. Kennington has undergone greater 
vicissitudes than Lambeth. In its earlier history it is 
usually connected with the death of Harthacnut in 1042, 
and sometimes with the coronation of Harold. But it is 
quite certain that Harold was crowned across the water 
at Westminster, and it may be considered more than 
probable that Harthacnut died at the house of Osgod 
Clapa, perhaps in the adjoining manor of Clapham.* 
At the wedding feast of Gytha, Osgod's daughter, with 
Tovi, a noble Dane, he fell down and died suddenly, after 
an excessive draught of wine. The chronicle places the 
event at Lambeth. 

At the time of the survey Kennington belonged to 
Teodric, the king's goldsmith,t who held of the king, as 
he had held in the time of the Confessor. In the reign 
of Richard I. the king had possession of it, and made 
Robert Percy his steward. Henry III.J gave the office 

* It has been objected to this derivation of Clapham, Clapa's home or 
bam, that in the register of Chertsey Abbey a gift of 200 pence from lands 
at Clappeham in the time of king Alfred, is recorded. But the register is 
of ft date many centuries later than the gift, and the name may have been 
used, in recitiug it, for convenience. 

t ' Teodricus aurifaber tenet de rege Chenintune.' 

X This king is said to have held a Parliament at Kennington (Wilkinson, 
L 149), but it was probably only a council or conference. 


to Richard Freemantell. Edward I. sometimes resided 
at Kennington, which must have been one of the most 
convenient hunting grounds within easy reach of West- 
minster. It belonged a few years later to the king's 
cousin, the earl of Surrey ; but Edward 11. obtained it 
from the earl in 13 16, and gave it shortly after to one of 
his foreign favourites. Three years later he granted it 
away again, it having probably reverted to the cro^^rn at 
one of the periodical banishments of aliens, and in 1322, 
having a third time resumed it, he gave the manor to the 
Despencers. The heiress of one of the previous grantees 
obtained it on the attainder of the Despencers, and it came 
back to the crown for the last time when Edward III. 
exchanged for it some lands in Suffolk. He made it a 
portion of the endowment of the duke of Cornwall, 
and it still belongs to the lands of the duchy. 

After the death of the Black Prince, the young 
Richard and his mother lived at Kennington, and here, 
just before the old king, his grandfather died, a strange 
scene, recorded by several annalists, took place in the 
manor-house. It was early in the year, in Lent The 
duke of Lancaster, Richard's uncle, had been at a feast 
in the city at the house of William de Ypres,* a Flemish 
merchant of great wealth. As they were about to sit 
down to eat oysters, we are told, a soldier burst in with 
the news that the mob, incensed at the duke for his 
behaviour to bishop Courtenay in St. Paul's at a Synod 
to which Wycliffe had been cited,t were assembled at the 
gates of his house at the Savoy, clamouring for his blood. 
Leaving their oysters untasted, the duke and his com- 
panion lord Percy, who had also made himself un- 
popular, rushed to the river-side, and took a boat for 

* In Great St. Thomas Apostle, City. 
t See above, voL i., chap. viii. 


Kennington, on the opposite bank. Arrived there they 
threw themselves on the protection of the princess and 
her son, who, young as he was, had a few days before been 
commissioned to open Parliament in his grandfather's 
name, and who was already a personage of consideration. 
The princess comforted them as best she could, "pro- 
mittens," says one chronicler, in very English Latin, " se 
facturum talem finem de hiis omnibus, qui foret eis satis 
accommodus." And she appears to have been as good 
as her word. 

A little before this event Kennington had seen a more 
cheerful sight A hundred and thirty of the principal 
citizens rode out on Candlemas night disguised as mum- 
mers " to Kennington, besides Lambeth," and made pre- 
sents to the prince and his mother, who was still " the 
Fair Maid of Kent " in their eyes, though a few years 
later her popularity had waned. The maskers had pro- 
vided themselves with loaded dice, and having by dumb 
show indicated their desire to throw on the table with 
the prince, they so arranged that he " did alwais winne 
when he came to cast at them. Then the mummers set 
to the prince three jewels, one after another, which were 
a boule of gold, a cup of gold, and a ring of gold, which 
the prince wonne at three casts." Richard, to the end of 
his life, seems to have thought the dice were always 
loaded in his favour. 

Though Wat Tyler's rebels four years later sacked 
Lambeth they spared Kennington, and we do not hear 
much of it until Henry VII. rested there just before his 
coronation. Queen Elizabeth on her way to Greenwich 
does not seem to have honoured Kennington with a visit, 
but stayed with the archbishop at Lambeth ; and the 
house probably fell into decay, for in the next reign it 
was completely rebuilt by James I. for Henry, Prince of 



Wales. A few years later we find a survey made of the 
manor of Kenning^on, with the rights, members, and 
appurtenances thereof lying and being in the county of 
Surrey, ** late parcel of the possessions of Charles Stuart, 
eldest son of Charles Stuart, late King of England, as 
part of his Duchy of Cornwall." The house was pro- 
bably pulled down at this time, and we hear no more of 
Kennington as a royal residence, though as late as 1786 
two large vaults were discovered ; " but whether of Saxon 
or Gothic architecture is out of the power of any person 
living to determine," says Allen, writing in 1827, when 
he should have known better. A long barn and a few 
other outbuildings remained almost down to our own 
day, but rows of houses, terraces and villas, taverns, 
shops and churches, have obliterated even the ground 
plans.* The house stood near what are now Park Street 
and Park Place. 

The Vauxhall Gardens, mentioned by Addison as 
having been visited by Sir Roger de Coverley, were 
situated close to the foot of Vauxhall Bridge, and had a 
longer lease of life than is usual with suburban places of 
amusement, as they subsisted until a few years ago from 
the reign of Charles II. Hogarth in his day, was em- 
ployed on the decorations, and designed the tickets, 
which, cast or chased in precious metals, are still sought 
after by collectors of curiosities. 

Kennington Common has been kept tolerably open, 
and the Oval is celebrated now for cricket matches. 
The church, St. Mark's, is said to stand on the old place 
of public execution for the county, the scene of Shen- 
stone's coarse but affecting ballad, " Jemmy Dawson." 

* Mr. Henry MacLanchlan published a map of the old roads and 
boundaries and an interesting paper on the last remains of the manor-boose 
in the ' Archaeological Journal ' in 1872. 


Opposite Chelsea, and a little higher up the river than 
Lambeth, is Battersea. The name has been almost as 
much the subject of guesswork as that of Lambeth. It 
is given in the Domesday Book as Patricesy, for which 
reason Aubrey derives it from St Patrick. But the 
church is dedicated to St. Mary. A much more probable 
derivation therefore, is that offered by Lysons : " as the 
same record which calls it Patricesy, mentions that it 
was given to St Peter, it is not improbable that it was 
so called in consequence of that donation."* This is 
not, however, quite satisfactory, because it must have 
had a name before it was " given to St Peter," and that 
name appears even then to have been Battersea, or 
Peter's Ey. But the name may have been that of an 
ancient owner, Peter ; or it may have arisen from the 
fact that at a much earlier period than the date of 
the compilation of the Domesday Book, a considerable 
portion of the parish belonged to another abbey of St 
Peter, that, namely, of Chertsey. But by a curious 
coincidence the most eminent in the list of vicars was 
the famous bishop Patrick, who held Battersea from 1657 
to 1675, and was vicar here when he and Dr. Jane had 
a conference in the presence of James II. with two priests 
of the Church of Rome. The Protestant divines got 
so much the better of their opponents, that the king 
" retired in disgust, saying, that he never heard a good 
cause so ill defended, or a bad one so well." 

The parish of Battersea in its original state reached 
to Penge, and was bounded on the east by Lambeth, 
and on the west by Wandsworth : a part of Clapham 

* ' Environs,' L 19. A recent writer contrives to sum up both derivations 
in a single ambiguous sentence ; — " Battersea, or Patrick's-eye, is said to 
have taken its name from St. Patrick or St. Peter, because in ancient days 
it belonged to the Abbey of St. Peter at Westminster.*' 


Common belonging to the inhabitants. Penge Common, 
of which but little now remains, was once two miles in 
circumference, and joined Battersea on that side to 
Beckenham. Here we are only concerned with that part 
of the old parish which is near the river-side. Strange 
to say, though it is so much nearer London, it has re- 
tained its rural appearance better than the more distant 
Penge. Battersea Park, which lies along the Thames 
bank from the Chelsea Suspension Bridge to the Albert 
Bridge, which crosses at Cheyne Walk, is very accessible 
to the inhabitants of both banks, and is admirably laid 
out It was formed in 1858, after some six years of 
delay and preparation, and occupies 185 acres of what 
was previously in great part low marshy ground The 
colonnade which once adorned the courtyard of Burling- 
ton House, in Piccadilly, was removed to Battersea 
Park, but by some strange neglect on the part of the 
authorities, the numbered stones lie there to suffer decay 
from damp and frost, and have never been set up. 

A little way south-west from Battersea Park formerly 
stood the mansion of the St Johns : and here Henry St 
John, the statesman, lived and died in retirement, after 
his return from abroad. He had been living at Dawley, 
near Harlington, in Middlesex,* for ten years or more, 
when, after a few years in France, on the death of his 
father, he became possessed of Battersea, being already 
sixty-four years of age. The St Johns were a long- 
lived race. Bolingbroke's father lived to be almost 
ninety. His story was even more strange than that of 
his son : for he was under sentence of death for upwards 
of half a century. During an after-supper quarrel at 
the Globe Tavern, in which he and several other young 
gentlemen took part with drawn swords, Sir William 

* There is an interesting account of Dawley in Thome, L 13^ 


Estcourt * was killed. It was, and always remained, a 
question who had killed him, but Henry St John, as he 
was then, and another youth were accused. Finally, as 
proof was weak, St John was advised to confess, and 
promised lenient treatment if he did so. He complied, 
was convicted, and sentenced to die. It was then found 
that by some legal technicality the king could not 
pardon him. He was, however, indefinitely reprieved, 
but his estates were forfeited, and he had to pay 16,000/. 
for their redemption. There is a proverb about threat- 
ened lives, and certainly lord St John's was no excep- 
tion. In 1 71 2 his son Henry, the statesman, was made 
viscount Bolingbroke, with remainder to his father. In 
1 7 14, the viscount was attainted, and his title forfeited 
during his lifetime at least : but in 17 16 old Sir Henry 
was himself made a viscount as lord St. John, and the 
son, after losing the title he had acquired for himself, 
inherited that of his father in 1742. Both are still 
extant, and are held by a descendant of his brother, for 
the attainder did not affect the Bolingbroke peerage after 
its original grantee was dead, owing to the clause of re- 
mainder. There would be something more than usually 
strange in the whole story, even if the people concerned 
were of the most ordinary character. But, stranger still, 
it seems as if it was at one time the normal state of the 
St John family to be put under sentence of death and after- 
wards to attain a viscountcy : for in the reign of Elizabeth 
Oliver St John killed one Best, of the queen's body- 
guard, and had to fly. He joined the army in Ireland, 
performed prodigies of valour, was given the manor of 
Battersea by James I., and was made viscount Grandison. 

* He was the third baronet of Newton, Wilts, and at his death the title, 
created in 1627, became extinct. His elder brother. Sir Giles, had been 
killed in Italy. 


He left no children, and bequeathed Battersea to a 
nephew, whose grandson was also in trouble with the 
authorities, but not till after his death, for his funeral at 
Battersea was conducted with so much state and solem- 
nity, that the heralds prosecuted his executor.* Mag- 
nificent as the ceremony was, more becoming a duke 
than a baronet, there is no entry of the burial in the 
parish register. 

Battersea church was rebuilt in 1777, but the monu- 
ments of the St Johns and others were carefully pre- 
served, an example to the professing restorers of our own 
day Among them is one to lord Grandison ; and one 
to Sir Edward Wynter, who died in 1686, having per- 
formed some remarkable feats of strength, which are 
carved on his tomb, and celebrated in his epitaph : — t 

" Alone, unarm'd a tygcr he oppress'd, 
And crushed to deatii the monster of a beast ; 
Twice twenty mounted Moors he overthrew, 
Singly on foot ; some wounded, some he slew, 
Dispersed the rest — What more could Sampson do T 

But the visitor will look with most interest at the monu- 
ment of queen Anne's great minister and its untruthful 
inscription. If he wrote it himself, as is probable, it 
cannot be considered a good specimen of his celebrated 
style : — 

"Here lies Henry St John, in the reign of Queen 
Anne, Secretary of War, Secretary of State, and Viscount 
Bolingbroke : in the days of King George the First and 
King George the Second, something more and better. 
His attachment to Queen Anne exposed him to a long 
and severe persecution ; he bore it with firmness of 
mind, the enemy of no national party, the friend of no 

* Lysons, 29. A similar prosecution is mentioned in chap. ziz. 
t Cunningham, i, 65. 


faction ; distinguished (under the cloud of a proscription, 
which had not been entirely taken off) by zeal to main- 
tain the liberty, and to restore the ancient prosperity of 
Great Britain." 

Some fragments of Battersea house remained in the 
occupation of a miller till very lately. The estate was 
sold soon after Henry St John's death to the Spensers, 
who had already inherited the almost adjoining manor 
of Wimbledon. The archbishops of York had for some 
centuries a villa at Battersea, the site of which is still 
pointed out 

East of Lambeth and Kennington, and occupying the 
centre of the peninsula, is Newington. A farm or settle- 
ment outside the walls of Southwark was very early 
known as Wal-worth, a name sufficiently indicative of 
the situation. It is called Waleorde in Domesday Book, 
and having been given by king Edmund to his jester, 
" Nithardus," perhaps Neatherd, in English, was by him, 
on his repentance, and on the eve of a pilgrimage to 
Rome, given to the church of Canterbury, to which, or to 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, it still belongs. Wal- 
worth was the only manor in Newington, which, indeed, 
seems to have sprung into a separate existence since the 
Conquest It is not mentioned in Domesday, and the 
name may signify "new town." In 1066 the land on 
which " Neweton," or " Newenton," as it seems to have 
been called at first, was actually under water. It still 
lies very low, though it has been greatly banked up, but 
such a name as that of Newington Causeway, which still 
belongs to one of the streets, is enough to betoken the 
nature of the site.* The parish is often called Newing- 
ton Butts, to distinguish it from Newington, or Stoke 

• Lysons mentions a flood in 1755, daring which people were conveyed 
from the church to St. George's church in boats. 


Newington, at the other side of London. The butts 
were used by archers when Walworth and Newington 
were open fields. They are first mentioned in 1558. 

The eastern side of the peninsula, which I have 
described as being formed by the great bend of the 
Thames at London, was occupied by a monastic manor, 
now covered by, perhaps, the most noisome and un- 
savoury corner of the suburbs. There are no oflensive 
smells in any other town which may not be matched or 
surpassed in Bermondsey, among the tanners, the floor- 
cloth makers, the soap-boilers, the candle-moulders, and 
a hundred others, some of whose trades are too offensive 
for mention, yet here a few centuries ago invalids came 
on account of the purity of the air, and one king, at 
least, with several queens, may be named as having 
resorted to Bermondsey and Rotherhithe for health. 

Who was the Bermond* that gave his name to the 
" ey," or " ait " ? What is the meaning of Rotherhithe ? 
Was there an island here, a refuge of rowers, or an archi- 
pelago or a peninsula? It is evident from the map that 
the Roman road to Dover passed by Bermondsey and 
left it well to the east There was, therefore, less em- 
banking of the Thames shore here than at Southwark, 
and the ground must have naturally stood higher to have 
been reclaimed at all. No doubt the monks did much 
to improve their rich lands and to let in no more water 
than was good for their crops. The vinegar-makers 
profit by their labours, but Bermondsey must always 
have lain very low and been very damp.t 

Bermondsey belonged before the Conquest to Harold, 

^ Bermond has a Danish sound. Rotherhithe would seem to be the 
ancient form of the second name, and to point very directly to redkrOy 
a rower, or mariner in general, 

t See Chapter i. for some remarks on the levels. 


and has special mention in Domesday Book for its " new 
and handsome church."* It continued to be a royal 
demesne till 1094,! and when William Rufus gave it to 
the priory of St Mary, he retained that part which is 
now Rotherhithe, though in his charter there is no special 
exception made ; '* Rodereyam " goes to " Bermondesia " 
as well as " Dilewich," and a hide in Southwark. Cam- 
berwell was also in the estate, and Henry I. formally 
added Rotherhithe, so that the priory of St Saviour, 
which had been founded in 1082, became extremely 
wealthy, and its early importance is shown by its selec- 
tion as his retreat from the world by the earl of 
Mortaign, whose name occurs so frequently in Doines- 
day. He had a hide of land and a house worth 8j. in 
Bermondsey at the time of the survey. Another great 
noble, Robert Marmion, in 1113, gave the monks a 
piece of ground named Withifleet ; and in 1434 we can 
identify it with the mills of Widfleet and **a certain 
garden called Paris Garden." 

The Cluniac monks at Bermondsey remained subject 
to the abbey in Normandy, from which Aylwin Child, { 
a rich citizen of London, had brought them, until at the 
request of Richard H.,^ in 1390, John Attilburgh was 
made first abbot by Boniface IX. The pope, however, 
did not leave him long at Bermondsey, for towards the 
end of the same year he was promoted to a bishopric in 
Germany.§ The abbey was surrendered to Henry VIII. 
in 1538,11 but some of the monastic buildings were still 
standing at the beginning of this century, and the last 
vestiges only disappeared within living memory. 

* " Nova et pulchra ecclesia." 
t The charter is undated, but most be of that year. 
X Aylwin Child is sometimes supposed to be the father of Henry Fitz 
Aylwin or Eylwin, first mayor of London. 

§ Of Athclfelden ? || 1st January, 1537-8 


That Bermondsey should have been selected as a 
health resort is one of the strangest facts in the history 
of mediaeval medical practice. Its reputation was, how- 
ever, established by the accidental residence in the abbey 
of a monk who was supposed to understand the art of 
healing in an eminent degree. 

The princess of France, whom Henry V. had married 
so shortly before his death, and whose little son was 
already Jcing of England and France, died at Bermondsey 
Abbey in 1437. Her husband, Owen Tudor, the pro- 
genitor of the great dynasty of that name, is one of the 
most mysterious personages in English history. He was 
a prisoner in Newgate while his wife lay dying at Ber- 
mondsey. * We can only suppose that Katharine must 
either have gone to Bermondsey to consult a physician, 
and of her own free will, or because she was sent there 
by the government of her brother-in-law and placed in 
a kind of mild captivity. She left her three little sons 
to the charity of their half-brother the king, himself then 
only a boy of sixteen. 

Half a century later another queen came here to die. 
Elizabeth Wydvile, already the widow of a simple 
knight, had married a king, as Katherine, the widow of 
a king, had married a soldier. Owen Tudor's grandson, 
the son of one of the orphan boys bequeathed to 
Henry VI. by his mother, was now on the throne of the 
Plantagenets, t and Elizabeth Wydvile's daughter was 
his wife. So had the world gone round. But neither 
physicians nor the RedrifT air could cure her malady, 
and in 1492 her body was conveyed with sumptuous 

• See above, voL i. chap. ix. 

t I use this name here for convenience and in contradistinction to Tudor, 
though it would be easy to prove that none of the Angevin kings called 
themselves by it. Edward IV. gave it as a surname to his illegitimate son, 
Arthur, Lord Lisle. 


ceremonies from Bermondsey to the grave of Edward IV. 
at Windsor. 

The abbey church was taken down very soon after 
the suppression by Sir Thomas Pope. He bought the 
lease, at los. a year rent, which Sir Robert South- 
well, Master of the Rolls, had obtained, with the 
advowson of the parish, from Henry VHI. Pope made 
himself a noble mansion out of the relics of the monastic 
buildings. After ten years, however, Southwell, longing 
perhaps for the fine air of Bermondsey, persuaded Pope 
to let him have the house back. Eventually Pope sold 
the manor and advowson to one Robert Trapps, a person 
whom history has not distinguished except as the 
ancestor of a family which retained the estate for a 
century and a half. Sir Thomas Pope's house was after- 
wards the property of the Ratcliffes, earls of Sussex, 
of one of whom, the father of Shakespeare's friend, who 
died here in 1583, we read that he directed his executors 
to spend 150/. in keeping his house open to all for 
twenty-one days after his death. They actually spent 
159/. 8^. 2d. 

The parish church, another St Mary, but this time St 
Mary Magdalene, has been so repeatedly altered and 
rebuilt and restored, that it retains nothing of its ancient 
features. The parish register contains some curious 
entries, as of the re-marriage in 1604 of a couple who had 
long been separated, presumably by the sea, and the 
woman married to another man. 

The unpleasant sights and smells of the district, the 
crowd of small and miserable houses, and the general 
fogginess of the situation are such that even enthusiastic 
antiquaries hesitate to visit Bermondsey, though, from 
the passage through it of the great modem highway, the 
railroad to the south coast, its general features are but 



too familiar to most of us ; and the local names may 
occasionally be studied from a carriage window. Neck- 
inger Road,* for example, recalls the creek which con- 
nected the abbey with the Thames, and which was said 
to have been made by a great flood in 1294. It occurred 
on the 1 8th of October, and is commemorated in various 
chronicles as " Le Breche." Maze Pond was probably 
in the garden of the abbot of Battle, whose town house 
was on a site in the track of the railway, and was long 
commemorated by Battle Bridge. Sellenger Wharf 
recalls the residence at Bermondsey of Sir Anthony 
St Leger, the lord deputy of Ireland in the reign of 
Henry VIII., who had a grant of the town-house here 
of the abbot of St Augustine's, Canterbury. Abbey 
Road and Grange Road lead to the little court known as 
Bermondsey Square, which was once surrounded by 
monastic buildings second in magnificence only to those 
of Westminster.! 

Rotherhithe had a short separate existence when 
Edward III. gave his land here to the abbey of St, Maiy 
of Grace on Tower Hill ; but the grant was probably 
disputed by the abbot of Bermondsey, as the land was 
eventually given to him, perhaps we might say given 
back to him. Up to the dissolution there is constantly 
some confusion as to abbot's land and king's land ; and 
a grant from Henry VIII. to one Gerard Danett was 
cancelled by an amicable agreement with the abbot in 
1 5 16. Henry IV. resided at Rotherhithe for the benefit 
of his health, and two of his charters are dated there in 
July 1412* The church is not remarkable. It is, almost 

* Some ridicaloas s«iggestions liave been made as to the meaning of tbis 
name : thus in ' Notes and Queries '(us. vol. 3, p. 417) it is deriycd froB 
•* The Devil's Neckerchief," a dangerous narrow road between two ditcher 

t See Wilkinson's ' Londina Illnstrata/ vol. L, for a series of vieirs ot 
the abbey as it appeared sixty years since. 



as a matter of course, dedicated to St. Mary, and was 
built in 1 7 14, when Rotherhithe became a parish. Here 
lies buried a hero of our nursery legends. Prince Lee 
Boo, the son of Aba Thulle, King of Goo-roo-raa, in the 
South Pacific. He died in Paradise Row in 1784, and 
his epitaph is in the turgid style of the day : — 

" Stop, Reader, Stop ! Let Nature claim a tear, 
A prince of mifUt Lee Boo, lies buried here.'* 

U 2 

( 292 ) 



The rapid growth of the suburbs of London, combined 
with the fact that since 1855 they have been under what 
may be called a central government in certain particulars, 
has rendered necessary the adoption of a name. The 
largest city in the world was anonymous. Its con- 
stituent parts had names, but as a whole it had none. 
The interference of parliament was invoked, and un- 
fortunately for accuracy a phrase was suggested which 
in the wisdom of our rulers at that day sufficiently 
described the great city. It was labelled the "Metro- 
politan Area." 

The use of the word "metropolis" as applied to 
London is of some antiquity. Howell coined a better 
name as the title of his ' Londinopolis/ published in 
1657. In De Laune's * Present State of London/ pub- 
lished after the Great Fire, though the author himself 
does not use the term, an admirer who sends him an 
" Acrostick " does not hesitate to turn a rhyme with it ; 
but the character of his authority may be judged by the 
opening triplet of the poem : — 

<* This is the City which the Papal Crew 
Have by their Damn'd Devices overthrew, 
Erected on her old Foundations, New." 

The poet goes on to praise the book : — 

** The Grandeur of this fam'd Metropolis, 
Arts, Laws, and Customs thou hast shewn in this." 




Axes, hvih t^od at difRBrrent dates 

Scale Off Ifilet 




When the Board of Works was formed in 1855, under 
Sir Benjamin Hall's Act, the name was boldly assumed ; 
and the Board is appointed " for the purpose of divert- 
ing the sewage of the metropolis." Thenceforth this, so 
to speak, diverting use of the word has been usual ; and 
the Board now deals with the whole Hundred of 
Ossulston, the Hundred of Isleworth, certain districts on 
the southern side of the Thames in the counties of Kent 
and Surrey, and part of Essex. This constitutes the 
" Metropolitan Area " ; but London, which probably the 
framers of the Act contemplated under the name of 
the metropolis, is itself manifestly excepted. 

The "Metropolitan Area" has been thus defined.* 
It is the '* Metropolis " within the new tables of mortality, 
as constituted for all registration, census and poor law 
matters, and the term is further used for the district over 
which the Metropolitan Board of Works has jurisdiction. 
This district does not quite coincide with that concern* 
ing which the Registrar-General is busied: since the 
hamlet of Pengef is excluded, and the hamlet of 
Mottingham is included. There is again a third district 
called the "Metropolitan Area" of the Police: it is 
much more extensive than the " Metropolitan Area " of 
the Registrar-General or the "Metropolitan Area" of 
the Board of Works, and extends over the whole of 
Middlesex t and "the surrounding parishes in the 
counties of Surrey, Kent, Essex, and Hertford of which 

* By Mr. Lewis in his ' Digest of the Census of 1871,' p. 29. 

t Penge is, parochially or manorially, in Battersea. 

X Mr. Lewis adds in a bracket, " exclusive of the city of London " : bat 
London is not and never was in Middlesex. It would be almost as sensible 
to talk of the whole of Norfolk, exclusive of the city of London. It is this 
misuse of names on the part of officials that has given us the bewildering 
term "Metropolitan area," which really means, if it means anything, 


any part is within twelve miles from Charing Cross, and 
those also of which any part is not more than fifteen miles 
in a straight line from the same point The police circle 
round Charing Cross contains all that can be reckoned 
as properly within the limits of London, and is too 
extensive for a natural boundary. For many of the 
parishes within the police district are entirely rural, and 
are quite sequestered from the great city, while at several 
points are large towns, of which Croydon is an example, 
chiefly bound to London by the daily intercourse of their 

Yet again, there is the Metropolitan Postal District, and 
it includes city and suburbs alike, consisting of the fol- 
lowing divisions: — the E.C. lying close around the 
General Post OfHce in St Martin's-le-Grand ; the £. 
extending to Walthamstow, Leytonstone and North 
Woolwich ; the N. division reaching north from Penton- 
ville nearly to Enfield and Bamet; the N.W, divi^oo 
taking in Hendon and Willesden ; the S.E. division 
reaching from Vauxhall Bridge to Erith, and including 
Norwood, Penge, and Lewisham ; the S.W. division 
extending westward along the Fulham Road, from 
Charing Cross to Fulham, and southward as far as 
Merton and Wimbledon ; the W. division stretching out 
to Acton, Ealing, and Hanwell ; and the W.C. division, 
lying between the City and Chslring Cross. 

This Postal District, therefore covers an area as large as 
that of the Metropolitan Board of Works, but is not nearly 
so extensive as that controlled by the police. 

The immense size of this area is denoted by some 
of the figures mentioned in the annual report of the 
board. The money spent during a year is two and a half 
millions. Besides the nine parliamentary boroughs, each 
sending two members to the house of commons, fld 


fewer than sixty distinct "villages have in course of 
time become constituent parts of London." The area is 
occupied by several thousand streets, "which, if laid end 
to end, would form a line 1,600 miles long." There are 
more than half a million different buildings and eleven 
hundred churches. Within the police district the popula- 
tion is fully four millions. " There are in London more 
Scotchmen than in Edinburgh, more Irish than in Dublin, 
more Jews than in Palestine, and more Roman Catholics 
than in Rome." Compared with the Metropolitan Area, 
even New York and Paris, the two cities of the world 
which come nearest to it, are so far behind that both put 
tc^ether would only equal it The six cities of Great 
Britain which come nearest to it are Glasgow, Liverpool, 
Manchester with Salford, Birmingham, Leeds, and 
Sheffield ; but the population of all put together does not 
equal that of the Metropolitan Area, even if the city of 
London be taken out The rateable value is reckoned 
to amount to upwards of twenty-five million sterling. The 
whole valuation of the six English cities which come 
nearest to the " Metropolitan Area " in population is, in 
the aggregate, about ten millions and a half, so that the 
value of the " Metropolis " is more than double. Great 
sums expressed in numbers often convey a clearer idea 
than any other form of statement, and certainly the 
statistics offered by London and its suburbs are almost 
appalling. Since it came into being the board has 
made 65 miles of main sewers, besides making or 
renewing 195 miles of smaller drains. The immense 
cost of works in the Area, the gigantic scale on which 
everything has to be done, may be gathered from some 
of the figures given in the annual reports. The Embank- 
ments cost three millions of money. The Fire Brigade 
numbers more than five hundred men ; and there were 


more than one thousand eight hundred fires in 1880. 
In the same time about a quarter of a million has been 
paid for freeing bridges ; and nearly 40,000^! for property 
through which new streets are to pass. No fewer than one 
hundred Acts of Parliament referring to the work of the 
board have been passed in the twenty-six years of its 
existence. The main drainage system cost four and a 
half millions, and a few of the statistics have been thus 
summed-up: — "There are annually consumed about 
2,000,000 quarters of wheat, 400,000 oxen, 1,500,000 
sheep, 130,000 calves, 250,000 swine, 8 million head of 
poultry and game, 400 million pounds of fish, 500 million 
oysters, 1,200,000 lobsters, and 3,000,000 salmon. The 
butcher's meat alone is valued at 50,000,000/. The 
Londoners wash down this vast annual repast by 180 
million quarts of porter and ale, 8 mUIion quarts of 
spirits, and 31 million quarts of wine, not to speak of the 
180 million gallons of water supplied every day by the 
nine water companies. About 1000 collier- vessels yearly 
bring 3,500,000 tons of coal into London by the river, 
while the railways supply about 3,000,000 tons more." * 
The most extraordinary thing about this vast Area is 
the looseness of its governing system. That it is well 
governed no one can deny. Light and water are provided 
Crime is punished. Life is tolerably secure as well from 
assassins as from pestilence. If dwellers in the Area are 
robbed of their property it is at least under legalised 
forms. Yet perhaps one of the most puzzling questions 
a foreigner could put to an " Arean," if I may invent a 
name, would be involved in any inquiry as to how these 
satisfactory results are attained. We have no prefects, 
no mayors, no governors, no syndics. There are divi- 

 Baedeker's * Handbook.'' p. 60. These statistics are fire years old, 
and all the figures have been increased since they were compiled. 


sional police magistrates, but few of us have ever seen 
one, and many of us live for years in a district without 
learning the way to the nearest police court There are 
vestries, too, and we see their initials on watercarts, and 
occasionally receive voting papers, from which we infer 
that they are elected by the people. But, as a matter of 
fact, nine-tenths of the dwellers in the "Metropolitan 
Area" know very little more, and cannot distinguish 
between the Metropolitan Board of Works, and the 
Board of Works, which is a department of the govern- 
ment of the country and used to be known as "the 
Woods and Forests," a title too picturesque for the 
present age. 

The " Metropolitan Board " is annually elected and 
consists of forty-six members, whose business it is to see 
to the imposition and laying out of certain taxes, or 
rates, or, as they would have been called in the 13th 
century, tallages. The board has no magisterial juris-^ 
diction. It is not a governing body. It does not 
concern itself with parochial matters. It waters no 
streets and supplies no gas ; but it sees that certain 
conditions are fulfilled which make watering and lighting 
possible. Its members project new streets, and obtain 
parliamentary authority from time to time to contract 
heavy loans on the security of their rates. They have 
thus been enabled to make roads more direct in many 
places, to relieve local traffic, to free bridges. Their 
greatest and in some senses their best work is the 
Embankment along the shores of the Thames from 
Blackfriars to Westminster, with shorter pieces at 
Chelsea and Lambeth, which cost two millions sterling, 
and covers all the foreshore where twice a day there 
used to be an unsightly mud flat. They also carried 
out a drainage scheme, which according to some authori- 


ties will have to be done over again. The sewage 
question is, even more than the cemetery question, of 
deep importance, and cannot be considered as in any 
sense solved. 

This is not the place to go into full particulars of the 
works projected or completed by the Metropolitan 
Board. Nor need I describe the Underground Railway, 
or the great stations, or electric lighting, or asphalte 
pavement, or, in short, any of the wonders which a single 
generation has seen springing into existence in our Area. 
My object has rather been to trace those causes in the 
past which are acting on us now, and, by piecing together 
into a continuous narrative, so far as it was possible, the 
many scattered circumstances which have contributed to 
make London what it is, to enable the student of history 
to understand and explain things that may often seem 
to be anomalous in our civic condition. 

In conclusion I would wish to point out one example 
of the effect of ancient circumstances on our modem life. 
It is common to talk as if the city had refused to take 
in " wards without," and that the orderly confusion, if I 
may so term it, of our present parochial system arises 
from a jealousy or indisposition on the part of the central 
and ancient nucleus of London, to trouble itself about 
suburbs. I hope I have shown that this is a mistaken 
view. The city was never in demesne : the suburbs 
were on land which belonged to various lords and was 
parcelled out into various manors, each of which had its 
courts and its manorial officers, as we have them to this 
day in Westminster. The citizens could not make way 
against these forces. I have shown how the Fleet valley 
was annexed, and with what difficulty. Had other great 
merchants followed the example of Nicholas Farringdon 
and bought manors close to the walls, a few more 


exceptions might have arisen : but, as we have seen, the 
greater part of the land was held by the dead hand of 
the church against which even the wealthiest alderman 
was powerless. The upstart nobles of the Tudor period 
were not at all anxious to part with their newly acquired 
dignity as lords of manors. To them, therefore, and 
before them to the church, but not to the city, we must 
ascribe the present condition of the "Metropolitan 

( 30I ) 


A Calendar of the Mayors and Sheriffs of London 

from \\Z()to 1882.* 

1 189. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Henry de Corenhell. 
Richard FitzReyner. 

1 1 90. Henry FitzAylwin. 
John Herlison. 
Roger le Due. 

11 9 1. Henry FitzAylwin. 
William de Haverille. 
John Bokointe. 

1 1 92. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Nicholas Duket 
Peter Newlay. 

1 193. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Roger le Due. 
Roger FitzAlan. 

1 194. Henry FitzAylwin. 
William FitzYzabel. 
WUliam FitzAthulf 

1195. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Robert Besaunt. 
Jukel Alderman. 

11 96. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Gerard de Antioch. 
Robert FitzDuraunt. 

11 97. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Robert Bluud. 
Nicholas Duket. 

1 198. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Constantine Fitz- 

Robert le Bel. 

1199. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Arnold FitzAthulf. 
Richard FitzBarthel- 


* The early part of this list mainly follows the * Chronicle of Mayors 
and Sheriffs, but, as far as 1206, the date is that of the year of serricc. 



1 200. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Roger de Desert. 
Jacob Alderman, (or 


1 201. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Simon de Aldermane- 

WilUam FitzAliz. 

1202. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Norman Blund. 
John de Kaye. 

1203. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Walter Bnin. 
William Chamberleyn. 

1204. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Thomas de Haverille. 
Hamo Brond. 

1205. Henry FitzAylwin. 
John Walraven. 
Richard de Wincestre. 

1206. Henry FitzAylwin. 
John Heliland. 
Eadmund de la Hale.* 

1207. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Roger de Wincestre. 
William HardeL 

1208. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Thomas FitzNeaL 
Peter le Duc# 

1209. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Peter le Juvenc 
William Wite. 

12 10. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Stephen le Gros. 
Adam de Wyteby. 

121 1. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Joce FitzPeter. 
John Garlaund. 

12 12. Henry FitzAylwin. 
Constantine le Juvenc 
Ralph Helyland. 

1 2 13. Roger FitzAylwin. 
Martin FitzAliz. 
Peter Bath. 

1 2 14. Serle le Mercer. 
Salomon de Basinges. 
Hugh de Basinges. 

1215. William Hardel. 
Andrew Nevelun. 
John Travers, 

12 16. Jacob Alderman, for 

part, and Salomon 
DE Basinges, for 

Benedict le Seyntcr. 

William Blund 

• For 1206 the ' Chronicle of Mayors and Sheriff* gives the nimeiof 
Serlo le Mercer and Henry de St Auban. There is a serious discrepmcy 
between the yarious lists at this point, owing possibly to some cfaiDge ui 
the date of the election. 



1217. Serlo lk Mercer. 
Ralph Helylaunde- 
Thomas BukereL 

1 2 18. Serlo le Mercer, 
Joce le Pesur.* 
John Vyel. 

1 2 19. Serlo le Mercer. 
John Vyel. 
Richard Wymbledon. 

1220. Serlo le Mercer. 
Richard Rynger. 
Joce le Juvene. 

122 1. Serlo le Mercer. 
Richard Renger. 
Thomas Laumbert. 



Serlo le Mercer. 
Thomas Laumbert. 
William Joyner, 

Richard Render. 
John Travers. 
Andrew BukereL 

1224. Richard Renger. 
Andrew BukereL 
John Travers. 

1225. Richard Render. 
Martin FitzWilliam. 
Roger le Due, 

1226. Richard Render. 
Martin FitzWilliam. 
Roger le Due. 

1227. RoDER LE Due. 
Henry de Cokam. 
Stephen BukereL 

1228. RoDER LE Due. 
Stephen BukereL 
Henry de Cokam. 

1229. RooER LE Due. 
William de Wincestre. 
Robert Fitzjohn. 

1230. RoDER LE Due. 
John de Woubome. 
Richard FiizWalter. 

1231. Andrew Bukerel. 
Walter le Bufle. 
Michael de St. 


1232. Andrew Bukerel. 
Henry de Edelmeton. 
Gerard Bat 

X233. Andrew Bukerel. 
Roger Blund. 
Symon FitzMary. 

1234. Andrew Bukerel. 
Raphe Eswy. 
John Norman. 

1235. Andrew Bukerel. 
Gerard Bat. 
Robert Hardel. 

1236. Andrew Bukerel. 

Henry Cokham. 
Jordan de Coventre. 

* Pesur, bell maker. 



1237. Andrew Bukerel,* 

Richard Renger. 
John Tuleson. 
Gervais Chamberleyn, 

or of Walebroc. 

1238. Richard Renger.! 
John de Wilehale. 
John de Koudres. 

1239. William Joynier. 
Ralph Eswy. 
Reginald de Bungeye. 

1240. Gerard Bat. 
John de Geseorz. 
Michael Thovy. 

1 241. Reginald de Bun- 


John Vyel. 
Thomas de Dureme. 

1242. Ralph Eswy. 
John Fitzjohn. 
Ralph Eswy. 

1243. Ralph Eswy. 
Hugh Blund. 
Adam de Giseburae. 

1244. Michael Thovy. 
Nicholas Bat. 
Ralph de Bow. 

1245. John Gyseorz. 
Robert de Corenhelle. 
Adam de Benetleye 

1246. John Gisors. 
Syraon FitzMary. 
Lawrence de Frowyk. 

1247. Peter FitzAlan. 
William Vyel. 
Nicholas Bat. 

1248. Michael Thov\'. 
Nicholas Fitzjocey. 
Geoffrey de Wyncestre. 

1249. Roger FitzRoger. 
John Tulesan. 
Ralph Hardel. 

1250. John Norman. 
William FitzRichard. 
Humfrey le Fevre. 

1251. Adam Basing. 
Nicolas Bat 
Lawrence de Frowyk. 

1252. John Tulesan. 
William de Duresme. 
Thomas de Wyroburnc 

1253. Nicholas Bat. 
Richard Pikard. 
John de Northampton- 

1254. Ralph Hardeu 
William Eswy. 
Robert de Linton- 

* Bukerel died in office. 

t Renger died in office, and was succeeded towards the dose of the ^ 
by Joynier. 
X So Chron., p. 10. Stow makes Bungeye mayor. 



1255. Ralph Hardel. 
Matthew Bukerel.* 
John le Mynur. 

1256. Ralph Hardel. 
William Eswy. 
Richard EwelL 

1257. Ralph Hardel. 
Thomas FitzThomas. 
William Grapefige-t 

1258. William Fitz- 

John Addrien. 
Robert de Corenhelle. 

1259. William Fitz- 

Adam Bruning. 
Henry de Coventre. 

1260. William Fitz- 


John de Norhampton. 
Richard Pikard, 

1 261. Thomas FitzThomas. 
Philip le Taillour. 
Richard de Walebroc. 

1262. Thomas FitzThomas. 
Osbert de Suthfolch. 
Robert de Munpelers. 

1 2 63. Thomas FitzThomas. 
Thomas de Ford. 
Gregory de Rokesle. 

1264. Thomas FitzThomas. 
Edward Blund. 
Peter FitzAuger. 

1265. Thomas FitzThomas. 
Gregory de Rokesle. 
Simon de Hadestok. 
Sir Hugh FitzOtes, 

John Addrien, 
Walter Hervi, bailiffs, 

1266. William Fitz- 

RiCHARD, Warden. 
John Addrien. 
Luke de Battencourt, 


1267. Alan de la Souche, 

John Addrien. 
Luke de Battencourt. 

1268. Sir Stephen de Ed- 

DEWORTHE, Warden, 
Walter Harvy. 
William de Dureham. 

1269. Sir Hugh FitzOtes, 

Thomas de Basinges. 
Robert de Corenhelle. 
John Addrien. 
Philip le Taillour. 
Walter le Poter. 

* For part of 1254 new sheriffs were elected, Doo, or Oystcrgate and 
Waleiannde, as Eswy and Linton were in the Tower. 
t The sheriffii were twice changed in 1257. 
VOL II, ^ 



layo. John Addrien. 

Gregory de Rokesle. 
Henry Waleys. 

1 2 7 1 . Walter H arvy. 
Richard de Paris. 
John de Buddele. 

1272. Walter Harvy. 
John Horn. 
Walter le Poter. 

1273. Henry le Waleys. 
Henry de Coventre. 
Nicolas FitzGeoflfrey of 


1274. Gregory de Rokesle. 
Luke de Batencourt 
Henry de Frowick. 

1275. Gregory de Rokesle. 
John Home. 

Ralph de Blount 

1276. Gregory de Rokesle. 
Ralph d' Arras. 
Raphe le Fevre, 

1277. Gregory de Rokesle. 
John Adrian. 
Walter Lengleys. 

1278. Gregory de Rokesle. 
William le Mazerier. 
Robert de Basinge. 

1279. Gregory de Rokesle. 
Thomas Box. 

Ralph De la More. 

1 280. Gregory de Rokesle. 
William de Farendon. 
Nicolas de Winchester. 

1 281. Henry Waleis. 
William Mazerier. 
Richard de ChikeweL 

1282. Henry Waleis. 
Walter le Blount 
Anketin de BeteviL 

1283. Henry Waleis. 
Martyn Box. 
Jordan Godchep. 

1284. Gregory Rokeslet. 
Stephen de ComhilL 
Robert de Rokesle. 

1285. Sir Ralph de Sand- 

wiCHy WardoL 
Walter le Blount 
John Wade. 

1286. Sir Ralph de Sand- 

wich, Warden, 
Thomas Crosse. 
Walter Hawtein. 

1287. Sir Ralph de Sand- 

wich, Warden. 
William de Hereford 
Thomas de Stanes. 

1288. Sir John de Bretton, 

William de Betaign& 
John de Caunterbuiy. 

1289. Sir Ralph de Sand- 

wich, Warden. 
Fulke de St Edmund 
Salamon le CoteUer. 











Sir Ralph de Sand- 
wich, Wardm, 
Thomas Rumeyne. 
William de Leyre. 

Sir John de Bretton, 

Ralph le Blount 
Hamond Box. 

Sir Ralph de Sand- 
wich, Warden. 
Henry le Bole. 
Elias RusseL 

Sir John le Breton, 

Robert de Rokesle. 
Martyn Aumesbeny. 

Sir John le Breton, 

Richard de Glocester. 
Henry Box. 

Sir John le Breton, 

John de Dunstaple. 
Adam de Hallingbuiy. 

Sir John le Breton, 

Adam de Fulham. 
Thomas de Suffolk. 

Henry Waleis.* 
John de Storteforde. 
William de Storteforde. 

1298. Henry Waleis. 
Richer de Refham. 
Thomas Saly. 

1299. Elias Russel. 
John d'Armentiers. 
Henry de Fingry. 

1300. Elias Russel. 
Lucas de Haverin. 
Richard de Chaumpes. 

1 30 1. John le Blount. 
Peter de Bosenho. 
Robert le Caller. 

1302. John le Blount. 
Simon de Paris. 
Hugh Pourte. 

1303. John le Blount.! 
William Coumbe- 

John de Boreford. 

1304. John le Blount. 
John de Nicole. 
Roger de Paris. 

1305. John le Blount. 
Reginald deTunderle, 
William Cosyn. 

1306. Sir John Blount.J 
Edmond Bolet 
Geoffreyatthe Conduit. 

• Stow omits this first year of Waleis. See ' French Chron.,* 244. 
t Stow calls le Blount autos this year. 

\ He appears to have been knighted this year, and to be the first mayor 
who obtained this rank : bat Stow gives it to sereral before him. 

X 2 




1307. Sir John Blount. 
Nicolas Pycot. 
Neel Druerye. 

1308. Nicholas de Farn- 


James Botiller. 
William de Basinge. 

1309. Thomas Romeyn. 
Roger Palmere. 
James Fouke. 

Richer de Refham. 
Symon Corp. 
Peter de Blakeneye. 

131 1. John Gisors. 
Richard de WelforA 
Simon Mereworthe. 

1312. John Gisors. 
Adam Lucekyn. 
John Lambyn. 

13 13. Nicolas de Farndon. 
Hugh de Barton.* 
Robert de Burdeyn. 

13 14. John Gisors. 
Stephen de Abingdone. 
Hamond de ChikeweL 

13x5. Stephen de Abing- 
William Bodeleyhg.f 
Hamod Godchep. 

131 6. John deWengrave. 
William Caustone. 
Ralph la Balaunce. 

* OrGarton. 

X Chigwell wftB implicated with 
Betaigne was an adherent of Queen 

13 1 7. John de Wengrave. 
William de Fumeaux. 
John Prior. 

1318. John Wengrave, 
John PoynteL 
John Dallingge. 

1319. Hamo de Chigwell 
John de Prestone. 
Symonde Abingdone. 

1320. Nicolas de Farndon. 
William Prudhomme. 
Reginald at Conduit 

132 1. Hamo de Chigwell 
Richard Constantin. 
Richard Hakeneye. 

1322. Hamo de Chigwell. 
John de Grantham. 
Roger de Ely. 

1323. Nicholas de Farn- 


Adam de Salesbiuy. 
John de Oxenford. 

1324. Hamo de Chigwell 
Benit de Folsham. 
John de Caustone. 

1325. Hamo de Chigwell 
GUbert de Mordone. 
John Cotoun. 

1326. Hamo de Chigwell 
Richard de 

Richard de Rothing. 
Roger Chaunceler. 

t Or Bodle/. 
the party of Edward IL Wxr^^ 



1327. Hamo de Chigwell. 
Heniy Darcy. 
John Hautejm. 

1338. John de Grantham. 
Simon Fraunceis. 
Heniy Combemartin. 

1329. Simon Swanlond. 
Richard Lacer. 
William Gisors. 

1330. Sir John Pountney 


Robert de Ely. 
Thomas Horewod 

1 33 1. Sir John de Polten- 


John de Mokkinge. 
Andrew AubrL 

1332- John de Prestone. 
Nicolas Pike. 
John Husbonde. 

1333' Sir John Polteneye. 
John Hamond. 
William Haunsard. 

1334. Reginald Del Con- 


John de Hinggestone. 
Walter Turke. 

1335. Nicolas Wotton.* 
Walter de Mordone. 
Richard de Uptone. 

1336. Sir John de Polten- 

William Brikales- 

John de NorthalLf 

1337. Henry Darcy. 
Walter Nele. 

Nicholas Crane. 


1338. Henry Darcy. 
William Pountfreit 
Hugh Marberer. 

1339. Andrew Aubry. 
William de Thomeye. 
Roger de Forsham. 

1340. Andrew Aubry. 
Adam Lucas. 
Bartholomew Denmars. 

1 341. John of Oxenford 

(died); and Simon 

Richard de Berking. 
John de la Rokele. 

1342. Simon Fraunceis. 
John Lovekyn. 
Richard de Kesling- 


1343. John Hamond. 
John Syward. 
John Aylesham. 

1344. John Hamond. 
Geffrey Whityngham. 
Thomas Legge. 

* The Fr. Chron. says Reginaldo dd Conduyt,p. 271. 

t Stow says John Clarke and William Curtis were sheriffs. Theie are 
perhaps other names for the same men. (See Fr. Chron., by Riley, p. 271, 

X This is the last entry in Fr. Chron. The next authority is the Chron. 
by Tyrrell, usually called that of Nicholas. 














Richard Lacere. 
Edmund Hempenale. 
John Gloucester. 

Geffrey Whyting. 
William Clopton. 
John Croydon. 

Thomas Legge. 
Adam Brakson. 
Richard Basynstoke. 

John Lovekyn. 
Henry Picard. 
Simon Dolcelle. 

Walter Turk. 
Adam of Bery. 
Rauf Lynne. 

Richard Kylsyngby. 
John Notte. 
William of Worcester. 

Andrew Aubrey. 

John Wroth. 

Gilbert of Steynethorp. 

Adam Fraunceys. 
John Pecche. 
John Stodye. 

Adam Fraunceys. 
William Welde. 
John Lytele. 

Thomas Legge. 
William Totenham. 
Richard Smelte. 

Simon Fraunceys, 
Thomas Forster. 
Walter Brandon. 

1356. Henry Picard. 
Richard Notyngham. 
Thomas Dolcell. 

1357. John Stodeye. 
Stephen Caundyssh. 
Bartholomew Freling. 

1358. John Lovekyn. 
John Bures. 
John Bemes. 

'359- Simon Dolcelle. 
Simon Bedyngton. 
John of Chichestre. 

1360. Sir John Wroth. 
John Deynes. 
Walter Bemeye. 

1 36 1. John Pecche. 
William Holbeche. 
James Tame. 

1362. StephenCaundyssh. 
John of Sl Albons. 
Jacob Andrewe. 

1363. John Notte. 
Richard Croydon. 
John Hiltoft, or 


1364. Adam of Bery. 
Simon Mordon. 
John Medford. 

1365. Adam of Bery. 
John Lovekyn. 
John Bukylsworth. 
Thomas Ireland 

1366. John Lovekyn. 
John Warde. 
Thomas atte Lee. 



1367. James Andrew. 
John Thorgold. 
William Dykeman. 

1368. Simon Mordon. 
Adam Wymondham. 
Robert Girdelere. 

1369. John Chichester. 
John Pyell. 

Hugh Holbech. 

1370. John Bernes. 
William Walworth. 
Robert of Gayton. 

1 37 1. John Bernes. 
Robert Hatfeld. 
Adam Stable. 

1372. John Pyell. 
John Philpot. 
Nicholas Brembre. 

1373. Adam of Bery. 
John Aubray. 
John Fyfhede. 

1374. William Walworth. 
Richard Lyons. 
William Wodehous. 

1375. John Warde. 
John Hadley. 
William Newport 

1376. Adam Stable.* 
Nicholas Brembre. 
John North. 
Robert Launde. 

1377. Nicholas Brembre. 
Andrew Pykeman. 
Nicolas Twyford. 

1378. John Philpot. 
John Boseham. 
Thomas Comwayle. 

1379. John Hadley. 
John Heyleston. 
William Baret 

1380. William Walworth. 
Walter Coket 
William Knyghtcote. 

1381. John Northampton. 
John Hende. 

John Roote. 

1382. John Northampton. 
Adam Bamme. 

John Cely. 

1383. Nicholas Brembre. 
John Moore. 
Simon Wynchecombe. 

1384. Nicholas Brembre. 
Nicholas Exton. 
John Frosshe. 

1385. Nicholas Brembre. 
John Oghgon. 
John Chircheman. 

1386. Nicolas Exton. 
William More. 
William Staundon. 

• " F p'cepta regis amotus." Chroo. pp. 66, 7a 



1387. Nicolas Exton. 
William Venor. 
Hugh Fastolf. 


Adam Karlyll. 
Thomas Austyn. 

1389. William Venor. 
John Loveye. 

John Walcote. 

1390. Adam Bamme. 
Thomas Vyvent. 
John Fraunceys. 

1 39 1. John Hende. 
John Schadworth. 
Henry Vaune. 

1392. William Staundon. 
Gilbert Maunfeld. 
Thomas Newenton. 

1393. John Hadley. 
Richard Whityngton. 
Drew Barentyn. 

1 394- John Frossh, 
Thomas Knolles. 
William Brampton. 

1395. William More. 
Roger Elys.* 
William Scheryngham. 

1396. A. Bamme (died). 

R. Whityngton. 
Thomas Welford. 
William Parkere. 

* Stow says Sevenoke. 

t Stow. " Warv' " in Chron. 

X Hende, Stow. 

1397. Richard Whytyno- 


William Askham. 
John Wodecok. 

1398. Drew Barentyn. 
John Wade. 
John Wamar.f 

1399. Thomas Knolles. 
William Waldem. 
William Hyde.{ 

1400. John Fraunceys. 
William Cnote. 
John Wakeley. 

1401. John Schadworth 
William Venor. 
John Fremyngham. 

1402. John Walcote. 
Robert Chichelegh. 
Richard Merlawe. 

1403. William Askham. 
Thomas Faulconer. 
Thomas Polle. 

1404. John Hende. 
William Loutbe. 
Stephen Spylman. 

1405. John Wodecok. 
William Crowmeic 
Henry Barton. 

1406. Richard WHYTfKG- 


Nicolas Wotton. 
Gefirey Brook. 

Perhaps Warwidc 



1407. William Staundon. 
Henry Pounfreyt. 
Henry Halton. 

1408. Drew Barantyn. 
William Norton. 
Thomas Duke. 

1409. Richard Merlawe. 
John Lane. 
William Chichele. 

1410. Thomas Knolles. 
Thomas Pyke. 
John Penne. 

141 1. Robert Chicheley. 
William Reynwell.* 
Walter Cotton. 

141 2. William Waldern. 
Ralph Lobenham. 
William Sevenok.f 

1413. William Crowmere. 
John NichoU. 

John Sutton. 

1414. Thomas Fauconer. 
John Michell. 
Thomas Aleyn. 

1415. Nicholas Wotton. 
Alan Everard. 
William Caumbregg. 

1416. Henry Barton. 
Robert Whydyngton. 
John Coventry. 

141 7. Richard Merlawe. 
Henry Rede. 

John Gedeney. 

1418. William Sevenok. 
John Bryan. 
Ralph Barton. 
John Perveys.J 

1419. Richard Whytyng- 


John Boteler. 
Robert Wh)rtyngton. 

1420. William Cambregge. 
John Boteller. 

John Welles. 

142 1. Robert Chycheley. 
John Weston. 
Richard Gos^lyn. 

1422. William Waldern. 
William Estfeld. 
Robert Tatersale. 

1423. William Crowmere. 
Thomas Wandesford. 
Nicolas Jamys. 

1424. John Michell. 
Simon Seman. 
John be the Water. 

* John Rainewell, Stow. 

t Sevenok's father was William Ramsched, of Serenoaks, Kent Stow, 
p. 191. 

X Bryan was drowned, loth Oct. ; Perveys, or Pemeys, was chosen in his 





1425. John Coventry. 
Wmiam Milred. 
John Brokle. 

1436. John Reynwell. 
Robert Arnold. 
John Heigham. 

1427. John Gedeney. 
Robert Ottele. 
Henry Frowyk. 

1428. Henry Barton. 
John Abbot 
Thomas Dufhous. 

William Estfeld. 
Raphe Holand. 
William Russe. 

Nicolas Wotton. 
Robert Large. 
Walter Chertesey. 

1 43 1. John Welles. 
John Atherley. 
Stephen Broun. 

1432. John Parveys. 
John Olneye. 
John Pattesley. 

1433. John Brokle. 
Thomas Chalton. 
John L)mge. 

1434. Roger Otle. 
Thomas Bemewell. 
Simon £yre. 

1435. Henry Frowyk. 
Thomas Catworth. 
Robert Clopton. 

1436. John Michell. 
William Gregory. 
Thomas Morstede. 










WiLLiAM Estfeld. 
William Hales. 
William ChapmaiL 

Stephen Broun. 
Nicolas Yeo. 
Hugh Dyke. 

Robert Large. 
Robert Marcball. 
Philip Malpas. 

John Paddisle. 
William Whetenale. 
John Sutton. 

Robert Clopton. 
William Combe. 
Richard Riche. 
John Hatherle. 
Thomas Beaumond. 
Richard Nordon. 

Thomas Catworth. 
Nicolas Wifelde. 
John NormaiL 

Henry Frowik. 
Stephen Forster. 
Hugh WicL 

Simon Eyre.* 
John Derby. 
Godfrey Feldyng. 

1446. John Olney. 
Robert Home. 
Geffrey Boleyne. 

• <i 

Gyr' ' in Chron. p. 134. 



1447. John Gidney.* 
Thomas Scot. 
William Habraham. 

1448. Stephen Broune. 
William Calowe. 
William Marowe. 





Thomas Chalton. 
Thomas Canyng. 
William Hewlyn. 

Richard WiFOLD.f 
William Dere. 
John Middilton. 

William Gregory. 
Matthew Philip. 
Christopher Water. 

Godfrey Feldyng. 
Richard Alley. 
Richard Lee. 

John Norman. 
John Waldeyne. 
Thomas Coke. 

Stephen Forster. 
John Felde. 
WUliam Tailor. 

William Marche.| 
John Yong. 
Thomas Holgrave. 

1456. Thomas Canynge. 
John Steward. 
Ralph Verney. 




1457. Geffrey Boleyne. 
William Edward. 
Thomas Reyner. 

1458. Thomas Scot. 
Ralph Joslyn. 
Richard Nedeham. 

1459. William Hewlyn. 
John Stokker. 
John Plumer. 

1460. Richard Lee. 
John Lumbard. 
Richard Flemyng. 

1 46 1. Hugh Wich. 
George Irland. 
John Lok. 

1462. Thomas Coke. 
William Hampton. 
Bartholomew Jamys. 

1463. Matthew Philip. 
Thomas Muschamp. 
Robert Basset 

1464. Ralph Joslyn. 
John Tate. 
John Stone. 

1465. Ralph Verney. 
Henry Waver. 
William Constantyne. 

1466. Sir John Yong. 
John Broun. 
Thomas Brice. 
John Stokton.§ 

• Sidoey in Stow. 

t Should be *' Nicolas," as above. 

\ Marrow, Stow. 

§ Nicolas' Chron. mentions these three sheiiRs. It ends with 1482. 



1467. Thomas Holgrave. 
Humphrey Ha3rfonL 
Thomas Stalbroke. 

1468. William Tailor. 
S3rmkyn Smyth. 
William Hariot 

1469. Richard Lee. 
Richard Gardener. 
Robert Drope. 

1470. Sir John Stokton. 
Sir John Crosby. 
Sir John Ward. 

1471. William Edward. 
John Ale)rne. 
John Shelley. 

1472. Sir William Hamp- 

Thomas Bledlowe. 
John Browne. 

i473« John Tate. 

Robert Billisdon. 
Sir William Stokker. 

1474. Sir Robert Drope. 
Thomas Hille. 
Edmond Shaa, or Shaw. 

1475. Robert Basset. 
Hugh Brice. 
Robert Colwich. 

1476. Sir Ralph Joslyn. 
William Home. 
Richard Rason. 

1477. Humphrey Hayford. 
John Stokkes. 
Henry Colet 

1478. Richard Gardener. 
Robert Hardyng. 
Robert Bifeld 

1479. Sir Bartholomew 

Thomas Ham. 
John Ward. 

1480. John Browne. 
Thomas DanyeL 
William Bacon. 

1481. William Heriet. 
Robert Tate. 
William Wikyng. 
Richard Chauiy.* 

1482. Sir Edmund Shaa. 
William White. 
John Mathewe. 

1483. Sir Robert BnxK- 


Thomas Newland. 
William Martin. 

1484. Sir Thomas Hill 
Sir William Stoceer. 
John Ward.J 
Richard Chester. 
Thomas Brittaine. 
Raphe Austrie. 

* Nicolas' Chron. mentions these three sheriffs. It ends with 1482. 
t The year of the Sweating Sickness. From 1483 Stow is our anthontx. 
He fails ns in 1602. 



1485. Hugh Brice. 

John Tate, the younger. 
John Swan, or Swans. 

i486. Hekry Colet.* 
John Percivall. 
Hugh Clopton. 

1487. Sir William Horne. 
John Fenkel. 
William Remington.. 

1488. Robert Tate. 
William Isaack. 
Ralph Tilney. 

1489. William White. 
William Caple. 

John Brocke. 

1490. John Mathew. 
Henry Cote. 
Robert Revell. 
Hugh Femberton. 

1491. Hugh Clopton. 
Thomas Wood 
William Browne. 

1492. William Martin. 
William Purchase. 
William Welbeck. 

1493. Sir Raph Astrie. 
Robert Fabian. 
John Winger. 

1494. Richard Chawry. 
Nicholas Alwine. 
John Warner. 

1495. Henry Colet. 
Thomas Knesworth. 
Henry Somen 

• Thoms*s Stow, 

1496. Sir John Tate, the 

Sir John Shaa. 
Sir Richard Haddon. 

1497. William Purchase. 
Bartholomew Read. 
Thomas WindouL 

1498. Sir John Percevall. 
Thomas Bradbury. 
Stephen Jeninges. 

1499. Nicholas Aldwine. 
James Wilford. 
Thomas Brond. 

1500. William Renning- 


John Hawes. 
William Steed. 

1501. Sir John Shaa. 
Lawrence Ailmer. 
Henry Hede. 

1502. Bartholomew Rede, 
Henry Kebel. : 
Nicolas Nines. 

1503. Sir William Capell. 
Christopher Hawes. 
Robert Watts. 

1504. Sir John Winger. 
Roger Acheley. 
William Browne. 

1505. Sir Thomas Knies- 


Richard Shoare. 
Roger Grove. 

p. 103, Henry Cellet 



1506. Sir Richard Haddon. 
William Copinger. 
Thomas Johnson. 
William FitzWilliams. 

1507. William Browne 

in part, and Law- 
rence Aylmer in 

William Butler. 

John Kyrkby. 

1508. Sir Stephen Jenn- 

Thomas Exmewe. 
Richard Smith. 

1509. Thomas Bradbury; 

and Sir Wm. Capell. 
George Monox. 
John Doget 

1 5 10. Sir Henry Kebble. 
John Milbome. 
John Rest 

1 5 11. Sir Roger Acheley. 
Nicolas Shelton. 
Thomas Mirfine. 

15 12. Sir William Copin- 

ger in part; and 
Sir Richard Had- 
don, for the rest 

Robert Aldemes. 

Robert Fenrother. 

15 13. Sir William Browne. 
John Dawes. 

John Bruges. 
Roger Basford. 

15 14. Sir George Monox. 
James Yarford. 
John Mundy. 

1515. Sir William Butlep. 
Henry Warley. 
Richard Grey. 
William Bailey. 

1516. Sir John Rest. 
Thomas Seymer. 
John Thurstone. 

15 17. Sir Thomas Exmewe. 
Thomas Baldrie. 
Ralph Simons. 

15 18. Sir Thomas Mirfinl 
John Allen. 

James Spencer. 

15 19. Sir James Yardpord- 
John Wilkinson. 
Nicholas Fartrich. 

1520. Sir John Brug, or 

John Skevington. 
John Kyme. 

1521. Sir John Milborke. 
John Breton. 
Thomas Pargitor. 

1522. Sir John Mundy. 
John Rudstone. 
John Champneis. 

1523. Sir Thomas Baldrie. 
Michael English. 
Nicholas Jennings* 



1524. Sir William Bailey. 
Raphe Dodmere. 
William Roche. 

1525. Sir John Allen. 
John Caunton. 
Christopher Askew. 

1526. Sir Thomas Seymer. 
Stephen Peacock. 
Nicolas Lambert 

1527. Sir James Spencer. 
John Hardy. 
William Holleis. 

1528. Sir John Rudstone. 
Raphe Warren. 
John Long. 

1529. Sir Ralph Dodmer. 
Michael Dormer. 
Walter Champion. 

1530. Sir Thomas Pargitor. 
William Dauntsey. 
Richard Champion. 

153 1. Sir Nicholas Lam- 

Richard Gresham. 
Edward Altham. 

1532. Sir Stephen Peacock. 
Richard Reynolds. 
John Martin. 
Nicholas Pinchon. 
John Priest I 

1533- Sir Christopher 

William Forman. 
Thomas Kitson. 

1 534- Sir John Champneis. 
Nicolas Leveson. 
William Denham. 

1535- Sir John Allen.* 
Humfrey Monmouth. 
John Cotes. 

1536. Sir Ralph Warren. 
Robert or Richard 

William Bowyer. 

1537* Sir Richard Gres- 
John Gresham. 
Thomas Lewin. 

1538. Sir William Forman. 
William Wilkinson. 
Nicolas Gibson. 

'539- Sir William Holleis. 
Thomas Ferrer. 
Thomas Huntlow. 

1540. Sir William Roche. 
William Laxstone. 
Martin Bowes. 

1541. Sir Michael Dormer. 
Rowland Hill. 
Henry Suckley. 

* « 

A pririe Counsellor, for his great Wisedome." Stow. 





1542. John Cotes. 

Henry Hobberthorne. 
Henry Amcoates. 

Sir William Bowyer 
for part, and Sir 
Ralph Warren for 
the rest. 

John Tholouse. 

Richard Dobbes. 

Sir William Laxton. 
John Wilford. 
Andrew Jud. 

1545. Sir Martin Bowes. 
George Bame. 
Ralph Alley. 

1546. Sir Henry Hobber- 

Richard Jarveis. 
Thomas Curteis. 

1547. Sir John Gresham. 
Thomas White. 
Robert Chertsey. 

1548. Henry Amcoates. 
William Lock, 

Sir John Ayleph. 

X549. Sir Rowland Hill. 
John Yorke. 
Richard Turke. 

1550. Sir Andrew Jud. 
Augustine Hind. 
John Lion. 

1 55 1. Sir Richard Dobbes. 
John Lambert 

John Cowpcr. 












Sir George Barne. 
William Gerard. 
John Maynard. 

Sir Thomas White. 
Thomas Offley. 
William Hewet 

Sir John Lyon. 
David Woodroffe. 
WiUiam Chester. 

Sir William Garret, 

or Garrard. 
Thomas Leigh. 
John Machel. 

Sir Thomas Offley. 
William Harper. 
John White. 

Sir Thomas Curteis. 
Richard Mallory. 
James Altham. 

Sir Thomas Leigh. 
John Halsey. 
Richard Champion. 

Sir William Hewet. 
Thomas Lodge. 
Roger Martin. 

Sir William Chester. 
Christopher Draper. 
Thomas Rowe. 

Sir William HarpeR- 
Alexander Avcnon. 
Humfrey BaskerviDc 

Sir Thomas LodgR 
William Allen. 
Richard Chambcriainc- 



1563. Sir John White. 
Edward Bankes. 
Rowland Heyward. 

1564. Sir Richard M allory. 
Edward Jackman. 
Lionel Ducket. 

1565. Sir Richard Cham- 

John Rivers. 
James Hawes. 

1566. Sir Christopher Dra- 

Richard Lambert. 
Ambrose Nicholas. 
John Langley. 

1567. Sir Roger Martin. 
Thomas Ramsey. 
John Bond. 

1568. Sir Thomas Rowe. 
John Oleph. 
Robert Harding. 
James Bacon. 

1569. Sir Alexander Ave- 


Henry Beecher. 
William Dane. 

1 570. Sir Rowland Heyward. 

Francis Bameham. 
William Boxe. 

1 57 1. Sir William Allen. 
Henry Milles. 

John Branche. 

1572. Sir Lionell Ducket. 
Richard Pipe. 
Nicholas WoodrofFe. 


1573- Sir John Rivers. 
James Harvey, 
Thomas PuUison, 


1 5 74' James Hawes. 
Thomas Blanke. 
Anthony Gamage. 

1575. Ambrose Nicholas. 
Edward Osborne. 
Wolstane Dixie. 

1576. Sir John Langley. 
William Kimpton. 
George Bame. 

1577. Sir Thomas Ramsey. 
Nicholas Backhouse. 
Francis Bowyer. 

1578. Sir Richard Pipe. 
George Bond. 
Thomas Starkie. 

1579. Sir Nicholas Wood- 


Martin Calthrope. 
John Hart. 

1580. Sir John Branch. 
Ralph Woodcock. 
John Alate. 

1 58 1. Sir James Harvie. 
Richard Martin. 
William Webbe. 

1582. Sir Thomas Blancke. 
William Roe. 

John Hayden. 
Cuthbert Buckle. 




1583. Edward Osborne. 
William Masham. 
John Spencer. 

1584. Sir Thomas Pullison. 
Stephen Slany. 
Henry Billingsley. 

1585. Sir WoLSTANE Dixie. 
Anthony Radclife. 
Henry Pranell. 

1586. Sir George Barne. 
Robert House. 
William Elkin. 

1587. Sir George Bond. 
Thomas Skinner. 
John Katcher. 

1588. Sir Martin Calthrop 

for part, and Sir Rich- 
ard Martin for the 

Hugh Offley. 

Richard Saltenstall. 

1589. Sir John Hart. 
Richard Gumey. 
Stephen Some. 

1590. Sir John Allot for 

part, and Sir Row- 
land Heyward for 
the rest. 

Nicholas Moseley. 

Robert Broke. 

1 591. Sir William Webb. 
William Rider. 
Benet Bamham. 

1592. Sir William Roe. 
John Garrard. 
Robert Taylor. 

1 593' Sir Cuthbert Buckle 
for part, and Sir 
Richard Martin 
for the rest. 

Paule Banning. 

Peter Hauton. 

1594. Sir John Spencer. 
Robert Lee. 
Thomas Benet 

1595. Sir Stephen Slany. 
Thomas Lowe. 
Leonard Holiday. 

1596. Sir Thomas Skinner 

for part, and Sir 
Henry Billings- 
ley for ths rest 

John Wattes. 

Richard Godard. 

1597. Sir Richard Salten- 

Henry Roe. 
John More. 

1598. Sir Stephen Some. 
Edward Holmeden. 
Robert Hampson. 

1599. Sir Nicholas Mos- 

Humphrey Welde. 
Roger Clarke. 



1600. Sir William Rider. 
Thomas Cambell. 
Thomas Smith. 
William Craven. 

1 60 1. Sir John Garrard. 
Henry Anderson. 
William Glover. 

1602. Robert Lee. 
James Pemberton. 
John Swinerton. 

1603. Sir Thomas Bennet. 
Sir William Rumney. 
Sir Thomas Middleton. 

1604. Sir Thomas Lowe. 
Sir Thomas Hayes. 
Sir Roger Jones. 

1605. Sir Leonard Halli- 


Sir Clement Scudamore. 
Sir John Jolles. 

1606. Sir John Wats. 
William Walthall. 
John Lemon. 

1607. Sir Henry Rowe. 
Geffrey Elwes. 
Nicholas Style. 

1 608. Sir Humphrey Weld. 
George BoUes. 
Richard Farrington. 

1609. Sir Thomas Cambell. 
Sebastian Harvey. 
William Cockaine. 

1 610. Sir William Crayon. 
Richard Pyat 
Francis Jones. 

1 6 1 1 . Sir James Pemberton. 
Edward Barkham. 
George Smithes. 

1 61 2. Sir John Swinner- 


Edward Rotherham. 
Alexander Prescot. 

1613. Sir Thomas Middle- 

Thomas Bennet. 
Henry Jaye. 

1 614. Sir Thomas Hayes. 
Peter Proby. 
Martin Lumley. 

1615. Sir John Jolles. 
William Goare. 
John Goare. 

1616. Sir John Leman. 
Allen Cotton. 
Cuthbert Hacket. 

1 617. George Bolles. 
William Hollyday. 
Robert Johnson. 

1 6 1 8. Sir Sebastian Harvey. 
Richard Hame. 
Hugh Hamersley. 

1619. Sir William Cockain. 
Richard Deane. 
James Cambell. 

Y 2 



1620. Sir Francis Jones. 
Edward Allen. 
Robert Ducie. 

1621. Sir Edward Bark- 

George Whitmore. 
Nicolas Rainton. 

1622. Sir Peter Proby. 
John Hodges. 
Sir Humfrey Hanford. 

1623. Sir Martin Lumley. 
Ralph Freeman. 
Thomas Moulson. 

1624. Sir John Goare. 
Rowland Heilin. 
Robert Parkhurst. 

1625. Sir Allen Cotton. 
Thomas Westray. 
Ellis Crispe. 

John Poole. 
Christopher Cletherow. 

1626. Sir CuTHBERT Rac- 

ket, or Aket. 
Edward Bromfield. 
Richard Fenne. 

1627. Sir Hugh Hammers- 
Maurice Abbott 
Henry Garway. 

1628. Sir Richard Deane. 
Rowland Backhouse. 
Sir William Acton, 

Knight and Baronet. 

1629. Sir James Cambell. 
Humfrey Smith. 
Edmund Wright 

1630. Sir Robert Ducy. 
Arthur Abdy. 
Robert Cambell. 

1 63 1. Sir George Whit- 

Samuel Cranmer. 
Henry Prat 

1632. Sir Nicholas Rayn- 


Hugh Perry. 
Henry Andrews. 

1633. Sir Ralph Freeman 
for part, Sir Thomas 
Moulson for the 

Gil. Harrison. 
Richard Gumey.* 

1634. Sir Robert Park- 

John Highlord. 
John CordalL 

1635. Sir Christopher Cle- 

Thomas Soame. 
John Gayer. 

 Here Stow's continuators fail us. There are very curious discieptta« 
between Strype, Seymour, Maitland and others. Seymour dates sU *« 
mayors ayear later than Strype. The year here given is that of the election- 



1636. Sir Edward Brom- 


William Abell. 
Jacob Gerrard. 

1637. Sir Richard Fenn. 
Thomas Atkyn. 
Edward Rudge. 

1638. Sir Maurice Abbott. 
Isaac Pennington. 
John Woollaston. 

1639. Sir Henry Garway, 
Thomas Adams. 
John Warner. 

1640. Sir William Acton, 

Knight and Baronet, 
discharged by the 
House of Commons, 
and Sir Edmund 
Wright, substituted. 

John Towse. 

Abraham Reynardson. 

1 64 1. Sir Richard Gurney, 

Knight and Baronet, 
discharged by Parlia- 
ment 1 2 th August, 
and succeeded by 
Isaac Pennington. 

George Garret. 

George Clarke. 

1642. Sir Isaac Penning- 

John Langham. 
Thomas Andrews. 

1643. Sir John WooLLASTON. 
John Fowke. 

James Bunce. 

1644. Sir Thomas Atkin. 
William Gibbs. 
Richard Chambers. 

1645. Sir Thomas Adams, 

Knight and Baronet. 
John Kendrick. 
Thomas Foot 

1646. Sir John Gayer. 
Thomas Cullum. 
Simon Edmonds. 

1647. Sir John Warner. 
Samuel Avery. 
John Bide. 

1648. Sir Abraham Rey- 

nardson, imprisoned. 
Thomas Andrews 
for rest of the year. 

Thomas Vyner. 

Richard Browne. 

1649. Thomas Foot. 
Christopher Packe. 
Rowland Wilson. 
John Dethick. 

1650. Thomas Andrews. 
Robert Titchbome. 
Richard Chiverton. 

1 65 1. John Kendrick. 
John Ireton. 
Andrew Rycard. 



1652. John FowKE. 
Stephen Eastwick. 
William Underwood. 

1653. Thomas Vyner. 
James Philips. 
Walter Biggs. 

1654. Christopher Pack. 
Edmund Sleigh. 
Thomas Alleyne. 

1655. John Dethick. 
William Thompson. 
John Frederick. 

1656. Robert Titchborne. 
Tempest Milner. 
Nathanael Temse. 

1657. Richard Chiverton. 
John Robinson. 
Thomas Chandler. 
Richard King. 

1658. Sir John Ireton. 
Anthony Bateman. 
John Lawrence. 

1659. Sir Thomas Alleyne, 

Knight and Baronet. 
Francis Warner. 
William Love. 

1660. Sir Richard Brown, 

WilUam Bolton. 
William Peake. 

1 66 1. Sir John Frederick. 
Francis MenhiL 
Samuel Starling. 

1662. Sir John Robinson, 

Knight and Baronet. 
Sir Thomas Bludwortb. 
Sir William Turner. 

1663. Sir Anthony Bate- 

Sir Richard Ford. 
Sir Richard Rives. 

1664. Sir John Lawrenci. 
George Waterman. 
Charles Doe. 

1665. Sir Thomas Blud- 

Sir Robert Hanson. 
Sir William Hooker. 

1666. Sir William Bolton. 
Sir Robert Vyner, 

Knight and Baronet. 
Su- Joseph Sheldon. 

1667. Sir William Peake. 
Sir Dennis Gauden. 
Sir Thomas Davies. 

1668. William Turner. 
John Forth. 
Francis Chaplin. 

1669. Sir Samuel Starling. 
John Smith. 

James Edwards. 



X670. Sir Richard Ford. 
Dannet Forth. 
William Gomeldon. 
Patience Ward. 

1 67 1. Sir George Water- 


Robert Clayton. 
Jonathan Dawes. 
John Moore 

1672. Sir Robert Hanson. 
Sir William Pritchard. 
Sir James Smith. 

1673. Sir William Hooker. 
Sir Henry Tulse. 

Sir Robert Geflfery. 

1674. Sir Robert Vvner, 

Knight and Baronet. 
Sh: Nathaniel H^me. 
John Lethieullier. 

1675. Sir Joseph Sheldon. 
Thomas Gold. 

John Shorter. 

1676. Sir Thomas Dayies. 
John Peake. 
Thomas Stampe. 

1677. Sir Francis Chaplin. 
William Rawstorne. 
Thomas Beckford. 

1678. Sir James Edwards. 
Richard How. 
John Chapman. 

1679. Sir Robert Clayton. 
Jonathan Raymond. 
Simon Lewis. 

1680. Sir Patience Ward. 
Slingsby BethelL 
Henry Cornish. 

1 68 1. Sir John Moore. 
Thomas Pilkington. 
Samuel Shute. 

1682. Sir William Prit- 

Dudley North. 
Peter Rich. 

1683. Sir Henry Tulse. 
Peter Daniel. 
Samuel Dashwood, 

1684. Sir James Smith. 
William Gosling. 
Peter VandepuL 

1685. Sir Robert Geffery. 
Benjamin Thorow- 

Thomas Kensey. 

1686. Sir John Peake. 
Thomas Rawlinson. 
Thomas Fowles. 

1687. Sir John Shorter, 

died, Sir John 
Eyles appointed by 
the crown. 

Basil Firebrace, 

John Parsons. 



r688. Sir John Chapman, 
died 17 th March, 
Sir Thomas Pilking- 


Humphrey Edwin. 
John Fleet. 

1689. Sir Thomas Pilking- 


Christopher Lethieul- 

John Houblon. 

1690. Sir Thomas Pilking- 


Edward Clarke. 
Francis Child. 

1 69 1. Sir Thomas Stampe. 
William Ashurst. 
Richard Levett. 

1692. Sir John Fleet. 
Thomas Lane. 
Thomas Cooke. 

1693. Sir William Ashurst. 
Thomas Abney. 
William Hedges. 

1694. Sir Thomas Lane. 
John Sweetapple. 
William Cole. 

1695. Sir John Houblon. 
Edward Mills. 
Owen Buckingham. 

1696. Su: Edward Clarke. 
John Wolfe. 
Samuel Blewitt 

1697. Sir Humphrey Edwin. 
Bartholomew Grace- 

James Collett 

1698. Sir Francis Child. 
Sir William Gorie. 
Sir Joseph Smart 

1699. Sir Richard Levet. 
Charles Duncombe. 
Jeffery Jefferies. 

1700. Sir Thomas Abney. 
Robert Beachcroft. 
Henry Fumese. 

1 701. Sir William Gore. 
William Withers, 
Peter Floyer. 
James Bateman. 

1702. Sir Samuel Dashwood. 
Robert Bedingfidd. 
Samuel Garrard. 

1703. Sir John Parsons. 
Sir Gilbert Heathcote. 
Sir Joseph Woolfc 

1704. Sir Owen Bucking- 


Sir John Buckworth. 
Knight and Baronet, 

Sir WiUiam Hum- 

1705. Sir Thomas Rawlin- 


Sir Charles Thorold 
Sir Samuel Stanier. 



1706. Sir Robert Beding- 


Sir William Benson. 
Sir Ambrose Crawley. 

1707. Sir William Withers. 
Benjamin Green. 

Sir Charles Peers. 

1708. Sir Charles Dun- 

Charles Hopton. 
Richard Guy. 

1709. Sir Samuel Garrard, 

Sir Richard Hoare. 
Thomas Dunk. 

1 7 10. Sir Gilbert Heath- 

cote, Baronet 
Sir George Thorold, 

Knight and Baronet 
Francis Eyles. 

17 11. Sir Robert Beach- 


John Cass. 
William Stewart. 

1 7 1 2 . Sir Richard Hoare. 
William Lewen. 

Sir Samuel Clarke. 

1 713. Sir Samuel Stainer. 
Francis Forbes. 
Joshua Sharpe. 

1 7 14. Sir William Hum- 

phreys, Knight and 

Robert Breedon. 
Sir Randolph Knipe. 

1 7 15. Sir Charles Peers. 
Sir John Ward. 

Sir John Fryer, Baronet 

17 16. Sir James Bateman. 
Sir Gerard Conyers. 
Charles Cook. 

17 17. Sir William Lewen. 
Sir Peter Delmd 

Sir Harcourt Masters. 

1 7 18. Sir John Ward. 
Sir John Bull 

Sir Thomas Ambrose. 

17 19. Sir George Thorold. 

Knight and Baronet. 
Sir John Eyles, Baronet. 
Sir John Tash. 

1720. Sir John Fryer, Bart 
Sir George Caswall. 
Sir Wm. Billers. 

1 7 2 1 . Sir William Stewart. 
Sir George Merttins. 
Sir Edward Becher. 

1722. Sir Gerard Conyers. 
Humphry Parsons. 

Su- Fr. Child. 

1723. Sir Peter Delm£ 
Sir R Hopkins. 
Sir Felix Feast 
Sir K Bellamy. 

1724. Sir George Merttins. 
Robert Baylis. 
Joseph Eyles. 



1725. Sir Francis Forbes. 
Francis Porteen. 
Jeremiah Murden. 
John Thompson. 

1726. Sir John Eyles, 

Sir John Lock. 
William Ogbom. 

1727. Sir Edward Becher. 
Sir John Grosvenor. 
Sir Thomas Lombe. 

1728. Sir Robert Baylis. 
Richard Brocas. 
Richard Levett. 

1729. Sir Richard Brocas. 
Sir John Williams. 
John Barber. 

1730. Humphry Parsons. 
John Fuller. 

Sir Isaac Shard. 

1 7 3 1 . Sir Francis Child. 
Samuel Russell. 
Thomas Pindar. 

1 733* John Barber. 
Robert Alsop. 
Sir Henry Hankey. 

1733- Sir William Billers. 
Robert Westley. 
Daniel Lambert. 

1734* Sir Edward Bellamy. 
Micajah Perry. 
Sir John Salter. 

1735' Sir John Williams. 
Sir John Barnard. 
Sir Robert Godschall. 

1736. Sir John Thompson. 
Sir Wm. Rous. 
Benj. Rawlings. 

1737. Sir John Barnard. 
Sir George Champion. 
Thos. Russell (died). 
Sir Robert Kendal 


1738. Micajah Perry. 
Jas. Brooke. 

W. Westbrook. 

1739. Sir John Salter. 
Geo. Heathcote. 
Sir John Lequesne. 

1740. Humphry Parsons. 

Died 2ist March. 
Daniel Lambert. 
Henry Marshall. 
Richard Hoare. 

1 741. Sir Robert God- 

schall. Died 26^ 
June, 1742. 
George Heathcotk. 

Robert Willmot. 
William Smith. 

1742. Robert Willmot. 
William Benn. 
Charles Egleton. 

1743. Sir Robert WestlBV. 
Sir Robert Ladbrokc 
Sir Wm. Calvert. 



1744. Sir Henry Marshall, 
Walter Bernard. 

Sir Samuel Pennant. 

1745. Sir Richard Hoare. 
John Blachford. 
Francis Cokayne. 

1746. William Benn. 
Thos. Winterbottom. 
Robert Alsop. 

1 747 . Sir Robert Ladbroke. 
Sir Crisp Gascoyne. 
Edward Davies. 

1748. Sir William Calvert. 
Edward Ironside. 
Thomas Rawlinson. 

1749. Sir Samuel Pennant. 

Died 20th May, 

John Blachford. 

W. Whitaker. 

Stephen Theodore 


1750. Francis Cokayne. 
William Alexander. 
Robert Scott. 

175 1. Thomas Winter- 

bottom. Died 4th 

June, 1752. 
Robert Alsop. 
Slingsby Bethell. 
Marshe Dickinson. 

1752. Sir Crisp Gascoyne. 
Sir Charles AsgilL 
Sir Richard Glyn. 










Edward Ironside. 
Died 27thNov., 1753. 

Thomas Rawlin- 

Sir Thomas Chitty. 

Sir Matthew Blakiston. 

Stephen Theodore 

Sir Samuel Fludyer. 
Sir John Torriano. 

Slingsby Bethell. 
William Beckford. 
Ive Whitbread. 

Marshe Dickinson. 
William Bridgen. 
William Stephenson. 

Sir Charles Asgill, 

George Nelson. 
Francis Gosling. 

Sir Richard Glyn, 
Knight and Baronet 
James Dandridge. 
Alexander Masters. 

Sir Thomas Chitty. 
George Errington. 
Paul Vaillant 

Sir Matthew Blaki- 
Sir Robert Kite. 
Sir William Hart 

Sir Samuel Fludyer. 
Knight and Baronet 
Sir Nathaniel Nash. 
Sir John Cartwright 



1762. William Beckford. 
Sir Thomas Challenor. 
Sir Henry Bankes. 

1763. William Bridgen. 
Hon. Thomas Harley.* 
Richard Blunt. 
Samuel Turner. 

1764. Sir William Stephen- 

Sir Thomas Harris. 
Brass Crosby. 

1765. George Nelson. 
Brackley Kennett 
B. CharlewooA 
Barlow Trecothick. 

1766. Sir Robert Kite. 
Sir Robert Darling. 
Sir James Esdaile. 

1767. Hon. Thomas Harley. 
Richard Peers. 
William NasL 

1768. Samuel Turner. 
Thomas Halifax. 
John Shakespear. 

I 769. William Beckford. 
Died 2 1 St June, 1770. 
Barlow Trecothick. 
James Townsend. 
John Sawbridge. 

1770. Brass Crosby. 
William Baker. 
Joseph Martin. 

177 1. William Nash. 
John Wilkes. 
Frederick Bull 

1772. James Townsend. 
Richard Oliver. 
Sir Watkin Lewes. 

1773. Frederick Bull. 
Stephen Sayre. 
William Lee. 

^774- John Wilkes. 
William Plomer. 
John Hart 

1775. John Sawbridge. 
George Hayley. 
Nathaniel Newnham. 

1776. Sir Thomas Halifax. 
Samuel Plumbe. 
Nathaniel Thomas. 

1777. Sir James Esdaile. 
Robert Peckham. 
Richard Clark. 

1778. Samuel Plumbe. 
John BumelL 
Henry Kitchen. 

1779. Brackley Kennett. 
Thomas Wright. 
Evan Pugh. 

 The only "nobleman" in the list Son of the 3id Earl of Oxfori* 
He became a Privy Councillor in 1767. 



1780. SirWATKiN Lewes. 
Thomas Sainsbury. 
William Crichton. 

1 781. Sir William Plomer. 
William Gill. 
William Nicholson. 

1782. Nathaniel Newn- 


Sir Robert Taylor. 
Benjamin Cole. 

1783. Robert Peckham. 
Sir Barnard Turner. 
T. Skinner. 

W. Pickett. 

1784. Richard Clark. 
John Hopkins. 
John Bates. 
John Boydell. 

1785. Thomas WrigAt. 
Sir James Sanderson. 
Brook Watson. 

1786. Thomas Sainsbury. 
Paul Le Mesurier. 
Charles Higgins. 


1787. John Burnell. 
James Fenn. 
Matthew Bloxam. 

1788. William Gill. 
William Curtis. 

Sir Benjamin Hammet. 

1789. William Pickett. 
William Newman. 
Thomas Baker. 




1790. John Boydell. 

George Mackenzie 

Richard Carr Glyn. 

1 7 91. John Hopkins. 

John William Ander- 
Harvey Christian 

1792. Sir James Sanderson. 
Alexander Brander. 
Sir Benjamin Tebbs. 

Paul le Mesurier. 
Peter Perchard. 
Charles Hamerton. 

Thomas Skinner. 
Sir John Eamer. 
Sir Robert Burnett 

1795. Sir William Curtis, 

Sir Richard Glode. 
John Liptrap. 

1796. Sir Brook Watson, 

Sir Stephen Langston. 
Sir William Staines. 

1797. Sir John William 

Anderson, Baronet 
Sir William Heme. 
Robert Williams, 

1798. Sir Richard Carr 

Glyn, Knight and 

Sir William Champion. 
William Mellish. 
Charles Price. 





Harvey Christian 

Charles Flower. 
John Blackhall. 

Sir William Staines. 
John Perring. 
Thomas CadelL 

Sir John Eamer. 
Sir William Rawlins. 
Robert Albion Cox. 

1802. Sir Charles Price, 

Sir Richard Welch, 

Sir John Alexander, 


1803. John Perring. 
James Shaw. 

Sir William Leighton. 

1804. Peter Perchard. 
George Scholey. 
William Domville. 

1805. James Shaw. 
John Ansley. 
Thomas Smith. 

1806. Sir William Leigh- 

Sir Jonathan Miles. 
Sir James Branscombe. 

1807. James Ansley. 
Christopher Smith, 
Sir Richard Phillips. 

1808. Sir Charles Flower, 

Joshua Jonathan Smith. 
Claudius Stephen 


1809. Thomas Smith. 
Matthew Wood. 
John Atkins. 

18 10. Joshua Jonathan 

Sir William Plomer. 
Samuel Goodbehere. 

1 8 11 . Sir Claudius Stephen 

Hunter, Baronet. 
Samuel Birch. 
William Heygate. 

181 2. George Scholey. 
John Blades. 

Michael Hoy- 

1813. Sir William Dom- 

ville, Baronet. 
Christopher Magnay. 
Thomas Coxhead 


1814. Samuel Birch. 
Joseph Leigh. 
John Reay. 

1815. Sir Matthew Wood, 

Sir Thomas Bell. 
John Thomas Thoip«- 

181 6. Sir Matthew Wood. 

George Bridges. 
Robert Kirby. 






Christopher Smith. 
Sir Francis Desanges. 
Sir George Alderson. 

John Atkins. 
John Roberts. 
Lawrence Gwynne, 

George Bridges. 
Richard Rothwell. 
Joseph Wilfred Par- 


John ThomasThorpe. 
Robert Waithman. 
James Williams. 

1 82 1. Christopher Mag- 

John Garratt. 
William Venables. 

1822. William Heygate. 
Matthias Prime Lucas. 
William Thompson. 

Robert Waithman. 
George Byrom Whit- 
Sir Peter Laurie. 


1824. John Garratt. 
Anthony Brown. 
John Key. 

1825. William Venables. 
John Crowder. 
Thomas Kelly. 

1826. Anthony Brown. 
Charles Farebrother. 
Henry Winchester. 

1827. Matthias Prime 

Andrew Spottiswoode. 
Charles Stable. 
E. A. Wilde. 

1828. William Thompson. 
Felix Booth. 
William Taylor Cope- 

1829. John Crowder. 
William Henry Rich- 

Thomas Ward. 

1830. Sir John Key, 

Chapman Marshall. 
William Henry Poland. 

1 83 1. Sir John Key, Baronet. 
John Cowan. 

John Pirie. 

1832. Sir Peter Laurie. 
John Humphery. 
Richard Peek. 

1833. Charles Fare- 

Samuel Wilson. 
James Harmer. 

1834. Henry Winchester. 
Alexander Raphael. 
John Illidge. 

1835. William Taylor 

John Lainson. 
DaYid Salomons. 



1836. Thomas Kelly. 
James Duke. 
John Johnson. 

1837. Sir John Cowan, Ba- 

George Carroll. 
Moses Montefiore. 

1838. Samuel Wilson. 
Thomas Johnson. 
Thomas Wood. 

1839. S^^ Chapman Mar- 

William Evans. 
John Wheelton. 

1840. Thomas Johnson. 
Michael Gibbs. 
Thomas Famcomb. 

1841. Sir John Pirie, Ba- 

William Magnay. 
Alexander Rogers. 

1842. John Humphery. 
John Kinnersley 

Jeremiah Pilcher. 

1843. Sir William Magnay, 

John Musgrove. 
Francis Graham Moon. 

1844. Michael Gibbs. 
William Hunter. 
Thomas Sidney. 

1845. John Johnson. 
William James Chaplin. 
John Laurie. 

1846. Sir George Carrou. 
Thomas Challis. 
Robert William Ken- 


1847. John Kinnersley 

William CubitL 
Charles Hill. 

1848. Sir James Duke, 

Knight and Baronet. 

Thomas Quested 

Jacob Emanuel Good- 

1849. Thomas Farncomb. 
William Lawrence. 
Donald Nicoll. 

1850. Sir John Musgrove, 

Robert Walter Garden- 
George Edmund Hodg- 


1851. William Hunter. 
Thomas Cotterell. 
Richard Swift. 

1852. Thomas Challis. 
John Carter. 
Alexander Angus Croli 



1853. Thomas Sidney, 
David Williams Wire. 
George Appleton 


1854. Sir Francis Graham 

Moon, Baronet 
Henry Muggeridge. 
Charles Decimus 


1855. David Salomons. 
Richard Hartley Ken- 

Wm. Anderson Rose. 

1856. Thomas Quksted 


John Joseph Mechi. 
Frederick Keats. 

1857. Sir Robert Walter 

William Lawrence. 
William Femeley Allen. 

1858. David Williams 

Warren Stormes Hale. 
Edward Conder. 

1859. John Carter. 
Benjamin Samuel 

Thomas Gabriel 

i860. William Cubitt. 
James Abbiss. 
Andrew Lusk. 

1 86 1. William Cubitt. 
Geo. Joseph Cockerell. 
Wm. Holme Twenty- 

1862. William Anderson 


James Clarke Law- 

Hugh Jones. 

1863. William Lawrence. 
Hilary Nicholas 

Thomas Cave. 

1864. Warren Stormes 

Thomas Dakin. 
Robert Besley. 

1865. Sir Benjamin Samuel 

Sills John Gibbons. 
James Figgins. 

1866. Sir Thomas Gabriel 

Sir Sydney Hedley 

Sir Francis Lycett 

1867. William Ferneley 

David Henry Stone. 
William McArtliur. 

1868. J. C. Lawrence. 
W. J. R. Cotton. 

C. W. Cookworthy 




1869. Robert Besley. 
Joseph Causton. 
James Vallentine. 

1870. Thomas Dakin. 
T. S. Owden- 
Robert Jones. 

187 1. Sills John Gibbon. 
F. W. Txuscott. 
John Bennett 

1872. Sir Sydney Hedley 

T. White. 
Fred. Perkins. 

1873. Andrew Lusk, M.P. 
C. Whetham- 

J. Johnson. 

1874. David Henry Stone. 
J. W. EUis. 

J. Shaw. 

1875. W. J. R. Cotton, M-P. 
H. K Knight 
Edgar Breffit 

1876. Sir Thomas White. 
S. C Hadley. 

W. Q. East. 

1877. T. S. Owden. 
G. S. Nottage. 
J. Staples. 

1878. Sir C. Whetham. 
G. Burt. 

T. Bevan. 

1879. Sir Francis Wyait 

C. WooUoton. 
E. K. Bayley. 

1880. William McArthur, 

R. N. Fowler, M.P. 
H. J. Waterlow. 

1 88 1. Sir J. W. Ellis, Bart. 
Sir R. Hanson. 

Sir W, A. Ogg. 

1882. Henry Edmund 

P. De Keyser. 
J. Savory. 

( 339 ) 



The folUrwmg list has been extracted from the Blue Books 
recently issued. They commence in 1298, but from the 
^Chronicles ' edited in 1882 by Canon Stubbs for the Rolls 
Series J we obtain the names for 1284. 

1 284. Heniy le Waleys. 
Gregory Rokesley. 
Philip Cissor. 
Ralf Crepyn. 
Jocale le Acatour. 
John de Gisors. 

1 2 98. Walterus de Fynchyng- 
Adam de Folehara. 


Galfridus de Norton, or 
Northone, alderman- 


Waiielmus de Bettonia, 

1304-5. Willielmus de Coum- 
Walterus de Fynchyng- 

I Edw, II. 

1307- Willielmus de Coumbe 
Hearicus de Dunolmia. 

1309. Henricus de Dunolm'. 
Willielmus Servat. 

1313- Nicholaus de Famdon. 
Willielmus de Leyre. 
Willielmus Servat. 
Stephanus de Abyn- 


1314- Johannes de Gisorcio. 
Willielmus de Leire. 
Robertus de Keleseye. 
Richerus de Refham, 


I3I4-I5- Willielmus de Leire. 
Henricus de Dunolm*. 

Z 2 



1 3 1 8. Johannes de Cherleton'. 
Willielmus de Flete. 
Rogerus le Palmere. 

1320. Nicholaus de Faren- 
Anketinus de Gisorz. 
Henricus Monquer. 
Rogerus Hosebonde. 

1322 Robertus de Swalclyve. 
(jVIay). Reginaldus de Con- 
Willielmus de Hac- 

Gregorius de Norton'. 

1322. Walterus Crepyn. 
(Nov.) Thomas de Chetyng- 

1323-4- Anketinus de Gysor- 

Henricus de Secche- 

1325- Anketinus de Gisoricio. 
Henricus de Seche- 

1326-7. Anketinus de Gysor- 

Henricus de Seche- 

Reginaldus de Con- 

Thomas de Leire.* 
Edmundus Cosyn.* 
Johannes Steere.* 

I Edw. III. 

1327. Bendictus de Folsham. 
Robertus de Keleseye. 

1327-8. Ricardus de Betoigne. 
Robertus de Keleseic 
Johannes de Grantham. 
Johannes Priour, jun. 

1328. Ricardus de Betoigne. 
Robertus de Keleseye. 

1328 Stephanus de Abp- 
and don*. 
i328-9.jRobcrtus de Keles- 

1329-30. Stephanus deAbyn- 
Johannes de Caustoo. 

1330. Johannes de Grantham. 

Reginaldus de Con* 

Stephanus de Abyo- 
don' (or two of them.) 

1 33 1-2. Anketinusde Gisorda 
Johannes de Causton*. 
Johannes Priour, jun. 
Thomas de Chetyng- 
don' (three or two of 

1332 Reginaldus de Cod- 
(Sep.). ductu. 

Johannes de Causton*. 

Anketinus de Gisorda 

snffirjl5/*^^'u*^"^' *^* ^°°^ *^"^ ipsorum semper sint paniti qui plenam ct 
suuicientem habent potestatcm de comrounitate predicta." 



1338. Radulphus de Upton'. 
Bartholomeus Deumars. 

1338-9. Simon Fraunceys. 

Johannes de Northalle. 

1 339- Simon (? Fraunceys). 
Johannes (?de Nort) 

1340. Willielmus de Brides- 

Ricardus de Rothyngge. 
Ricardus de Berkyngge. 

1 34 1. Simon Fraunceys. 
Willielmus de Brides- 


1344. Johannes de Nortlialle. 
Johannes Lovekyn. 

1346- Galfridus de Wychyng. 

Thomas Leggy. 

Johannes Lovekyn. 

Thomas de Waldene 
(four, three, or two of 

1347-8. Johannes Lovekyn. 

Ricardus de Berkyngg'. 

Willielmus de Iford. 

Ricardus de Wycombe 
(three or two of 

* Four wool merchants were also sent from London, returned upon 
a special writ (dated '* apud Villiam de Sancto Johanne," 1st September), 
viz. Johannes de Oxon', Ricardus de Hakeneye, Henricus Wymond, and 
Willielmus de Brykeleswortb. 

Thomas de Chet3mg- 
don* (three or two of 

1332 Thomas de Chetyng- 
(Dec). don'. 

Henricus Monquoy. 

1333-4. Reginaldus de Con- 
Johannes de Causton'. 
Rogerus de Depham. 

'335- Ricardus de Rothingge. 
Ricardus de Lacer. 
Rogerus de Forsham 
(or two of them). 

1335-6. Henricus de Seche- 
Thomas de Chetyng- 

Johannes Priour (or 
two of them). 

1336. Johannes de Causton'. 
Ricardus de Haken- 


1337. Reginaldus de Con- 

Benedictus deFulsham. 

1337-8. Johannes de Grant- 
Andreas Aubrey. 
Radulphus de Upton**. 
Ricardus de Rothyngg'. 



1348. Johannes Lovekyn. 

Ricardus deBerkyngge. 
Willielmus de Iford'. 
Ricardus de Wycombe 
(three or two of 

1 350-1. Thomas Leggy. 
Willielmus de Iford. 

1352. Adam Fraunceys. 
Johannes Lytle. 

1353- Thomas Leggy. 
Thomas Dolsely. 

1357-8. Thomas Dolsely. 

Willielmus de Welde. 
Willielmus de Essex. 
Ricardus Toky. 

1360. Bartholomeus Frest- 
Stephanus Cavendyssh. 
Walterus de Bemeye. 
Ricardus Toky. 

1 360-1. Adam Fraunceys. 
Johannes Pecche. 
Simon de Bevyngton'. 
Johannes Pyel. 

1362. Johannes Lytle. 

Bartholomeus Erest- 

Johannes Tomegold. 
Johannes Hyltoft. 

1363. Adam (Fraunceys ?).* 
Johannes (Lytle ?).* 
Simon (de Benyng- 
ton ?). 


'364-5- Adam Fraunceys. 
Johannes Lovekyn. 
Simon de Denyngton'. 
Ricardus de Preston. 

1368. Johannes Wroth. 
Bartholomeus Frest- 

Johannes Aubrey. 
Johannes Orgon. 

1369. Johannes Pecche. 
Johannes Tomegold. 
Nicholaus de Exton'. 
Johannes Hadlee. 

137 1. Bartholomeus Frist- 

Johannes Phelipot 

1372. Johannes Wroth. 
Johannes Pecche. 
Willielmus Venour. 
Willielmus KelshulF. 

1373* Adam Stable. 

Johannes Warde. 
Johannes Birlyngham. 
Adam Carlill', spicer. 

1376-7. Johannes Hadle. 
Johannes Orgoun. 
Willielmus Tongc 
Willielmus Venour. 

Names doabtfal, see former returns. 



2 Ric. 11. 

1378. Johannes Hadlee. 
Galfridus Neuton', 
Johannes de Norhamp- 

Williehnus Venour. 

1 381. Johannes Philipot, 
Johannes Hadle. 
Willielmus Baret 
Hugo Fastoir. 

1382 Johannes More. 
(Oct.). Thomas Carleton'. 

Willielmus Essex'. 

Ricardus Northbury. 

1382-3. Nicholaus Brembre, 
Johannes More. 
Ricardus Norbury. 
Willielmus Essex'. 

1383. Willielmus Walworth. 
Johannes Philipot, 

Willielmus Barret 
' Henricus Yanner. 

13S4 Johannes Hadle. 
(Ap.). Johannes Organ. 

Johannes Rote. 

Henricus Herbury. 

1384 Johannes Hadle. 
(Nov.). Johannes Orgon. 
.Thomas Rolf. 
Henricus Herbury. 

1385. Johannes Hadle. 
Nicholaus Exton'. 
Henricus Herbury. 
Willielmus Ancroft*. 

1386. Johannes Hadle. 
Johannes Organ. 
Adam CarUir. 
Thomas Girdelere. 

1387-8. Willielmus More. 

Johannes Shadeworth'. 
Willielmus Baret. 
Johannes Walcote. 

1388. Adam Bamme. 

Henricus Vannere. 
Willielmus Tonge. 
Johannes Glenhand. 

1389-90. Willielmus More. 

Johannes Shadeworth*. 
Adam CarlilF. 
Willielmus Brampton'. 

T 391. Willielmus Shiringham. 
Willielmus Brampton'. 
Willielmus Staundon*. 
Johannes Walcote. 

1394-5. Adam CarliU'. 
Drugo Barantyn. 
Galfridus Waldeme. 
Willielmus Askham. 


1396-7. Willielmus Staundon'. 
Willielmus Brampton'. 
Willielmus Hyde. 
Hugo Short'. 



1397, ^Andreas Ncuport'. 
and [Drugo Barantyn. 
i397-8.JRobertus Asshe- 
Willielmus Chychely. 


I Henry IV. 

Johannes Shadworth*. 
Willielmus Brampton'. 
Ricardus Merlowe. 
Willielmus Sonnyng- 


1405-6. Willielmus Staundon*. 
Nicholaus Wotton'. 
Johannes Sudbury. 
Hugo Ryebrede. 

1407. Willielmus Askham. 
Willielmus Crowemer. 
Willielmus Marche- 

Johannes Bryan'. 

I Henry V. 

I4r3. Drugo Barantyn'. 
Willielmus Askham. 
Willielmus Marche- 

Walterus Gawtron. 

1414. Willielmus Waldem', 
Nicholaus Wotton. 
Willielmus Olyver. 
Johannes Gedney. 

r4i5. Robertus Chichele. 
Willielmus Waldem'. 
Johannes Reynewell*. 
WilUelmus MicheU'. 

1 41 7. Willielmus Crowemere. 
Willielmus Sevenok'. 
Johannes Welles, 

Johannes Boteler, jun., 


1419. Nicholaus Wotton'. 
Henricus Barton'. 
Ricardus Merivale. 
Simon Sewale. 

1420. Thomas Fauconer. 
Johannes Michell'. 
Salamon Oxeneye, 

Johannes Higham, 

1 42 1 . Willielmus Waldem*. 
(May). Willielmus Crowmere. 

Willielmus Burton. 
Ricardus Goslyn'. 

1 42 1 Thomas Fauconer. 
(Dec). Nicholaus Wotton'. 

Johannes Whatdey. 

Johannes Brokley. 

I Henry VI. 

1422. Thomas Fauconer. 
Johannes MicheU'. 
Henricus Frowyk*. 
Thomas Mayndd'. 

* Names torn off. 



1425. Nicholaus Wotton'. 
Johannes Welles. 
Eborardus Flete. 
Thomas Bemewell'. 

1425-6. Johannes Michell'. 
Johannes Wellys. 
Eborardus Flete. 
Johannes Higham. 

1427. Johannes MichelF. 
Johannes Wellys. 
WiUielmus Milreth'. 
Walterus Gawtron'. 

1429 Nicholaus Wotton'. 
Nicholaus James. 
WiUielmus Milreth'. 
Walterus Gautron'. 

1430- WiUielmus Estfeld'. 
Nicholaus James. 
Johannes Hiham. 
Johannes Abbot. 

1432- Johannes Gedney. 
WiUielmus Milreth. 
Johannes Levyng*. 
Phillippus Malpas. 

'433- Johannes ReyneweU'. 
Johannes WeUes. 
Johannes Hatherle. 
Thomas Catworth'. 

1435- Johannes Michell'. 
Robertus Large. 
Johannes Bederenden'. 
Stephanus Forster. 

• Return torn. 

143^7- Henricus Frowyk. 
Thomas Catworth'. 
Johannes Carpenter, 

Nicholaus Yeo. 

1439- WiUielmus Estfeld', 

Johannes Bowys. 
Philippus Malpas. 
WiUielmus Cottes- 


1446-7. Henricus Frowyk'. 
WiUielmus Combys. 
Hugo Wyche. 
WiUielmus Marowe. 

1448-9. Thomas Catworth'. 
Johannes Norman. 
Galfridus Bolejm'. 
Thomas BUlyng*. 

1449. Stephanus Broun'. 
Johannes Norman'. 
Johannes Nedham. 
Johannes Harwe. 

1450. Henricus Frowyk'. 

WiUielmus Marowe. 
Johannes Harowe. 
Ricardus Lee. 

1452-3. Stephanus Broun'. 
WiUielmus Cantelowe. 
Johannes . .  



1455, Galfridus Feldyng'. 
Willielmus Cantlowe. 
Johannes Harrowe. 
Johannes Yonge. 

7 Edward IV. 

1467. Radulphus Josselyn, 

miles, civis et alder- 

Thomas Ursewyk, re- 

Johannes Warde, 

Johannes Crosseby, 


1472. Radulphus Vemey, 
miles et alderman- 

Georgius Irlonde, miles 
et aldermannus. 

Johannes Brampton. 

Stephanus Fabyan. 

1477-8, Willielmus Hampton, 
miles et alderman- 

Ricardus Gardyner, 

Willielmus Brasebrigge. 

Johannes Warde. 

14 Henry VIII. 

1529. Thomas Semer, miles. 
Johannes Baker. 
Johannes Petjrt. 
. Paulus WythypoU. 

* Names, &c., with (*) prefixed are 
in the absence of Original Returns. 

1 541-2. Willielmus Roche, 
miles et alderman- 

Rogerus Cholmley, 
miles, recordator. 

Johannes Sturgeon, 

Nicholaus Wylford, 
mercator scissor. 

I Edward VI. 

1547. Martinus Bowes, miles 
et aldermannus. 

Robertus Broke, ar- 
miger, recordator. 

Thomas Curteys, pew- 

Thomas Bacon, salter. 

1552-3, Martinus Bowes, 

Robertus Broke, scr- 

viens ad l^em, 

recordator civitatis 

Johannes Marsshe, 

Johannes Blundell, 


I Mary. 

iS54« *Martinus Bowes, miles. 

•Robertus Brook, re- 

•Johannes ^Mershc, 

•Johannes Blundell. 

supplied from the Crown Office List 



I & 2 Philip and Mary, 

1554 Martinus Bowes, mlTes, 
(Nov.). aldermannus civi- 

tatis London'. 
Ranulphus Cholmeley, 

armiger, recordator 

civitatis London*. 
Ricardus Grafton, 

Ricardus Bumell, 


1555. Martinus Bowes, miles, 
aldermannus civitatis 

Ranulphus Cholmeley, 
armiger, recordator 
civitatis London'. 

Philippus Bold, clothe- 

Nicholaus Chune, 

1557-8. Willielmus Garrard, 
miles, aldermannus 
civitatis London'. 
Ranulphus Cholmeley, 
armiger, recordator 
civitatis London*. 

Johannes Mershe, mer- 
cerus, London'. 

Ricardus Grafton, gro- 
cerus, London'. 

5 Elizabeth. 

1562-3. *Sir William Chester, 

•Ralph Cholmeley, 
serjeant-at-law, re- 
corder of London.f 

•Laurence Withers, 

•John Marshe, mercer. 

1572. JSir Roland Heyward, 

{William Fletewood, 

esq., recorder. 
{John Marsh, mercer. 
Thomas Norton, 


1586. §Sir Edward Osborne, 

knt., alderman. 

§William Fletewood, 

serjeant-at-law, and 

recorder of London. 

• Names, &c, with (♦) prefixed afe supplied from the Crown Office Lists 
(of which there are five for this Parliament) in the absence of Original 

t In the fourth and fifth Lists the name of Richard Ousley, Recorder of 
London, is substituted for that of Ralph Cholmeley, probably on account 
of his death, 25th April, 1563. 

X Names, &c., with (^) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
Lists (of which there are three), in the absence of Original Returns. 

§ Names, &c., with (§) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, in the absence of Original Returns. 



♦Thomas Aldersey, 

♦Richard Saltinstall, 


1588, "I Sir George Bame. 
and knt, alderman of 
1 5 88-9. j London. 

William Fletewood, 
serjeant-at-law, and 
recorder of London. 

Thomas Aldersey, 

Andrew Palmer, gold- 

1592-3. Sir John Harte, 
knt, alderman of 

Edward Drewe, Esq., 
serjeant-at-law, and 
recorder of London. 

Andrew Palmer, gold- 

George Sotherton, mer- 
chant taylor. 

1597. Sir John Harte, knt 

John Croke, esq., re- 
corder of London. 
George Sotherton, 

merchant taylor. 
Thomas Fettiplace, 

1 601. Sir Stephen Soame, 

John Croke, esq., re- 
corder of London. 

Thomas Fett5rplacc, 

John Pynder, vintner. 

^ James L 

1603-4. Sir Henry Billingsleyi 

Sir Thomas Lowe, 
knt, vice Sir Heniy 
BiUingsley, knt, de- 

1620-1. Sir Thomas Lowe, 

Robert Heath, esq., 

recorder of London. 
Robert Bateman, 

William Towerson, 


1623-4. Sir Thomas Middle- 
ton, knt.. Alderman 
of London. 

Sir Heneage Finch, 
knt, serjeant-at- 
law, recorder of 

Robert Bateman, 

Martin Bond, haber- 

 Names, &c., with (♦) preBxed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, ill the absence of Original Returns, 
t No Return found ; but see the Writ for the following angle election. 



I Charles L 

i62Sv*Sir Thomas Middleton, 

♦Sir Heneage Finch, 
knt, recorder. 

•Robert Bateman, 

•Martin Bonde, haber- 

1625-6. •Sir Thomas Middle- 
ton, knt 

•Sir Heneage Fynch, 
knt, recorder. 

•Sir Maurice Abbott, 

•Robert Bateman, esq. 

1627-8. Thomas Moulson, 

Christopher Clithe- 
rowe, alderman. 

Henry Waller, cloth- 

James Bunce, leather- 

1640 Thomas Soame, esq., 
(Apr.), alderman. 

Isaac Pennington, esq., 

Matthew Cradock, 

Samuel Vassell, 

 Names, &c., with (♦) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, in the absence of Original Returns, 
t Return torn. 

1640 Long Parliament. 
(Nov.). Thomas Soame, alder- 

Isaac Penmgton, alder- 

Matthew Cradock, 

Samuel Vassell, cloth- 

John Venn, merchant 
taylor, vice Matthew 
Cradock, deceased. 


1654. Thomas Foote, alder- 

William Steele, ser- 
jeant-at-law, recor- 
der of London. 

Thomas Adams, esq. 

John Langham, esq. 


Andrew Riccard, esq. 

13 Charles 11. 

1 66 1. John Fowke, esq., al- 

Sir William Thompson, 
knt., alderman. 

William Love, esq., 

John Jones, esq. 

1678-9, Sir Robert Clayton, 
knt, alderman. 



Sir Thomas Player, 


William Love, esq. 
Thomas Pilkington, 


1679. Sir Robert Clayton, 
knt, alderman. 

Sir Thomas Player, 

William Love, esq. 

Thomas Pilkington, 

1 680-1. Sir Robert Clayton, 
knt., alderman. 

Thomas Pilkington, 
esq., alderman. 

Sir Thomas Player, 

William Love, esq, 

I James II. 

1685. Si^ Jo^^ Moore, knt, 

Sir William Pritchard, 

knt., alderman. 
Sir Samuel Dashwood, 

knt, alderman. 
Sir Peter Rich, knt., 


Convention, 1688-9. . 

1688-9. Sir Patience Ward, 
knt, alderman. 

Sir Robert Clayton, 

William Love, esq. 

Thomas Pilkington, 

Sir William Ashuist, 

knt., alderman, via 

William Love, esq., 


2 William and Mary, 

1689-90. Sir Waiiam Prit- 
chard, knt, alder- 

Sir Samuel Dashwood, 
knt, alderman. 

Sir William Turner, knt 

Sir Thomas Vernon, 

Sir John Fleet, knt, 
lord mayor of Lon- 
don, vice Sir William 
Turner, knt., d^ 

7 William III 

1695. Sir Robert Clayton, 
knt, alderman. 

Sir John Fleet, knt, 

Su- William Ashhurst, 
knt., alderman. 

Thomas Papillon, esq. 

1698. Sir John Fleet, knt., 

Sir William Ashhurst, 

knt, alderman. 
Sir James Houblon, 

knt., alderman. 
Thomas Papillon, esq. 



1 700-1. Sir Robert Clayton, 
knt, alderman. 

Sir William Ashhurst, 
knt., alderman. 

Sir William Withers, 
knt, alderman. 

Gilbert Heathcott, esq. 

Sir John Fleet, knt., 
aldennan, vice Gil- 
bert Heathcote, esq., 
expelled the House. 

1701. Sir Robert Clayton, 

Sir William Ashurst, 

Sir Thomas Abney, 

Gilbert Heathcott, esq. 

I Anne, 

1702. Sir William Prichard, 

knt., alderman. 
Sir John Fleet, knt, 

Sir Francis Child, knt., 

Gilbert Heathcote, 

esq., alderman. 

1705. First Parliament of 
Great Britain. 
Sir John Clayton, knt 
Sir William Ashhurst, 

Sir Gilbert Heathcote, 

Samuel Shepheard, esq. 

Sir William Withers, 
knt., lord mayor of 
the city of London, 
vice Sir Robert Clay- 
ton, knt, deceased. 

1708. Sir William Withers, 
knt., mayor of the 
City of London. 

Sir William Ashurst, 

Sir Gilbert Heathcote, 

John Ward, esq. 

17 10. Sir William Withers, 
knt, alderman. 

Sir Richard Hoare, 

Sir George Newland, 

John Cass, esq. 

17 13. Sir William Withers, 

knt., alderman. 
Sir Richard Hoare, 

knt., alderman. 
Sir John Cass, knt, 

Sir George Newland, 


I George L 

1714-15. Sir John Ward, 
knt., alderman. 

Sir Thomas Scawen, 
knt., alderman. 

Robert Heysham, esq. 

Peter Godfrey, esq. 



1722. Francis Child, esq., 

Richard Lockwood, 

Peter Godfrey, esq. 

John Barnard, esq. 

Sir Richard Hopkins, 
knt., and alderman, 
vice Peter Godfrey, 
esq., deceased. 

I George IL 

1727. Sir John Eyles, bart. 

Humfry Parsons, esq., 

John Barnard, esq. 
Micajah Peny, esq. 

1 7 34. Humphry Parsons, 
esq., alderman. 

Sir John Barnard, knt., 

Micajah Perry, esq., 

Robert Willimot, esq. 

1741. Daniel Lambert, esq., 

lord mayor. 
Sir John Barnard, knt., 

Sir Robert Godschall, 

knt., alderman. 
George Heathcote, 

esq., alderman. 
William Calvert, esq., 

alderman, vice Sir 

Robert Godschall, 

knt., deceased. 

1747. Sir John Barnard, knt 
Sir William Calvert, 

Slingsby Bethell, esq. 
Stephen Theodore 
Janssen, esq. 

1754. Sir John Barnard, knt. 

Sir Robert Ladbroke, 

Slingsby Bethell, esq. 

William Beckford, esq. 

Sir Richard Glyn, knt, 
lord mayor of Lon- 
don, vice Slingsby 
Bethell, esq., de- 

I George II L 

1 7 61. Sir Robert Ladbroke, 

Sir Richard Glyn, knt 

and bart. 
William Beckford, esq. 
Thomas Harley, esq. 

1768. Thomas Harley, esq., 
lord mayor of 

Sir Robert Ladbroke 

William Beckford, esq. 

Barlow Trecottbick, 

Richard Oliver, esq., 
vice William Beck- 
ford, esq., deceased. 



Frederick Bull, vice Sir 
Robert Ladbroke, 
knt., deceased. 

'774* John Sawbridge. 
Richard Oliver. 
Frederick Bull. 
George Hayley. 

1780. George Hayley, esq., 
alderman, armourer, 
and brazier. 

John Kirkman, esq., 
alderman and fish- 

Frederick Bull, esq., 
alderman and Salter. 

Nathaniel Newnham, 
esq., alderman and 

John Sawbridge, Esq., 
citizen and frame- 
work knitter, vice 
John Kirkman, esq., 

Sir Watkin Lewis, knt, 
citizen and joiner, 
vice George Hayley, 
esq., deceased. 

Brook Watson, esq., 
vice Frederick Bull, 
esq., deceased. 

1784. Brook Watson, esq. 

Sir Watkin Lewes, knt. 
Nathaniel Newnham, 

John Sawbridge, esq. 



William Curtis, esq. 

Brook Watson, esq. 

Sir Watkin Lewes, knt. 

John Sawbridge, esq. 

John William Ander- 
son, esq., vice Brook 
Watson, esq., who 
accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Manor 
of East Hendred, 
county Berks. 

William Lushington, 
esq., vice John 
Sawbridge, esq., 

First Parliament of 
THE United King- 
dom OF Great 
Britain and Ire- 
land [1801]. 

William Lushington, 
esq., citizen, alder- 
man, and merchant 
taylor, of London. 

William Curtis, lord 
mayor, citizen and 
draper, of London. 

Harvey Christian 

Combe, esq., citizen, 
alderman, and fish- 
monger, of London. 

John William Ander- 
son, esq., citizen, 
alderman^and glover, 
of London. 

2 A 



1802. Harvey Christian 

Combe, esq., alder- 
roan and fishmonger, 
of London. 

Charles Price, esq., 
alderman and iron- 
monger, of London. 

William Curtis, esq., 
alderman and 

draper, of London. 

Sir John William An- 
derson, bart., alder- 
man and glover, of 

1806. Harvey Christian 

Combe, esq., alder- 
man and fishmonger. 

James Shaw, esq., lord 
mayor and scrivener. 

Sir Charles Price, bart., 
alderman and iron- 

Sir William Curtis, 
bart, alderman and 

1807. Sir Charles Price, bart., 

citizen, alderman, 
and ironmonger. 

Sir WiUiam Curtis, 
bart., citizen, alder- 
man, and draper. 

James Shaw, esq., 
citizen, alderman, 
and scrivener. 

Harvey Christian 

Combe, esq., citizen, 

alderman, and fish- 

181 2. Harvey Christian 

Combe, esq., citizen, 
alderman, and fish- 

Sir William Curtis, 
bart., citizen, alder- 
man, and draper. 

Sir James Shaw, bart., 
citizen, alderman, 
and scrivener. 

John Atkins, esq., 
citizen, alderman, 
and merchant taylor. 

Matthew Wood, esq., 
lord mayor, citizen, 
and fishmonger, vut 
Harvey Christian 
Combe, esq., who 
accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltem 
Hundreds, count)' 

1818. Matthew Wood, esq., 
citizen, alderman, 
and fishmonger. 

Thomas Wilson, esq., 
citizen and spectacle 

Robert Waithman, 
esq., citizen and 
framework knitter. 

John Thomas Thorp, 
esq., citizen, alder- 
man, and draper. 



I Georgs IV. 

1820. Matthew Wood, esq., 
citizen, alderman, 
and fishmonger. 

Thomas Wilson, esq., 
citizen and spectacle 

Sir William Curtis, 
bart., citizen, alder- 
man and draper. 

George Bridges, lord 
mayor, citizen, al- 
derman, and wheel- 

1826. William Thompson, 
esq., citizen, alder- 
man, and iron- 

Robert Waithman, 
esq., citizen, alder- 
man, and frame- 
work knitter. 

Wilham Ward, esq., 
citizen and mu- 

Matthew Wood, esq., 
citizen, alderman, 
and fishmonger. 

I William IV. 

1830. William Thompson, 
esq., alderman, 

citizen, and iron- 
Robert Waithman, 
esq., alderman and 
framework knitter. 

William Ward, esq., 
citizen and musician. 

Matthew Wood, esq., 
alderman, citizen 
and fishmonger. 

1831. Robert Waithman, 
esq., alderman and 
framework knitter. 

William Thompson, 
esq., alderman and 

Matthew Wood, esq., 
alderman and fish- 

William Venables, esq., 
alderman and sta- 

1833. George Grote, esq. 

Matthew Wood, esq., 

Robert Waithman, esq. 

Sir John Key, bart. 

George Lyall, citizen 
and broderer, vice 
Robert Waithman, 
esq., deceased. 

William Crawford, 
citizen and spectacle 
maker, vice Sir John 
Key, bart., who ac- 
cepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltem 
Hundreds, county 

1835. Matthew Wood, esq, 
citizen and fish- 

2 A 2 



James Pattison, esq., 

citizen and spectacle 

William Crawford, esq., 

citizen and spectacle 

George Grote, esq., 

citizen and needle 


I Victoria. 

1837. Matthew Wood, esq., 
citizen and fish- 

William Crawford, esq., 
citizen and spectacle 

James Pattison, esq., 
citizen and spectacle 

George Grote, esq., 
citizen and needle 

1 84 1. John Masterman, esq., 

Sir Matthew Wood, 
bart., alderman and 

George Lyall, esq., 

John Russell, com- 
monly called Lord 
John Russell, 


James Pattison, esq., 
citizen of London, 

of 37» Upper Harley 
Street, vice Sir Mat- 
thew Wood, bart, 
John Russell, com- 
monly called Lord 
John Russell, re- 
elected after appoint- 
ment as First Lord 
of the Treasury. 

1847. John Russell, com- 
monly called Lord 
John Russell. 

James Pattison, esq. 

Lionel Nathan Roths- 
child, commonly 
called Baron Lionel 
Nathan de Roths- 

John Masterman, esq. 

Sir James Duke, knt., 
lord mayor of the 
city of London, via 
James Pattison, esq., 

Lionel Nathan Roths- 
child, commonly 
called Baron Lionel 
Nathan de Rothsr 
child, re-elected after 
accepting the 

Stewardship of the 
Chiltem Hundreds, 
county Bucks. 

1852. John Masterman, esq. 
John Russell, Gom- 




monly caUed Lord 
John Russell. 

Sir James Duke, bart. 

Lionel Nathan Roths- 
child, commonly 
called Baron Lionel 
Nathan de Roths- 

John Russell, com- 
monly called Lord 
John Russell, re- 
elected after appoint- 
ment as one of the 
Principal Secretaries 
of State. 

John Russell, com- 
monly called Lord 
John Russell, re- 
elected after appoint- 
ment as President of 
the Council. 

John Russell, com- 
monly called Lord 
John Russell, re- 
elected after appoint- 
ment as one of the 
Principal Secretaries 
of State. 

Sir James Duke, bart. 

Lionel Nathan de 
Rothschild, com- 
monly called Baron 
Lionel Nathan de 

John Russell, com- 
monly called Lord 
John RusselL 

Robert Wygram Craw- 
ford, esq. 

Lionel Nathan de 
Rothschild, com- 
monly called Baron 
Lionel Nathan de 
Rothschild, re- 

elected after accept- 
ing the Stewardship 
of the Chiltem 
Hundreds, county 

1859. John Russell, com- 
monly called Lord 
John Russell. 

Lionel Nathan de 
Rothschild, esq., 
commonly called 
Baron Lionel Nathan 
de Rothschild. 

Sir James Duke, bart. 

Robert Wigram Craw- 
ford, esq. 

John Russell, com- 
monly called Lord 
John Russell, re- 
elected after appoint- 
ment as one of the 
Principal Secretaries 
of State. 

Western Wood, esq., 
citizen and fish- 
monger, of London, 
vice John Russell, 
commonly called 
Lord John Russell, 
who accepted the 



Stewardship of the 
Manor of Northstead, 
county York. 
George Joachim Gos 
chen, esq., citizen 
and spectacle maker. 
vice Western Wood, 
esq., deceased. 

1865. George Joachim Gos- 
chen, esq. 

Robert Wigram Craw- 
ford, esq. 

William Lawrence, esq. 

Lionel Nathan de 
Rothschild, com- 
monly called Baron 
Lionel Nathan de 

George Joachim Gos- 
chen, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as 
Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster. 

1868. George Joachim Gos- 
chen, esq. 
Robert Wigram Craw- 
ford, esq. 
William Lawrence, esq, 
Charles Bell, esq. 

George Joachim Gos 
chen, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as 
Poor Law Commis- 

Lionel Nathan de 
Rothschild, esq., 
commonly called 
Baron Lionel Nathan 
de Rothschild, vice 
Charles Bell, esq., 

1874. William James Rich- 
mond Cotton, esq 

Philip Twells, esq. 

John Gellibrand Hub- 
bard, esq. 

George Joachim Gos- 
chen, esq.. First 
Lord of the Admi- 

1880. W. J. R. Cotton, 

R. N. Fowler, alder- 

Right Hon. J. G, 

William Lawrence, 

( 359 ) 


Parishes in London, 

All Hallows Barking. 

All Hallows Bread Street. 

All Hallows the Great. 

All Hallows the Less. 

All Hallows Honey Lane. 

All Hallows Lombard Street. 

All Hallows on the Wall. 

All Hallows Staining. 

Bridewell Precinct. 

Christ Church Newgate Street. 

Holy Trinity, Gough Square. 

Holy Trinity, Minories (without 
the City). 

Holy Trinity the Less. 

St. Alban. 

St Alphage. 

St. Andrew Holborn. 

St. Andrew Hubbard. 

St. Andrew Undershaft. 

St. Andrew by the Wardrobe. 

St. Anne and St. Agnes. 

St. Anne, Black friars. 

St. Antholin. 

St. Augustine. 

St. Bartholomew, by the Ex- 

St. Bartholomew Moor Lane. 

St. Bartholomew the Great. 

St. Bartholomew the Less. 
St. Benet Fink. 
St. Benet Gracechurch. 
St. Benet Paul's Wharf. 
St. Benet Shorehog. 
St. Botolph Billingsgate. 
St. Botolph Aldersgate. 
St. Botolph Aldgate. 
St. Botolph Bishopsgate. 
St. Bridget (or St. Bride). 
St. Christopher le Stocks. 
St. Clement Eastcheap. 
St. Dionis Backchurch. 
St. Dunstan in the East. 
St. Dunstan in the West. 
St. Edmund the King 

St. Ethelburga. 
St. Faith under St. Paul's. 
St. Gabriel Fenchurch. 
St. George Botolph Lane. 
St. Giles Cripplegate. 
St. Gregory by St. Paul's. 
St. Helen Bishopsgate. 
St. James Garlickhithe. 
St. James, Mitre Square 

Duke's Place. 
St. John the Baptist. 





St. John the Evangelist. 

St. John Zachary. 

St. Katherine Coleman. 

St. Katherine Ctee. 

St. Lawrence Jewry. 

St. Laurence Pountney. 

St Leonard Eastcheap. 

St. Leonard Foster Lane. 

St. Magnus the Martyr. 

St. Margaret Lothbury. 

St. Margaret Moses. 

SL Margaret New Fish Street 

St. Margaret Pattens* 

St. Martin Ludgate. 

St. Martin Orgars. 

St Martin Outwich. 

St. Martin Pomery. 

St Martin Vintry. 

St. Mary Abchurch. 

St Mary Aldermary. 

St Mary-at-Hill. 

St. Mary Bothaw. 

St. Mary Colechurch. 

St Mary-le-Bow. 

St Mary Magdalene Milk Street 

St. Mary Magdalene Old Fish 

St. Mary Mounthaw. 
St Mary Somerset. 
St. Mary Staining. 
St Mary Aldermanbury. 

St Mary Woolchurch. 

St Mary Woolnoth. 

St Matthew Friday Street 

St. Michael Bassishaw. 

St. Michael ComhilL 

St. Michael Crooked Lane. 

St. Michael le Querne. 

St Michael Paternoster Royal. 

St. Michael Queenhithe. 

St. Michael Wood Street 

St Mildred Bread Street. 

St. Mildred the Virgin. 

St Nicholas Aeons. 

St Nicholas Cole Abbey. 

St Nicholas Olave. 

St. Olave Hart Street. 

St Olave Old Jewry. 

St. Olave Silver Street 

St. Pancras Soper Lane. 

St. Peter ComhilL 

St Peter le Poer. 

St Peter Paul's Wharf. 

St Peter in the Tower. 

St. Peter Westcheap. 

St. Sepulchre. 

St. Stephen Coleman Street 

St Stephen Wallbrook. 

St Swithin London Stone. 

St Thomas the Apostle. 

St Vedast Foster Lane. 

Whitefriars Precinct. 


( 361 ) 


Wreris Churches and other Public Buildings in the City. 

1. St Alban, Wood Street 

2. All Hallows, Bread Street 


3. All Hallows, Lombard 


4. All Hallows, Upper Thames 


5. St Andrew by the Ward- 


6. St. Andrew Holbom. 

7. St Anne and St Agnes. 

8. St Antholin (destroyed). 

9. St Augustine. 

10. St Bartholomew by the 

Bank (destroyed). 

11. St Benet, Gracechurch 

Street (destroyed). 

12. St Benet Fink (destroyed). 

13. St Benet, Paul's Warf. 

14. St Bride. 

15. Christ Church. 

16. St Christopher le Stocks 


17. St. Clement, East Cheap. 

18. St Dionys Backchurch 


19. St. Dunstan in the East. 

20. St Edmund the King. 

21. St George, Botolph Lane. 

22. St James, Garlickhithe. 

23. St Lawrence Jewry. 

24. St Magnus. 

25. St Margaret Lothbury. 

26. St Margaret Pattens. 

27. St Martin Ludgate. 

28. St Mary Abchurch. 

29. St Mary Aldermanbury. 

30. St Mary Aldermary. 

31. St Mary At Hill. 

32. St Mary Le Bow. 

33. St Mary Somerset (de 


34. St Mary Magdalen. 

35. St Matthew Friday Street 


36. St. Michael Bassishaw. 

37. St Michael Wood Street 

38. St Michael CornhilL 

39. St Michael Crooked Lane 


40. St Michad Queenhithe 


41. St Michael RoyaL 

42. St Mildred Bread Street 

43. St Mildred Poultry (de- 




44. St. Nicholas Cole Abbey. 

45. St. Olave Jewry. 

46. St. Paul. 

47. St. Peter. 

48. St. Stephen Coleman Street. 

49. St Stephen Wallbrook. 

50. St. Swithin. 

51. St. Vincent. 

In addition Sir C. Wren re- 
paired St. Mary Woolnoth, but 
on its becoming ruinous in 17 10, 
Hawksmoor built the present 
church, finished in 1727. Wren's 
chief works in London besides 
the churches were : — 

I. The Custom House (de- 

2. The Deanery. 

3. Chapter House. 

4. Middle Temple front in 

Fleet Street. 

5. Temple Bar (destroyed). 

6. The Monument. 

7. Royal Exchange (burnt 


8. College of Physicans (de- 


9. Sion College (about to be 

10. Mercers* Hall. 
IX. Fishmongers* (destroyed), 

and many other Companies* 
halls, of which but few survive 


( 363 ) 


77^ Pnhmtfal Manors of St. FauPs. 

Broomsbury, or Brondesbury, the 14th stall on the left side. 

A division of Willesden. Called after David Brand, prebendary 
at the time of the division. 

Brownswood, the i6th stall on the right side. 

Part of Willesden. Called after Roger Brun, prebendary in 1 142. 
See under Willesden, etc. But this manor has been identified by 
some authorities with a small holding in Homsey. 

Caddington Major, the 17th stall on the left side. 

The manor of Aston Bury, in Bedfordshire. Given to the church, 
with Caddington Minor and Sandon, in Herts, by King Athelstan, 
between 926 and 941* 

Caddington Minor, the 5th stall on the left side. 

The manor of Caddington, or Provenders, in Bedfordshire. See 
Caddington Major, or Aston Bury. 

Cantlers, the loth stall on the right side. 

Also written as Kentish Town, in the parish of St. Pancras. 
Probably named after Roger Cantelupe, or Cantlow, prebendary in 


Chamberlainewood, the 6th stall on the right side. 

A small holding taken out of Willesden, and called after Richard 
de Camera, prebendary in 121 5, and rector of Willesden. 

Chiswick, the i8th stall on the left side. 

The parish of Chiswick, Middlesex, but granted away to West- 
minster Abbey by Dean Goodman in the time of Queen Elizabeth. 


CONSUMPTA PER Mare, the 13th Stall on the left side. 

This oddly named stall was connected with a holding in Walton 
le Soken, in Essex, and is sometimes called '* Consumpta in 
Waltone.** The addition of " le Soken " to the names of Kirby and 
Walton may be on account of the holding^ of the prebendaries of 
St Paurs. 

Ealdland, the loth stall on the left side. 

Like Wedland, this is a manor in the parish of Tillingham, near 
Maldon in Essex. 

Ealdstreet, the i8th stall on the right side. 
A part of St Leonard's Shoreditch, now marked by Old Street 

FiNSBURY, or Holywell, the 4th stall on the right side. 

Also written Vynesbury, and Halliwell : partly in the parish of 
St Giles, Cripplegate, and partly in St Leonard, Shoreditch. 
Robert Baldock, prebendary in 131 S, leased the manor to the 
Mayor and Conmions. The lease dropped in 1867, and the manor 
now belongs to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 

Harleston, the 7th stall on the right side. 

A portion of the parish of WiUesden ; see Mapesbuiy, etc. I 
have found no clue to the meaning of the name. 

HOLBORK, the 6th stall on the right side. 

In the parish of St Andrew. The name is derived from the 
river, the Holebume, or upper course of the Fleet. 

HoxTON, the 9th stall on the left side. 

A manor in the original parish of Shoreditch. It possibly derives 
its name from Hugh or '' Hugo, the Archdeacon," who was suc- 
ceeded in the stall by his son, Henry, early in the Xllth century. 
Newcourt endeavours to identify Hugh with archdeacons of Essex 
and of Colchester a hundred years later. This is an interesting 
example of hereditary succession. Hugh's predecessor, Gaufridus, 
had succeeded his father Osbem. 

Islington, the nth stall on the left side of the choir. 

Comprised part of the original parish of the same name, north of 
London. Algar, son of ^ Deorman of London,** was prebendary in 
the eleventh century. 


Mapesbury, the 12th stall on the right side. 

Divided from Willesden in 1 1 50 : and called after the celebrated 
Archdeacon, Walter Map, or Mapes, "who was present at the 
making of the constitution de Pane et Servicio (sic), when Ralph 
de Langford was Dean." Newcourt i. 173. 

Mora, or the Moor, the 9th stall on the right side. 

In the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate. Often confounded with 

Neasden, the 15th stall on the left side of the choir. 

A small estate in the parish of Willesden, divided from the 
original manor about 11 50. Sometimes written Heston, or 

Newington, the i6th stall on the left side. 
The parish of Stoke Newington, in Middlesex. 

OxGATE, the 13th stall on the right side. 

A division of Wfllesden. See above, Mapesbury, etc. It was 
held by Nicholas " Crocemannus" in the beginning of the twelfth 
century and by his son, another Nicholas, in 11 50 at the time of 
the constitution " de pane et cervisio." 

Pancras, or St. Pancras, the 6th stall on the left side. 
Part of the parish of St. Pancras. 

PORTPOOL, the 8th stall on the right side. 

In the parish of St Andrew's, Holbom. It is now known as 
Gray's Inn. 

Reculverland, the 7th stall on the left side. 

Like Wedland and Ealdland, a manor in the parish of TiUingham 
in Essex. St. Thomas of Canterbury sat in this stall. The holding 
is called after his successor Hugh de Reculver, probably a Kentish 

RUGMERE, the 17th stall on the right side. 

The modem parishes of St. Giles, and St George, Bloomsbury. 
probably called from a mere or pond, on the ridge of the hill, 
drained by Bleomimd's Dyke. 


Sneating, the 14th stall on the right side. 

In the parish of Kirkby or Kirby le Soken, near Colchester in 

ToTTENHALL, or TOTTENHAM, the 4th Stall on the left side. 

In the parish of St. Pancras. It was held by the deans for a 

TwYFORD, the nth stall on the right side. 

Part of the divided parish of Willesden, now East Twyford. 
The " ford " was over the river Brent. 

WEDLAND, or WiLDLAND, or WiLDERLAND, the 8th stall 

on the left side. 
A manor in the parish of Tillingham, near Maldon in Essex. 

Wenlocksbarn, the 15th stall on the right side. 

In the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate. I have found no clue 
to the name, which is sometimes written Wenlakesbarn. 

WiLLESDEN, otherwise Bowlness, or BouNS, the 12th stall 

on the left side. 

A part of the original manor, which comprised the whole parish, 
divided in or about 1 150. The whole had been previously devoted 
to the provision of bread and beer, as mentioned in the Domesday 





Landoa: £ihnid Sunford-MQiaiiigGrau. 







( 367 ) 



JVb/e on Wards and Parishes (Chapter VI.). 

I have said that the division of the city into estates or holdings 
was apparently older than the division into parishes. In another 
place I have dated the settlement of the ward boundaries as having 
occurred when Sir Ralph Sandwich was governor of the city. The 
parish boundaries seem to have been fixed at a very early period. 
They seldom coincide with the ward boundaries, but the two 
systems are wholly independent of each other, as may be seen by 
a glance at the map. 

It is difficult to put this problem in a clear light without over 
stating the case. But the following notes may be taken for 
what they are worth: — 

1. The earliest division of the city was into sokes, estates or 
holdings, and these holdings developed on the one hand into 
parishes, and on the other into wards. 

2. But, though the ward of Bassishaw is nearly the same as the 
parish of St. Michael, no other parish is conterminous with a ward. 

3. The boundaries of parishes are determined by the backs of 
the houses. The boundaries of the wards are determined by the 
direction of main lines of thoroughfare. 

4. The wards were defined after the main thoroughfares had been 
opened. Thus the boundary between the wards of Cripplegate and 
Bread Street runs along Cheapside, and cuts off portions of the 
two adjacent parishes of St Peter's and St. Mary Magdalene. The 
boundary between Bread Street and Queenhithe, again, runs along 
the course of Old Fish Street, and crosses the parishes of 
St. Nicholas Cole Abbey and St. Mildred. 

5. The date of the fixture of the present ward boundaries must 
be near the end of the thirteenth century. It was made after the 
old Guildhall in Aldermanbury was abandoned for the present site, 


and in fixing the boundary of the ward of Cheap it was made to 
include the Guildhall, which was then only 130 feet long. The 
modem Guildhall is 153 feet long, and its eastern end is not in the 
ward of Cheap but in that of Bassishaw, and not in the parish of 
St. Lawrence but in that of St. Michael. We know that the Guild- 
hall was on the present site before 1294, because the Guildhall 
yard is described as being on the eastern side of St Lawrence^ 
church in the deed of that year by which the advowson was given 
to Balliol College.** But the ward of Cheap was not defined as h 
is now in 1273, because Walter Hervey, who was alderman of 
Cheap, assembled his supporters in the church of St. Peter. This 
church, which apparently was then in his ward, is now in that of 
Bread Street. There are other reasons, some of which are stated 
in the text, for choosing 1290 for the definition of the modem ward 
boundaries, and probably many facts might be found of the same 
character as these relating to St. Peter's and the Guildhal!, all 
tending to confirm the correctness of this date. 

6. Some parishes are in no fewer than three wards. St. Mary 
Magdalene, Old Fish Street, for example, is in Castle Baynard, 
Queenhithe, and Bread Street. St. Peter's, referred to above, is 
now in Farringdon Within, Cripplegate, and Bread Street 

7. The Watling Street, running diagonally through the market 
place from St Mary Aldermary to St. Michael le Queme, seems to 
have been wholly obliterated and abandoned by the arrangement 
of the booths. This may have been in consequence of the great fire 
of 1 1 36, but Mr. T. Godfrey Faussett observed a similar abandon- 
ment of Roman lines at Canterbury : and the fact has been adduced 
to prove that London and Canterbury lay vacant after the Saxon 
invasion. The old line is, however, preserved along Budge Row, 
before the market place is entered, and in Newgate Street, after it 
has been passed. From the parochial boundaries on the south 
side of Newgate Street it will be evident that the houses were buih 
along a line which went diagonally from Cheap to Newgate, and 
was, in fact, the line of Watling Street In Cheap itself, on the 
contrary, the parochial boundaries seem rather to respect the main 
roads north and south which lead to Cripplegate and Aldersgate 
from Queenhithe, of which Bread Street is an example. It foQows» 
therefore, that at the time the parochial boundaries were settled, 
the original Watling Street was still in use at Newgate, but had 
been lost in Cheap. This accords very well with what we know of 

* See Historical MSS. Commission, Fourth Report, p. 449. 

APPENDIX F. - 369 

the parochial history of Cheap. As long as it was covered with 
booths or other temporary structures, or was wholly open, as at the 
Standard, it was probably reckoned only in the two parishes of 
St. Peter and St. Mary Aldermary. Subsequently smaller parishes 
were formed. St. Mary le Bow was built in the middle of the 
market place : and from its name evidently dates after the intro- 
duction of stone buildings and of vaulting. St. Mary Colechurch 
was also cut off, and St Mary Abchurch. St Mildred's must also 
be reckoned a late dedication — ^late that is, as compared with such 
dedications as St Peter's or St Mary's, and St. Pancras id probably 
the same. I should, in fact, be disposed to think the original 
parish of St. Mary reached as far north as St Mary Aldermanbury, 
and St Mary Staining ; the latter, if " staining " refers to stone 
building, being probably late, and the intervening parish of 
St Alban being undoubtedly of an ascertained age, and dating after 
the grant of the parish to St Alban's Abbey by Offa. We thus find 
a great parish of St Mary, the parish church of which appropriately 
still bears the name of Aldermary, containing within its limits, 
besides later foundations dedicated to other saints— one of them 
being to St Mary Magdalene — ^no fewer than six dedications of the 
same name as that of the mother church. On the opposite side of 
the Wallbrook is another great parish of St. Mary similarly broken 
up into St Mary Woolchurch, St Mary Woolnoth, and St Mary 
Bothaw. Which of these was the mother church is unknown. 
St. Mary Woolchurch was, we know (Newcourt, i. 459), built aftw 
the Conquest : and it is very possible that these three parishes were 
also part of St Mary Aldermary at the other side of the Wallbrook, 
for St Mildred's parish was on both sides, as was St Stephens. 

8. The thirteen peculiars of the archbishop of Canterbury seem 
in most cases to have been late foundations. Does this point to any 
interference of an archbishop to build additional churches after, 
say, a fire? These peculiars are :— St Mary le Bow, All Hallows 
Lombard Street, St. Mary Aldermary, St. Pancras Soper Lane, 
All Hallows Bread Street, St John the Baptist, St. Dunstan in 
the East, St. Mary Bothaw, St Vedast, St. Dionis, St. Michael 
Crooked Lane, St Leonard Eastcheap, and St. Michael Paternoster. 
Several are in and about Cheap. The dedications of St. Dunstan's, 
St Dionis, and St. Vedast are comparatively modem. 

9. It is interesting to find examples in which the boundaries of 
wards or of parishes, as at Guildhall, are made to take in or leave 
out certain buildings or holdings. The parish of St. Leonard in 
its rectangular irregularity gives us the ground plan of the old 

VOL. II. 2 B 


monastery of St. Martin le Grand. Therefore St Martin was 
already founded when the parochial boundaries were settled. So, 
too, there is a " hvlge " in the ward boundary to take in the outwork 
of the fortified gate : but no corresponding " bulge " at Ludgate, 
where the gate itself was inconsiderable. The parish boundary of 
St. Peter le Poor takes in Drapers' Hall and garden, but excludes 
those of the Carpenters. I venture to suggest that a complete 
study of the ward and parish boimdaries would repay the 

lo. The modem Watling Street is old enough for us to have lost 
all trace of its documentary history. But as it does not form a 
boundary, I venture to think we should be justified in concluding 
that, comparatively speaking, it is a new street, at least in the 
western part of its course. The Roman road of that name must 
have emerged from Cheap near the south gate of St Martin le 
Grand. The new Watling Street may have been diverted into its 
present course when the east end of Old > St Paul's was baih, 
perhaps in the early part of the thirteenth century. Documentary 
evidence only begins with the end of that century. 

The above ten points are all overlaid with conjecture. But I 
venture to think they are worth recording as at least suggestions 
for the use of some future archaeologist 

The accompanying map represents part of Cheap as it may have 
been before buildings were erected on the lines of booths. I should 
have been disposed to omit all the churches except St Mary 
Aldermary and St Peter. But on consideration I have retained 
them, partly as landmarks, partly because it is impossible to fix the 
date of their foundation with more certainty than that indicated 
above in paragraph 7. The ward boundary at the north-eastern 
corner of St. Paul's is worth noting, showing as it does the 
diagonal course of the original Watling Street, where it emerges 
from Cheap and cuts off the comer of St Paul's Churchyard. The 
modem Newgate Street does not strictly follow the original line of 
the Roman road, but runs across it, a little to the south in the 
greater part of its course. The line of Bread Street was determined 
by the roadway through the market to Cripplegate, by way of 
Wood Street, a line which must be coeval with the opening of the 
gate. I am almost sure that the field, *'the Crown Field," some^ 
times mentioned as adjoining St. Mary le Bow, is a misreading of 
<' feld " for *' seld," and that there was no field, but a shop or shed 
on this spot. 

( 371 ) 


List o/MemBers for 'Westminster City. 

I Edward VL 

1547. Geoigius Blage, miles. 
Johannes Rede, 

1552-3. Robertus Sowthwell, 
Arthurus Sturton, 

I Mary. 

1553. Robertus Smalwood* 
Willielmus Gyes, 

' 5 S3"4« Willielmus Geys. 
Ricardus Hodges. 

I & 2 Philip and Mary, 

1554. Willielmus Jenynges, 

Willielmus Guyes, 

1555. Arthurus Sturton. 
Ricardus Hodgies. 

^557- jNicholaus Newdygate, 
tjohannes Beaste, 

I Elizaheth, 

155^9- Richard Hodgea. 
John 9est, gent 

1562-3- JRobert Nowell, 
esq. ^ 
jWilliam Bowyer, esq. 

* Return defaced. 

t Names with (f) prefixed are supplied fix>in the Crown Office List in 
the absence of Original Returns. 

X Names, &c., with (J) prefixed are supplied froip the Crown Oflfice 
lists (of which there are five for this Parliament) in the absence of Original 

2 B 2 



1572. ^Thomas Wilbraham, 
•John Dodington, gent 
♦John Osborne, gent., 
vice Thomas Wil- 
braham, esq., de- 

1586. JRobert Cecyll, esq. 
{Thomas Knevett 

1588 Thomas Knevit, 
(and esq. 
1588-9). Peter Osborne, esq. 

1592-3. Richard Cecill, esq. 
Thomas Cole, gent. 

1597. Thomas Knevit, esq. 
Thomas Cole, gent 

1 601. Sir Thomas Knevet, 
William Cooke, esq. 

I James L 

1603-4. Sir Thomas Knevet, 
Sir Walter Cope, knt 

1 620-1. Sir Edward VUliers, 
William Mann, esq. 

1623-4. Sir Edward Villiers, 
William Man, esq. 

I Charles/. 

1625. Sir Edward Villiers, 
William Man, esq. 

1625-6. JSir^ Robert Pye, 
JPeter Heywood, esq. 

1627-8. t Joseph Bradshawe, 
^Thomas Morris, esq. 

1640. John Glenn, esq. 
(Apr.) William Bell, gent 

1640. Long Parliament. 
(Nov.) John Gl)mn, esq. 
William BeU, gent 



13 Charles II. 



* Names, &c, with (*) prefixed are supplied firom the Crown Ofike 
Lists (of which there are three) in the ahsence of Original Returns. 

t Crown Office List No. 2. 

X Names, &c., with (t) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List in the absence of Original Returns. 

§ The SherifiTs Precept, ordering two citizens to be returned, and a 
fragment of the Return. 

I No Return found ; the names of Sir Philip Warwicke, knt, and 
Sir Richard Everard, knt, are found in a list among Lord Denbigh's 



1678-9. Sir Stephen Fox, 
Sir William Poultney, 

1679. Sir William Pulteney, 
Sir WiUiam Waler, 

1 680-1. Sir William Pulteney, 
Sir William Waller, 

I James IL 

1685. Charles Bonython, esq. 
Michael Arnold, esq. 

Convention. 1688-9. 

1688-9. Sir William Poultney, 
Philip Howard, esq. 

2 William and Mary. 

1689-90. Sir William Pul- 
teney, knt 

Sir Walter Clarges, 

Sir Stephen Fox, knt, 
vice Sir William 
Poultney, knt, de- 

7 William III. 

1695. Charles Mountague, 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt 

1698. Charles Mountagu, esq. 
James Vernon, esq. 

1 700-1. James Vernon, esq. 
Thomas Crosse, esq. 

1701. James Vernon, esq. 
Sir Henry Button Colt, 


X Anne., 

1702. Sir Walter Clargis, 

Thomas Crosse, esq. 

1705. (First Parliament of 
Great Britain). 

Henry Boyle, esq. 

Sir Henry Dutton Colt, 

Henry Boyle, esq., re- 
elected on appoint- 
ment as one of the 
Principal Secretaries 
of State. 

1708. Henry Boyle, esq. 
Thomas Medlicott, 

1 7 10. Thomas Medlycott, 
esq.. Steward of 

Thomas Crosse, esq. 

Thomas Medlycott, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment to an 
office of profit by 
the Crown. 



17 13. Sir Thomas Crosse, 
Thomas Medlycot, 
esq., steward of 

z George I. 

X7I4-IS. Edward Wortley, 
Sir Thomas Crosse, 

1722. Archibald Hutcheson, 

John Cotton, esq. 

Charles Mountagae, 
esq., and George 
Baron Carpenter of 
the kingdom of Ire- 
land, vice Archibald 
Hutcheson, esq., 
and John Cotton, 
esq., whose election 
was declared void. 

I George IL 

1727. Charles Cavendish, 
esq., commonly 

called Lord Charles 
William Clayton, esq. 

1734. Sir Charles Wager, 
William Clayton, esq. 

1741. William Lord Sundon, 
of the kingdom of 

Sir Charles Wager, 

John Perceval, esq., 
commonly called 
Lord Viscount Per- 
ceval, and Charles 
Edwin, esq., via 
' William Lord Smi> 
don, of the kingdom 
of Ireland, and Sir 
Charles Wager, knt, 
whose election was 
declared void. 

1747. Granville Leveson 
Gower, esq., com- 
monly called Lord 
Viscount Trentham. 
Sir Peter Warren, knt 
of the bath. 

Granville Leveson 
Gower, esq., com 
monly called Lord 
Viscount Trentham, 
re-elected after ap- 
pointment as one of 
the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Ad- 

Edward Comwallis, 
esq., via Sir Peter 
Warren, knt of the 
bath, deceased. 

1754. Edward Comwallis* 
Sir John Crosse, bait 



I George III. 

1761. William Pulteney, esq., 
commonly caUed 
Lord Viscount Pul- 

Edward Comwallis, 

Edward Sandys, esq., 
vice Edward Com- 
wallis, esq., ap- 
pointed Governor of 

Hugh Percy, esq., 
commonly called 
Lord Warkworth, 
vice William Pul- 
teney, esq., com- 
monly called Lord 
Viscount Pulteney, 

1 7 68. Hugh Percy, commonly 
called Earl Percy. 

Edwin Sandys, esq. 

Sir Robert Bernard, 
bart, vice Edwin 
Sandys, called to the 
Upper House as 
Lord Sandys. 

1774. Hugh Percy, commonly 
called Earl Percy. 

Thomas Pelham Clin- 
ton, commonly called 
Lord Thomas Pel- 
ham Clinton. 

Charles Stanhope, com- 
monly called Lord 


Viscount Petersham, 
vice Hugh Percy, 
commonly called 
Earl Percy, called 
to the Upper House 
as Baron de Percy. 
George Capel, com- 
monly cdled Lord 
Viscount Maiden, 
vice Charles Stan- 
hope, commonly call- 
ed Lord Viscount 
Petersham, called to 
the Upper House as 
Earl of Harrington. 

1780. Sir George Brydges 
Rodney, bart 

Charles James Fox, 

Sir Cecil Wray, bart., 
vice Sir George 
Bridges Rodney, 
bart, called to the 
Upper House as 
Baron Rodney, of 
Rodney Stoke, 

county Somerset 

Charles James Fox, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment as one 
of the Principal 
Secretaries of State 

Charles James Fox, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment as one 
of the Principal 



Secretaries of State 

1784. Sir Samuel Hood, , 1802. 
bart, Baron Hood 
of Ireland.* 
Charles James Fox, 

John Townshend, com- 
monly called Lord 
John Townshend, 
vice Samuel Lord 
Hood, appointed 
one of the Lords 
Commissioners of 
the Admiralty. 

1790. Charles James Fox, 

Sir Samuel Hood, bart, 
Baron Hood of the 
kingdom of Ireland. 

/First Parliament 
OF THE United 
Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ire- 
land [1801]. 

Charles James Fox, 





Vice-Admiral Sir Alan 
Gardner, bart. 

Charles James Fox, 

Alan Lord Gardner. 

Charles James Fox, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment as one 
of the Principal 
Secretaries of State. 

Hugh Percy, com- 
monly called Earl 
Percy, vice Charles 
James Fox, esq., 

Richard Brinsley Sheri- 
dan, esq. 

Sir Samuel Hood, knt. 
of the bath. 

Thomas Cochrane, 
commonly called. 
Lord Cochrane. 

Sir Francis Burdett, 

Sir Francis Burdett, 

• The Baiaff of Westminster certified, on 17 May, 1784, that a poll 
had been taken from day to day, from 9 to 3, from i Apiil to 17 April, 
on which day the numbers stood : for Sir Samuel Hood, bart.. Baron 
Hood, of the kingdom of Ireland, 6,694 ; for Charles James Fox, esq., 
6,233 ; and for Sir Cecil Wray, bart, 5,998, and that a scrutiny had been 
demanded on behalf of Sir Cecil Wray. By Order of the Hous^ the 
scrutiny was brought to a close on 3 March, 1785, and the Bailiff retuni«d» 
on 4 March, 1785, as the result of the scrutiny, that Sir Samuel Hood^ 
bart. Baron Hood, of the kingdom of Ireland, and Charles James Fos, 
esq., were elected. 



Sir Thomas Cochrane, 
knt. of the bath, 
commonly called 
Lord Cochrane. 

Sir Thomas Cochrane, 
knt of the bath, 
commonly called 
Lord Cochrane, re- 
elected after having 
been expeUed the 

1818. Sir Samuel RomiUy, 

Sir Francis Burdett, 

George Lamb, esq., 
vice Sir Samuel 
Romilly, knt, de- 

I George IV. 

1820. Sir Francis Burdett, 
John Cam Hobhouse, 

1826. Sir Francis Burdett, 
John Cam Hobhouse, 

I WUliam IV. 

1830. Sir Francis Burdett, 
John Cam Hobhouse, 


1 83 1. Sir Francis Burdett, 
John Cam Hobhouse, 

Sir John Cam Hob- 
house, bart., re- 
elected after appoint- 
ment as Secretary at 

1833. Sir Francis Burdett, 

Sir John Cam Hob- 
house, bart. 

Sir John Cam Hob- 
house, bart., re- 
elected afler appoint- 
ment as Chief Secre- 
tary to the Lord 
Lieutenant of Ire- 

Lieut-Col. De Lacy 
Evans, vice Sir John 
Cam Hobhouse, 
bart, who accepted 
the Stewardship of 
the Chiltem Hun- 
dreds, county Bucks. 

1835. Sir Francis Burdett, 

Colonel De Lacy 

Sir Francis Burdett, 
bart., re-elected 
after accepting the 
Stewardship of the 
Chiltem Hundreds, 
county Bucks. 



I Victoria. 

1837. Colonel De Lacy 
John Temple Leader, 

1841. John Temple Leader, 

Henry John Rous, 
Captain R.N. 

Sir De Lacy Evans, 
K.C.B., vice Henry 
John Rous, esq., 
appointed one of the 
Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty. 

1847. Major- Gen. Sir De 
Lacy Evans, K.C.B. 
Charles Lushington, 

1852. Sir John ViUiers 
Shelley, bart. 
Sir De Lacy Evans. 

1857. Lieut.-Gen. Sir De 
Lacy Evans, g.cb. 
Sir John ViUiers 
Shelley, bart. 

1859. General Sir De Lacy 
Evans, g.cb. 
Sir John Villiers 
Shelley, bart. 

1865. Robert Wellesley Gros- 
venor, esq. 
John Stuart Mill, esq. 

1868. Robert Wellesley Gros- 
venor, esq. 
William Henry Smith, 

1874. Sir Charles Russell, 

William Henry Smith, 

William Henry Smith, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment as First 
Lord of the Admi- 

1880. Right Hon. W. H. 

Sir C. Russell, bart. 
Lord A. Percy, vice Sir 

C. Russell, bart 

( 379 ) 



Members of Parliament for Southwark. 

23 Edward /. 

1295. Ricardus le Clerk. 
Willielmus Dynnock. 

1298. Hugo de Jememue. 

Ricardus de Dunlegh'. 

1300-X. Hugo de Dyneneton'. 
Henricus de Dunlegh'. 

1302. Petrus le Lung*. 
Thomas Ywon. 

1304-3. Ricardus le Clerc. 
Rogerus le Poleter. 

1306-7. Hugo de Gememue. 
Johannes de Prikin- 

I Edward IL 

1307. Nicholaus de Aulton'. 
Johannes de Maldon'. 

1309. Nicholaus de Alton'. 
Nicholaus Deumars. 


1 3 1 1 . Nicholaus de Aulton'. 
(Aug.) Johannes le V3meter. 

1 3 1 1. Nicholaus de Aulton'. 
(Nov.) Johannes le Vyneter. 

13 1 2-1 3. Johannes le Vyneter. 
Radulphus le Avener. 

13 13. Thomas Jon. 
(July). Walterus de Taggele. 

1 3 13. Johannes le Vyneter. 
(Sep.) Nicholaus de Aulton'. 

1319. Adam Chandeler. 
Willielmus Rikethom. 

1320. Adam le Chaundeler. 
Willielmus Rikthom. 

1322. Robertus Oliver. 
(May). Willielmus de Rike- 

1322. Willielmus • 
(Nov.) Henricus le Smith. 

torn off. 



1323-4- Waltenis le Poleter. 
Willielmus le Brewere. 

1325. (Ricardus ?) de 

Thomas Fairher. 

2 Edward III. 

1327-8. Thomas Coleman. 
Thomas Fairher, or 

1328. Thomas Coleman. 
(Apr.) Thomas Fairher. 

1328 and 1328-9. Thomas 
Thomas Fairher. 

1329-33. Ricardus de 
Henricus le Fevre. 

1330. Willielmus Roce. 
Thomas Coleman. 

1 33 1-2. Willielmus Rosce. 
Thomas Coleman. 

1332. Willielmus Rosce. 
(Sep.) Thomas Coleman. 

1332. Thomas Coleman. 
(Dec.) Willielmus Quyvre. 

1333-4, Thomas Coleman. 
WiUielmus Quyvre. 

1334- Galfridus Pocok'. 

Robertus de Staunford'. 

^335- Johannes de Wynton'. 
Rogerus de Ardeme. 

133S-6. Thomas Aude. 
Thomas Coleman. 

1336. Rogerus de Ardeme. 
Galfridus Fecok. 

1337. Thomas Coleman. 
Galfridus Pecok'. 

1337-8. Alanus Ferthyng*. 
Robertus Hamond'. 

. 1338-9. Galfridus Pccok'. 
Alanus Ferthyng*. 

i339"40« Thomas Coleman. 
Alanus Ferthyng*. 

1340. Thomas Coleman. 
Thomas Ande. 

1341. Galfridus Pecok'. 
Thomas Coleman. 

1344. Galfridus Pecok. 
Thomas Coleman. 

1346. Alanus Ferthyng'. 

Robertus de Staunford. 

1348. Alanus Ferthyng*. 
Galfridus Pecok*. 

1350-1. Willielmus atte Fen- 
Elias de Braghhyngge. 

1354. Elias de Braghyngge. 
Thomas de Kyngeston'- 

t Return illegible. 



I3SS- Elias de Braghyngge. 
Thomas de Kyngeston'. 

1357-8. Elias de Braghjmg'. 
Thomas de Kyngeston'. 

1360. Simon Plomer. 

Johamies de ELales. 

1 360-1. Simon Plomer. 

Thomas de Kyngeston'. 

1362. Johannes Mockyng. 
Johannes Hales. 

1363. Johannes Halys. 
Thomas atte Lande. 

1364-5. Johannes Folvill'. 
Johannes Mockyng. 

1366. Robertus Rifi^. 
Johannes Folvyll'. 

1368. Willielmus Chitterle. 
Thomas Hosyere. 

1369. *Simon de Codyngton*. 
•Radulphus Thurbarn*. 

1371. Thomas Dane. 

1372. Johannes Spershore. 
Thomas Gyle. 

1373. Willielmus de Malton'. 
Thomas Hosiere. 

1375-6. Thomas Croydon'. 
Henricus Bailly. 

 Names, &c, with (♦) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of 
Writs de Expends {see Rot. Claus., 43 Edw. III., m. 13 d.), in the absence 
of Original Returns. 

1376-7. Thomas Hosyere, 
Thomas Hosyere, {sic), 

I Richard IL 

1377. Willielmus Wyntiyng- 

Robertus Bykford*. 

1378. Williehnus Chylderlee. 
Henricus Baylly. 

1379-80. Thomas Corkesey. 
Adam Pulter. 

1380. Galfridus Whiteclef . 
Thomas Torkesey. 

1 38 1. Johannes Mockyngge. 
Stephanus Halys. 

1382. Johannes Mockygn*. 
Stephanus Halys. 

1382-3. Rogerus Chaundeler. 
Ricardus Hurde. 

1383. Johannes Burgeys. 
Robertus Barbor. 

1384. Stephanus Skynnere. 
(Apr.) Thomas Spicer. 

1384. Thomas atte Gyle. 
(Nov.) Thomas Torkeseye. 

1385. Ricardus Nevyle. 
Johannes Kyrkeby. 



1386. Henricus Thymelby. 
Willielmus Beeche. 

1387-8. Johannes Nor- 
Willielmus Porter. 

1388. Ricardus atte Vyne. 
Rogerus Chaundellor. 

1 389-90, Johannes Mockyng*. 
Willielmus Wynteryng- 

1391. Willielmus Spaldyng*.* 

X 392-3, Thomas Solas. 
Johannes Solas. 

I394-5- Johannes Mockyng*. 
Thomas Solas. 

1396-7. Johannes Mokkyng*. 
Thomas atte Gyle. 

1397 and 1397-8. Johannes 
Willielmus Derby. 

I Henry IV. 

1399. Johannes Parker. 

Radulphus Spaldyng*. 

1402. Johannes Mokkynge. 
Johannes Go&jrre. 

1405-6. Thomas Spenser. 
Johannes Bakere. 

1407. Johannes Dekene. 
Thomas Coleman. 

2 Henry Vi 

1413-14. tjohannes Wellys. 
tjohannes William. 

1 4 1 4. Johannes Solas. 
Willielmus Kyrton*. 

1415. Williehnus Redeston'. 
Thomas Spenser. 

14 1 7. Willielmus Kyrton'. 
Johannes Dekene. 

1419. Robertus Willyam. 
Johannes Welles. 

1420. Johannes Dekene. 
Willielmus Kyrton'. 

142 1. Johannes Dekene. 
(May). Willielmus Redston'. 

142 1. Thomas Lucas. 
(Dec) Thomas Dewy. 

1422. Willielmus Kyrton*. 
Ricardus Tyler. 

2 Henry VL 

1423. Rogerus Overton'. 
Johannes Gloucestre. 

* Name torn oC 

t Names, &c., with (f) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis {see Rot Clans., 2 Hen. V., m. 20 d.), in the absence of 
Original Returns. 




1425. [Ricardus] Tyler • 

[Willielmus] Kyrton'. 

1425-6. Willielmus Godyng*. 
Rogerus Overton*. 

1427. Henricus Purchas. 
Petrus Saverey. 

1429. Adam Levelord'. 

Willielmus Hawkes- 

1 430-1. Johannes Wellys. 
Willielmus Moyle. 

1432. Adam Levelord'. 

Willielmus Hawkes- 

1433- Willielmus Hawkes- 
Nicliolaus Preest 

1435. Adam Levelord*. 

Willielmus Hawkes- 

1436-7. Adam Levelord. 
Willielmus Brygges. 

1 44 1-2. Adam Levelord'. 
Willielmus Kyrton*. 

1446-7. Adam Levelord'. 
Willielmus Redston'. 

144S-9. Johannes Rokesle. 
Johannes Gloucestre. 

1449. Willielmus Kyrketon'. 
Willielmus Redeston*. 

1450. Willielmus Kyrketon' 
Johannes Pemberton*. 

1452-3. Willielmus Philipp'. 
Willielmus Biygge. 

1459. Alexander Fayreford', 

Thomas Wyng. 

1460. WilHelmus Kyrton'. 
Rogerus Palmer. 

7 Edward IV. 

1467. Ricardus Tyngelden. 
Johannes Hunt 

1472. Robertus Levelord. 
Thomas Averey. 

1477-8. Nicholaus Gayne& 
ford, armiger. 
Johannes Holgrave. 

21 Henry VI I L 

1599. Johannes Sylsteme, 
Robertus Acton. 

1541-2. Robertus Acton, 
Thomas Bulla. 

I Edward VI. 

1547. Johannes Gate, miles. 
Ricardus Fulmerstone, 

^ Names doabtfal. See former Returns. 



1552-3. Johannes Eston, 
Johannes Sayer, 

I Mary, 

1554. * Johannes Eston, 
(Apr.) armiger. 

•Johannes Sawyer. 

I 6* 2 Philip and Maty, 

1554- Johannes t 
(Nov.) t 

iS5S« Johannes Eston, 
Humfridus Collect 

i557-8.{ Johannes Eston, 
Robertus Freeman, 

I Elizabeth, 

1558-9. John Eston, esq, 

Robert Freeman, gent. 

1562-3. §Thomas Cure. 
§01iflf Burr, gcnL 

1572. llOliff Burr, gent 

UThomas Way, gent 

1584. Thomas Waye. 
Richard Hutton. 

1586. YThomas Cure, esq. 
^Richard Hutton, 

1588 and 1588-9. ••Richard 
Hutton, esq. 
••William Pratt, gent 

1592-3. Hugh Browker, esq., 
of Southwark. 
Richard Hutton, gent, 
of SouthwarL 

1597. Edmund Boweyer, esq. 
Richard Hutton, gent 

1 60 1. Matthew Dale, esq. 

Zachariah Locke, esq. 

* Names, &c., with (*) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, in the absence of Original Returns. 

t Returns defaced. 

X Names with {%) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office List, in 
the absence of Original Returns. 

§ Names, &c., with (§) prefixed are supplied fix>m the Crown Office 
Lists (of which there are five for this Parliament), in the absence of 
Original Returns. 

Q Names, &c., with (|1) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
Lists (of which there are three), in the absence of Original Returns. 

^ Names, &&, with (IF) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, in the absence of Original Returns. 

** Names, &c., with {**) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, in the absence of Original Returns. 



I James L 

1603-4. (•George Rivers).t 

(•William Cownden).t 

William Mayhewe, 

gent, of Southwark, 

vice William Cown- 

den, deceased. 

1620-r. Richard Yarwood, 
esq., of the parish of 
St Saviour's, South- 
Robert Bromfeild, esq., 
of the parish of St 
Saviour's, Southwark. 

1623-4. Richard Yerwood, 
esq., of Southwark. 

Robert Bromfeilde, 
esq., of Southwark. 

Francis Myngaye, esq., 
of Southwark. 

Richard Yerwood, esq., 
of Southwark. 

({Robert Bromfeilde, 
esq.), vice Francis 
Myngaye, esq., and 
Robert Bromfeilde, 

esq., whose election 
was declared void. 

I Charles I. 

1625. Richard Yearwood, esq., 
of Southwark. 
§(William Coxe, esq.) || 

1625-6. Richard Yearwood, 
esq., of Southwark. 
William Cox, esq., of 

1627-8. Richard Yarwood, 
esq., of Southwark. 
William Coxe, esq., of 

1640. Robert Holborne, esq. 
(Apr.) Richard Tuffnell, gent 

1640. (Long Parliament.) 
Edward Bagshawe, esq. 
John White, esq. 
f George Thompson, 

TGeorge Snellinge, esq. 

Oliver Cromwell. 
1654. Samuel Hyland, esq. 
Robert Warrcupp, esq. 

 Names with (•) prefixed have been taken from Kipling's Index to the 
Parliamentary Returns, in the absence of Original Returns. 

t There is an illegible Return, which is probably for Southwark. 

X Names, &c, with (J) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, in the absence of Original Returns. 

§ Names, &c., with (§) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, in the absence of Original Returns. 

Q Return torn. 

t Names, &c, with (5) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, which professes to have been " taken in the year 1643, or there- 
abouts," in the absence of Original Returns. 

VOL. IL . 2 C 



22 Char Us II. 

x66o. John Langham, esq. 

Thomas Blud worth, esq, 

1 66 1. (Long or Pensionary 


Sir Thomas Bludworth, 

George Moore, esq. 

Sir Thomas Clarges, 
knt, vice George 
Moore, esq., de- 

1678-9. Sir. Richard How, 
Peter Rich, esq. 

1679. Sir Richard How, knt. 
Peter Rich, esq. 

1 680-1. Sir Richard How, 
Peter Rich, esq. 

I James II. 

1685. Sir Peter Daniel, knt 
Anthony Bowyer, esq 

1 688, (Convention.) 

Sir Peter Rich, knt 
John Arnold, esq. 

9 William and Mary. 

1689-90. Anthony Bowyer, 
John Arnold, esq. 

7 WiUiam IIL 

1695. Anthony Bowyer, esq. 
Charles Cox, gent 

1698. Charles Cox, esq. 
John Cholmley, esq. 

1700-1701. Charles Cox, esq. 
John Cholmley, esq. 

1701. Charles Cox, esq. 
John Cholmley, esq. 

I Anne. 

1702. Charles Cox, esq. 
John Cholmley, esq. 
John Cholmley, esq., 

and Charles Cox, 
esq., re-elected ; 
their previous elec- 
tion having been 
declared void. 

1705. (First Parliament 
OF Great Britain). 
John Cholmley, esq. 
Charles Cox, Esq. 

1708. Charles Cox, esq. 

John Cholmley, esq. 

1710. Sir Charles Cox, knt 
John Cholmley, esq. 
Sir Geoige Matthews, 
knt, vice John 
Cholmley, esq., de- 

* Return amended by Order of the Hoose, dated 7 Febraaiy, 17x1-12, 
bjr erasing the name of Edmnnd Halsey, esq., and sabttitutiiig Chat of 
Sir George Mathews, knt 



1 7 13* John Lade, esq. 

Fisher Tench, esq. 

John Lade, esq., and 
Fisher Tench, esq., 
re - elected, their 
former election 

having been declared 

X GeargjtL 

1714-15. John Lade, esq. 
Fisher Tench, esq. 

1722. Geoige Meggott, esq. 

Edmund Halsey, esq. 

John Lade, esq., vice 
George Meggott, 
esq., deceased. 

I George IL 

1727. Edward Halsey, esq. 
Sir Joseph Eyles, knt 
Thomas Juwen, esq., 
2/iVvEdmund Halsey, 
esq., deceased. 

1734. Thomas Inwen, esq. 
Geoige Heathcote, esq. 

1 741. Thomas Inwen, esq. 

Ralph Thrale, esq. 

Alexander Hume, esq., 
vUeThamzs Inwen, 
esq., deceased. 

1747. Alexander Hume, esq. 
\raiiam Belchier, esq. 

1754* William Belchier, esq. 
William Hanmioxid, 

X George I IL 

X76i« Alexander Hume, esq. 

Joseph Mawbey, esq. 

Henry Thrale, esq., 
vice Alexander 

Hume, esq., de- 

1768. Sir Joseph Mawbey, 
Heniy Thrale, esq. 

X774. Nathaniel Folhill, esq. 
Henry Thrale, esq. 

X780. Sir Richard Hotham, 
Nathaniel Folhill, esq. 
Henry Thornton, esq., 
vice Nathaniel Fol- 
hill, esq., deceased. 

1784. Henry Thornton, esq. 
Sir Barnard Turner, 

Faul le Mesurier, esq., 

vice Sir Barnard 

Turner, knt 

X790. Henry Thornton, esq. 
Faul le Mesurier, esq. 

1796 (Farliament OF Grsat 
Britain, afterwards 
in 1 80 1 declared to be 
First Farliament 

2 c 2 



OF THE United 

I So I. Henry Thornton, esq. 
George Woodford 

Thellusson, esq. 
George Tiemey, esq., 
vies George Wood- 
ford Thelusson, esq., 
whose election was 
declared void 

1802. Henry Thornton, esq. 

George Tiemey, esq. 

George Tiemey, esq., 
re-elected after ap- 
pointment as Trea- 
surer of the Navy. 

1806. Sir Thomas Turton, 

Henry Thornton, esq. 

1807. Sir Thomas Turton, 

Henry Thornton, esq. 

1 8 1 2. Charles Calvert, esq. 

Henry Thornton, esq. 

Charles Barclay, esq., 
vice Henry Thornton, 
esq., deceased. 

1 8 18. Charles Calvert, esq. 
Sir Robert Wilson, knt. 

I George IV. 
1820. Charles Calvert, esq. 

Sir Robert Thomas 
Wilson, knt 

1826. Charles Calvert, esq. 
Sir Robert Thomas 
Wilson, knt. 

I Wiiliam IV. 

1830. John Rawlinson Harris, 


Lieut.-Gen. Sir Robert 
Thomas Wilson, knt. 

Charles Calvert, esq., 
vice John Rawlin- 
son Harris, esq., 

1831. Charles Calvert, esq. 
William Brougham, 


1833, William Brougham, 
John Humphery, esq. 

1835. }ohii Humphery, esq. 
Daniel Whittle Harvey, 

I Vidoria. 

1837. John Humphery, esq. 
Daniel Whittle Harvey, 

Daniel Whittle Harvey, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment as 

• Return amended by Order of the House, dated 21 December, 1796, 
by erasing the name of Geoiige Woodford Thellusson, and snbstitutii^ 
that of George Tiemey, esq. 



Registrar of Metro- 
politan Public 
Benjamin Wood, vice 
Daniel Whittle Har- 
vey, esq., appointed 
Commissioner of 
Police for the city 
of London. 

1 84 1. John Humphery, esq. 

Benjamin Wood, esq. 

Sir William Moles- 
worth, bart, vice 
Benjamin Wood, 
esq., deceased. 

1847. John Humphery, esq., 
of Southwark, one 
of the aldermen of 
the city of London. 
Sir William Moles- 
worthy bart 

1852. Sir William Moles- 
worth, bart. 

Apsley Pellatt, esq., 
of Southwark. 

Sir William Moles- 
worth, bart, re- 
elected after ap- 
pointment as Chief 
Commissioner of 

Sir William Moles- 
worth, bart, re- 
elected after ap- 
pointment as one of 

the Principal Secre* 
taries of State. 
Vice Admual Sir 
Charles Napier, 
R.C.B., vice Sir 
William Molesworth, 
bart, deceased. 

1857. Sir Charles Napier, 

knt. Vice Admiral 

of the Navy. 

John Locke, esq., M.A., 

and barrister-at-law. 

1859. Sir Charles Napier, 
John Locke, esq., Q.c 
Austin Henry Layard, 
esq., vice Sir Charles 
Napier, k.cb., de- 
John Locke, esq., Q.a, 
re-elected after ap- 
pointment as Re- 
corder of Brighton. 

1865. John Locke, esq. 

Austen Henry Layard, 

1868. John Locke, esq. 

Austen Henry Layard, 

Austen Henry Layard, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment as First 
Commissioner of 
Works and Public 



Lieut-Col. Marcus 
Beresford, vice Aus- 
ten Heniy Layard, 
esq., who accepted 
the Stewardship of 
the Chiltem Hun- 
dreds, county Bucks. 

1874. John Locke, esq., q.c. 

Col. Francis Marcus 

Edward Geoige Clarke, 
esq., barrister-at-law, 
vice John Locke, 
esq., deceased. 

1880. A. Cohen. 

J. E. T. Rogers. 

( 391 ) 


List of Members of Parliament for Middlesex. 

23 Edward L 

X295. Willielmus de Brok'. 
Stephanus de Graves- 

1298. Ricardus de Wyndesor', 
Henricus de Enefield. 

1 299-1300. Ricardus de Win- 
Henricus de Enefield. 

1302. Willielmus de Brok'. 
Ricardus le Rous. 

1304-5. Willielmus de Har- 
pedene, miles. 
Ricardus le Rus, miles. 

1306. Ricardus le Rous, miles. 
Ricardus de Wyndel- 
sore, miles. 

1306-7. Ricardus le Rous. 
Johannes de la Poile. 

I Edward II. 

1307. Johannes de la Poile, 
Willielmus de Brok', 

1309. Ricardus de W3mde- 
sore, miles. 
Willielmus de Brok\ 

13 1 1. Ricardus de Wynde- 
Ricardus le Rous. 

131 2-13. Ricardus de Wyn- 
desores, miles. 
Ricardus le Rous, miles. 

1313- 'Johannes de la Poille. 
(July.) •Ricardus le Rous. 

1 31 3. Johannes de la Poile, 
(Sep.) miles. 

Ricardus le Rous, miles. 

* Names, &c., with (*) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of 
the Writs de Expensis {see Rot. Claus., 7 Edw. II., m. 27 d.), in the 
absence of Original Returns. 



1 3 1 4. * Johannes de £nefeud'. 
*Walterus Crepyn. 

1314-15. Johannes de Ene- 
Kicardus de Baches- 

13 1 5-1 6. Henricus de Bydyk. 
13 16. f Henricus de Frowyk'. 


1318. Henricus Bydyk*. 
Gilbertus Barentyn. 

1319. Willielmus TomegoldJ 
Reginaldus Tulusan4 

1320. Henricus de Bydyk'. 
Willielmus Tomegold. 

1321. Johannes de Enefeld. 
Johannes de Waudon'. 

1322. §Walterus Crepyng*. 

(May.) §Willielmus de Fyn- 

1322. Ricardus Duraiint| 
(Nov.) Willielmus le Rous.|| 

1323-4. Ricaidus de Heyle. 
Willielmus le Rous. 

1324. Johannes atte Pole. 
Walterus de Sallyngg'. 

1325. Walterus Morice. 
Johannes de Oysterle. 

1326-7. Rogenis de Brok'. 
Henricus de Frowyk*. 

I Edward I IL ^ 

1327. Johannes de Bloxham. 
Henricus de Bywik'. 

1327-8. Henricus Frouwyk'. 
Alanus atte Munte. 

1328. Walterus Morice. 
(Ap.) Johannes Heroun. 

1328. ^Johannes de Oysterle. 
(July.) ^Thomas Derk. 

* Names, &c., with (*) prefixed are sapplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expeosis (see Rot. Clans., 8 £dw. II., m. 31 d.), in the absence 
of Original Returns. 

t Names, &c., with (f) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis {see Rot. Claus., 10 Edw. II., m. 28 d.), in the absence 
of Original Returns. 

X Loco militum, 

§ Names, &c, with (§) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis {see Rot. Claus., 15 Edw. II., m. 9 d. in cedoIaX in the 
absence of the Original Returns. 

jl Valettus against this name in the Enrolment of the Writ de Expensis. 

IT Names, &c, with (H) prefixed are supplied from the Enrohnent of 
Writs de Expensis (j^Rot Glaus., 2 Edw. III., m. 16 d.) in the absence of 
Original Returns. 




1328-9. RicarJus de Heyle. 
Thomas de Saunford. 

1329-30. Robertas de Boys. 
Henricus de Gnindes- 

1330. Ricardus de Wyndesor*. 
Johannes de Bray. 

1331. ^Ricardus de Pouns. 
(Sep.) *Gilbertus Haward. 

1 33 1-2. Ricardus de Pouns. 
Stephanus Joun. 

1332. t Johannes Wroth. 
(Dec^ fRogerus Belet 

1333-4. Nicholaus le Despen- 

Johannes fiP Domini 
Johannisde Enefeld.^ 

1334- §Henricus Wiliot 

§Edmundus Flambard'. 

1333. Rogerus Belet. 
Henricus Wyliot 

1335-6. Henricus Frowyk. 
Edmundus Flambard. 

1336. Johannes de Eyston. 
Willielmus de Chyding- 


1337. Johannes deCharleton'. 
Johannes dc Braye. 

1337-8. Johannes de Enefeld'. 
Walterus de Sallyngg'. 

1338. Johannesde Charleton*. 
Ricardus de Wyndel- 


1338-9. Walterus de Salljmg', 
Johannes de Enefeld'. 

1339-40. llSimon de Swan- 
IIThomas de Saunford. 

1340. Simon de Swanlond. 
Thomas de Saunford. 

1841. Rogerus de Leukenore. 
Henricus Wylyot 

* Names, &c., with (*) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis {see Rot Claus., 5 £dw. IIL, p. 2. m. 6 d.) in the absence 
of Original Returns. 

t Names, &c., with (f) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of 
Writs de Expensis {see Rot Claus., 7 Edw. III., p. L m. 21 d.) in the absence 
of Original Returns. 

X Loco mUiiis, 

{ Names, &c., with (§) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis {see Rot Claus., 8 Edw. III., m. 8 d), in the absence of 
Original Returns. 

1 Names, &c., with (|) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis {see Rot Glaus., 14 Edw. III., p. I. m. 45 d.) in the 
absence of Original Returns. 



1343. Thomas de Norton'. 

1344. Simon de Swanlond. 
Willielmus de Lange- 


1346. Willielmus Bisshop'. 
Johannes atte Pyrye. 

1347-8. Willielmus de Laven- 
Johannes Baret 

1348. •Willielmus de Laven- 
•Johannes Baret 

1350-X. Rogerus de Leuke- 
Johannes LovelF. 

1351-2. t Johannes atte 
tThomas de Frowyk'. 

1352. Johannes atte Pole, 


1353. Johannes atte Pole. 

I354* Thomas de Frowyk. 
Johannes atte Pole. 

1355. tThomas de Frowyk. 
{Nicholaus atte Wyke. 

'iST-S- Thomas Morice. 
Thomas de Fiowyk*. 

X360. Thomas Morice. 

Nicholaus de Henrod*. 

1360-1. Thomas Moris. 

Willielmus de Hatton'. 

1362. Willielmus de Swan- 

Johannes Wroth', jun. 

1363. Ricardus Rook', jun. 
Johannes de Shor- 

dissh', or de Shor- 

1364-5. Willielmus de Swan- 
Johannes Wroth', jun. 

1366. Johannes Wroth, jun. 
Gregorius Fanelore. 

1368. Johannes Wroth', jun 
Gregorius Fanelore. 

1369. Thomas Frowyk*. 
Johannes Wroth', jun. 

* Names, &a, with (*) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis {see Rot Claus., 22 £dw. IIL, p. i. m. 24 d.) in the 
absence of Original Returns. 

t Names, &c, with (t) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Wriu de Expensis [jue Rot ClauSi^ 26 Edw. IIL, m. 28 d.) in the absence 
of Original Returns. 

X Names, &c., with (t) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis [m Rot Claus., 29 Edw. III., m. 3 d.) in the absence of 
Original Returns. 



1 370-1. Johannes Pekke- 
Nicholaus de Exton'. 

137 1. Johannes Pekbrugg. 

1372. Johannes Wroth', jun. 
Johannes de Shordych'. 

1373. Johannes de Pecke- 

brigge, chivaler. 
Robertus de Anesty. 

1375-6. Johannes de Shor- 
Egidius Pykeman. 

1376-7. Nicholaus de Exton*. 
Henricus Frowyk. 

X RUhard IL 

^377- •Johannes de Saun- 

•Thomas de Famdon'. 

1378. Thomas de Pynnore. 
Thomas Brakenburgh'. 

'379- tJohannes Pekbrigg*. 
jWillielmus de Swan- 

1379-80. Nicholaus de Ex- 

Johannes de Shor- 

1380. Adam Fraunceys. 
Baldewinus de Radyng* 


1 38 1. Johannes de Shor- 

Thomas Charleton'. 

1382. Johannes Saunford*. 
(May.) Willielmus Bamevyll'. 

1382. Adam Fraunceys, 
(Oct) chivaler. 

Johannes Wroth'. 

1382-3. Johannes Durham. 
Godefridus atte Pirye. 

^^383- Johannes Saunford'. 
Thomas Pynnore. 

1384. Johannes Wroth', Fen. 
(Apr.) Nicholaus de Exton*.' 

1384. Thomas Charlton'. 
(Nov.) Johannes Durham. 

1385. Adam Fraunceys, 

Johannes Pekbrigg, 

* Names, &c., with (*) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis (see Rot. Glaus., i Ric II., m. 22 d.) in the absence of 
Original Returns. 

t Names, &c., with (f) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis {tee Rot Claus., 2 Ric IL, m. 3 d.), in the absence of 
Original Returns. 

X Loco mi/itis. 



1396. Thomas Maydeston'. 
Thomas Godlak'. 

1397 and 1397-8. SAdam 
Fraimceys, chivaler. 
§}ohannes Wroth', 

1386. Adam Fraunceys, 
Willielmus Swanlond'. 

1387-8. 'Adam Fraunce)rs. 
•Willielmus Swan- 

1388. Willielmus Bamevyll'. 
Godefridus atte Pirye.t 

1389-90. Johannes Shordych', 
Thomas Conyngesby. 

1390. Adam Fraunceys. 
Johannes Shordiche. 

1 391. Thomas Braye. 
Willielmus Norton'. 

1392-3. Willielmus Tam- 
Thomas Maydeston'. 

1393-4. ]:Johannes Shor- 
diche, junior. 
JJacobus Ormesby. 

1394. Johannes Shordych', 
Thomas Conyngesby. 

* Names, &c., with (*) prefixed are supplied firom the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis (/« Rot Claus., il Kic. IL, m. 4 d.)i in the absence of 
Original Returns. 

t Galfridas in the Enrolment of the Writ de Expensis. 

X Names, &c. with {%) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of ih% 
Writs de Expensis (see Rot CUns., 17 Ric. II., m. 9 d.), in the absence of 
Original Returns. 

S Names, &c., with (§) prefixed are supplied from the Enrolment of the 
Writs de ExpensU {see Rot Claus., 21 Ric II., p. 2, m. 9 d.), in the 
absence of Original Returns. 

II All the names [of this parliament] are supplied from the Enrolment of 
the Writs de Expensis (jaf Rot Claus., 6 Hen. IV., m. 5 d.), in the 
absence of Original Returns. 

I Ben. IV. 

1399. Johannes Durham. 
Thomas Maydeston*. 

1400. Johannes Wrothe, 

Willielmus Loveneye. 

z 401-2. Thomas Conyn- 
Jacobus Northampton'. 

1403. Johannes Wroth', 
WiUielmus Wroth'. 

Z404. Rogerus Straunge, 
llWillielmus Powe. 



1405-6. Johannes Wroth', 
Henricus Somen 

1407. Johannes Loveney. 
Henricus Somer. 

141 X. Adam Framiceys, 
Rogerus Straunge, 

z Hen. V. 

141 3. Willielmus Loveney, 

Ricardus Wyot, 

1413-14. *Simon Camp'. 
•Walterus Grene. 

1414. Thomas Charlton. 
Johannes Waldene. 

1415. Simon Camp'. 
Thomas Conyngesby. 

1417. Henricus Somer. 
Walterus Gawtron'. 

1419. Thomas Frowyk. 
Thomas Conyngesby. 

1420. Johannes de Boys, 

Walterus Grene. 

142 1. Thomas Charlton', 
(May) chivaler. 

Henricus Somer. 


142 1. Ricardus Ma3rdeston'. 
(Dec.) Edmundus Bybbes- 


1 Hen. VI. 

1422. Thomas Charlton', 

Thomas Frowyk'. 

1423. Walterus Gawtron*. 
Walterus Grene. 

1425. Thomas Charleton', 
Robertus Warner. 

1425-6. Walterus Grene. 

Johannes Shordyche. 

1427. Thomas Charlton', 
Thomas Frowyk', 

1429. Henricus Somer. 
Walterus Grene. 

1 430-1. Thomas Charlton'. 
Alexander Anne. 

1432. Thomas Frowyk'. 
Alexander Anne. 

1433- Johannes Asshe. 

Ricardus Maydeston'. 

1435. Thomas Frowyk'. 
Walterus Grene. 

* Names, &c., with (*) prefixed are snpplied firom the Enrolment of the 
Writs de Expensis (see Rot Clans., 2 Hen. V.» m. 20 d.), in the absence of 
Original Retoms- 



1436-7. Alexander Anne. 
WiUiclmus Wroth'. 

1 441 -2. Magister Johannes 
Thomas Charlton', 

1446-7. Thomas Charleton', 
Thomas Frowyk', 

1448-9. Johannes Lemyng- 
Robertus Tanfeld'. 

i4Sa Walterus Grene, 
Thomas Frowyk', 

1459. Thomas Charleton', 

Johannes Myiywether, 

1460. Thomas Charleton', 

Thomas Frowyk*, 

7 Edward IV. 

1467. Thomas Frowyk, 
Rogerus Ree, armiger. 

1472. Rogerus Ree, miles. 
Robertus Grene, miles. 

1477-8. Johannes Eliyngton, 
Thomas Wyndesore, 

21 Henry VIII. 

1529. Robertus Wroth', 
Ricardus Hawkes, 

1541-2. Robertus Cheseman, 
Johannes Hewes, 

7 Edward VL 

1552-3. Robertus Bowes, 
Thomas Wroth, miles. 

I Mary. 

1553. Edwardus Hastinges, 
(Oct) miles. 

Johannes Nud^;ate, 

1554. Edwardus Hastynges, 
(Apr.) miles. 

Johannes Nudegate, 

I 6^ 2 PhiHp and Mary. 

1554. Edwardus Hastynges, 
(Nov.) miles, magister equo- 
rum domine rq^ine. 
Rogerus Cholmdey, 



1588-9. Robert Wrothe, esq. 
William Fletewood, 

1592-3. Robert Wrothe, esq., 
of Enfield. 
Francis Bacon, esq., of 
Gray's Inn, county 

1597. Robert Wroth. 
John Peighton. 

i6oi. Sir John Fortescue, 
knt, Chancellor of 
the Exchequer. 
Sir Robert Wroth, 

I James L 

1603-4. Sir Robert Wroth, 
senior, knt 

Sir William Fleetwood, 

Sir John Fortescue, 
knt., Chancellor ot 
the Duchy of Lan- 
caster, and a Privy 
Counsellor, vice Sir 
Robert Wroth, knt, 

Sir Robert Wiethe, 

* Names with (*) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office list, in 
the absence of Original Returns. 

t Names, &c, with (t) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
Lists (of which there are five for this Parliament), in the absence of 
Original Returns. 

X Names, &c, with (}) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
Lists (of which there are three), in the absence of Original Returns. 

{ Names, &c., with (§) prefixed are supplied from the Crowa Office 
List| in the absence of Original Retnms. 

1555. Edwardus Hastynges, 
prenobilis ordinis 
garterii miles, magis- 
ter equorum domine 
Rogerus Cholmeley, 

1557-8. Rogerus Cholmeley, 
•Johannes Newdygate, 

I Elizabeth. 

1558-9. Sir Roger Cholmeley, 

Sir Thomas Wrothe, 


1562-3. tSir WiUiam Cordell, 
fSir Thomas Wrothe, 

1572. JRobert Wrothe, esq. 
JSir Owen Hopton, 
knt, Lieutenant of 
the Tower of Lon- 

1586. §Robert Wrothe, esq. 
§William Fletewood, 



knt, vice Sir John 
Fortescue, knt, de- 

1 620-1. Sir Francis Darcye, 
Sir Gilbert Gerrard, 

1623-4. Sir John Suckyn, 
knt, Comptroller of 
the Household. 
Sir Gilbert Garrard, 

I Charles L 

1625. Sir John Francklyn, 
Sir Gilbert Gerrard, 

1625-6. tSir (? Edward) 
Spenser, knt 
tSir Gilbert Gerrard, 
1627-8. jSir Henry Spiller, 
{Sir Francis Darcy, 

1640. (Long Parliament.) 
(Nov.) Sir Gilbert Garrarde, 

Sirjohn Francklin, knt. 

Sir Edward Spencer, 
knt, viee Sir John 
Franckl3m, knt^ 

Oliver Cromwell* 

1656. Sir William Roberts, 

Sir John Barkstead, 

Challoner Chute, sea^, 

William Kififyn, esq. 

Richard CromweU. 

1658-9. Francis Gerard, esq. 
Challenor Chute, sen., 

13 Charles IL 

(The Long or Pen- 
sionary Parlia- 
1661. Sir Lancelot Lake, knt 
Sir Thomas Allen, knt 

1678-9. Sir William Roberts, 
Sir Robert Peyton, 

^ No Retorn found ; the name is endorsed on the Writ, which is dited 
«8 July, 1607. 

t Names, &c., with (t) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, in the absence of Original Returns. 

X Names, &c., with (t) prefixed are supplied from the Crown Office 
List, in the absence of Original Returns. 




1679. Sir William Roberts, 
Sir Robert Peyton, knt. 

1 680-1. Sir William Roberts, 
Nicholas Raynton, esq. 

I James IL 

1685. Sir Charles Gerrard, 
Edward Hawtry, esq. 


1688-9. Sir Charles Gerard, 
bart, of Harrow- 
on-the-Hill, county 
Ralph Hawtrey, esq., 
of Rislipp, county 

2 William 6- Mary. 

1689-90. Sir Charles Gerrard, 
Ralph Hawtrey, esq. 

7 William II L 

,1695. Edward Russell, esq. 
Sir John Wolsten- 
holme, bart. 

1698. Warwick Lake, esq. 

Sir John Wolsten- 
holme, bart 

1 700-1. Hugh Smithson, esq, 
Warwick Lake, esq, 


1701. Warwick Lake, esq. 
John Austen, esq. 

I Anne. 

1702. Warwick Lake, esq. 
Hugh Smithson, esq. 

(First Parliament of 
Great Britain.) 

1705. Scorie Barker, esq. 
Sir John Wolsten- 
holme, bart 

1708. Sir John Wolsten- 
holme, bart. 
Scorie Barker, esq. 
John Austin, esq., vice 
Sir John Wolsten- 
holme, bart, de- 

17 10. James Bertie, esq. 

Hugh Smithson, esq. 

1 7 13, James Bertie, esq. 

Hugh Smithson, esq. 

I George L 

1 7 14-15. James Bertie, esq. 
Hugh Smithson, esq. 

1722, James Bertie, esq. 

Sir John Austin, bart. 

I George I L 

1727. James Bertie, esq. 
Francis Child, esq. 

2 D 



1734. Sir Francis Child, knt. 

William Pulteney, esq. 

Sir Hugh Smithson, 
bart, vice Sir Francis 
Child, knt, deceased. 

1741, William Pulteney, esq. 

Sir Hugh Smithson, 

Sir Roger Newdigate, 
bart., vice William 
Pulteney, esq., called 
to the Upper House 
as Earl of Bath. 

1747. Sir Hugh Smithson, 
Sir William Beauchamp 

Proctor, bart 
George Cooke, vice 
Sir Hugh Smithson, 
bart, called to the 
Upper House as 
Earl of Northumber- 

1 7 54. Sir William Beauchamp 
Proctor, bart. 
George Cooke, esq. 

I George II L 

1 7 6 1 . Sir William Beauchamp 
Proctor, bart, knt 
of the bath. 

George Cooke, esq. 

George Cooke, esq., 
re-elected after ap- 

pointment as Pay- 
master - General of 
the Land Forces- 
1768. George Cooke, esq. 
John Wilkes, esq. 
John Glynn, esq., vice 
George Cooke, esq., 
John Wilkes, esq., re- 
elected after being 
expelled the House. 
John Wilkes, esq., re- 
elected after being 
adjudged by the 
House of Commons 
incapable of being 
elected, and his elec- 
tion for the county 
of Middlesex de- 
clared void. 
Henry Lawes Lutterell, 
esq., vice John 
Wilkes, esq., "ad- 
judged by the House 
of Commons inca- 
pable of being elected 
a member to serve in 
the present Parlia- 
ment, and the elec- 
tion and return of 
the said John Wilkes, 
for the county of 
Middlesex, having 
been declared null 
and void.** 

* Return amended by Order of the House, dated 15 April, 1769, by 
erasing the name of John Wilkes, esq., and substituting the name of 
Henry Lawes Luttrell, esq. 



1774. John Wilkes, esq. 

John Glynn, esq. 

Thomas Wood, esq., 
vice John Glynn, 
esq., deceased. 

1780. John Wilkes, esq. 
George Byng, esq. 

1 7 84. John Wilkes, esq. 
William Mainwaring, 

1790. William Mainwaring, 
George Byng, esq. 

1796. (Parliament OF Great 
Britain. Its mem- 
bers declared to be 
members of the 
First Parliament 
OF the United 
Kingdom, 1801.) 

1 80 1. William Mainwaring, 

George Byng, esq. 

1802. George Byng, esq. 
Sir Francis Burdett, 

George Boulton Main- 
waring, esq., viu 
Sir Francis Burdett, 
bart, whose election 
was declared void.* 

1806. William MeUish, esq. 
George B)mg, esq. 

1807. William MeUish, esq. 
George Byng, esq. 

181 2. George B)mg, esq. 

William MeUish, esq. 

18 1 8. William MeUish, esq. 
George Byng, esq. 

I George IV, 

1820. George Byng, esq. 

Samuel Charles Whit- 
bread, esq. 

1826. George Byng, esq. 
Samuel Charles 
Whitbread, esq. 

I WiUiam IV. 

1830. George Byng, esq. 
Joseph Hume, esq. 

1831. George Byng, esq. 
Joseph Hume, esq. 

1833. Joseph Hume, esq. 
George Byng, esq. 

1835. George Byng, esq. 
Joseph Hume, esq. 

I Victoria, 

1837. George B>'ng, esq. 

Thomas Wood, the 
younger, esq. 

* Return amended by Order of the House, dated 5 March, 1805, by 
erasing the name of George Boulton Mainwaring, esq., and substituting 
that of Sir Francis Burdett, bart. Return further amended by Order of the 
House, dated 10 February, x8o6, by erasing the name of Sir Francis 
Bttzdett, bart, and substituting that of Geoige Boulton Mainwaring, esq. 

2 D 2 



1 84 1. George B3aig, esq. 

Thomas Wood, the 
younger, esq. 

Robert Grosvenor, 
commonly called 
Lord Robert Gros- 
venor, vice George 
Byng, esq., deceased. 

1847. Robert Grosvenor, 
commonly called 
Lord Robert Gros- 
Ralph Osborne, esq. 

1852. Robert Grosvenor, 
commonly called 
Lord Robert Gros- 
Ralph Osborne, esq. 

1857. Robert Grosvenor, 
commonly called 
Lord Robert Gros- 

Robert Hanbury, the 
younger, esq. 

George Henry Charles 
Byng, esq., vice 
Robert Grosvenor, 
commonly called 
Lord Robert Gros- 
venor, who accepted 
the Stewardship of 
the Manor of Hemp- 
holme, county York. 

1859. Robert Hanbury, the 
younger, esq. 
George Henry Charles 
Byng, esq. 

1865. Robert Culling Han- 
bury, esq. 

George Henry Charles 
Byng, commonly 
called Viscount En- 

Henry Labouchere, 
esq., vice Robert 
Culling Hanbury, 
esq., deceased. 

1868. George Henry Charles 
Byng, esq., commonly 
called Lord Enfield. 
George Francis Hamil- 
ton, esq., conmionly 
called Lord George 
Francis Hamilton. 

1874. Octavius Edward 

Coope, esq. 
George Francis Hamil- 
ton, commonly called 
Lord George Francis 

1880. George Francis Hamil- 
ton commonly called 
Lord George Francis 
Octavius Edward 

Coope, esq. 

405 ) 




Aldemien, earliest list of, anti 
their wards, i. 189 ; second list, 
ib. ; origin of title, 190; how 
they are elected, 446. 

Alfred, king ; he takes London 
by siege, i. 65 ; builds new 
gates, ib, ; defeats the Danes, 

Arlington House, afterwards 
Buckingham House, ii. 118. 

Armada, preparations against 
the, i. 328. 

Asclepiodotus, sails for England 
in a fog, i. 38 ; defeats Allectus, 

i. 39- 

Ashbumham House, Westmin- 
ster, ii. 65. 

Audley, ii. 103. 

Austin Friars, its origin, i. 238. 


Backwell, Edward, banker of 
Cromwell, i. 392 ; of Charles 
^^•> 393 9 his political im- 
portance, ib. 

Bank, the, i. 391 ; first idea of 
starting one, 407 ; William 
Paterson's scheme, ib. ; forma- 
tion of the Bank of England, 
408 ; worked out by Michael 
Godfrey, 409 ; Sir John Houb- 
lon, first governor, 1^.; present 

state of, 410 ; first difficulties, 
412; dangerous run on it in 
Queen Anne's reign, 413; 
South Sea Bubble, 415 ; Wal- 
pole*s measures, 416 ; the 
Bank safe again, 417. 

Bankers, the first, i. 327 ; history 
of, 391 ; Edward Backwell, 
banker in seventeenth century, 
392 ; family history of the 
Childs, 393 ; Child of the 
Marygold, 394 ; Duncombe 
of the Grasshopper^ 396. 

Barnard's Inn, Holborn, ii. 75. 

Barton, Elizabeth, the Kentish 
prophetess of the sixteenth 
century, i. 304. 

Bassishaw or Basinghall ward, 
named after the Basings, i. 

Battersea, ii. 281 ; history of the 
parish, ib. ; park, 282 ; his- 
tory of the St. Johns, ib.\ 
church rebuilt, 284 ; tombs, 

Baynard's Castle, probable errors 
respecting, ii. 40. 

Bayswater, ii. 242. 

Black Friars, the, i. 206 ; their 
new buildings, 233 ; great 
abuse of the order, 261 ; 
strange scene in a parliament 
held in their halK 302. 



Blackfriars' Bridge built, i. 419. 

Blemund, William, his dyke, iL 

Bloomsbury, origin of name, ii. 
202 ; church, 203 ; manor, 
204 ; a ** noble suburb," 207 ; 
British Museum, ib,\ Long 
Fields, 210 ; new church of 
St. George, 212 ; eminent in- 
habitants, lA, 213. 

Beckets, the, their family and 
old house in Cheap, i. 113; 
early youth of Thomas, 120. 

Beda, account of London by, i. 56. 

Bedlam, first belonged to the 
city, i. 307. 

Bermondsey, ii. 286 ; history of, 

287 ; once a health resort, 

288 ; the abbey church, 289 ; 
local names, 290 ; Rotherhithe, 
ib,\ Prince Lee Boo's grave, 

Bethnal Green Museum, ii. 154. 

Bishop, the, L 226; Sudbury's 
death, 243 ; Courtenay's popu- 
larity, 245 ; Braybrook, 253 ; 
the bishop's force against 
Essex, 330. 

of London appointed by 

king of Kent, i. 52. 

Bishops, trial of the, i. 402. 

Bridewell, palace of, made into 
a workhouse, i. 308-309. 

Bridge House Estate, the, its 
origin, i. 321. 

British Museum, the, ii. 207 ; ac- 
count of its commencement, 
ib, ; successive additions to the 
library, 208; Elg^n marbles, 
ib, ; drawings by great masters, 
209 ; appearance of the build- 
ing, ib, 

Britons, destruction of, in the 
fifth century, i. 51. 

Brompton, ii. 257. 
Buckingham House, iL 118 ; 

library of George IIL, 119; 

now the palace, ib. 
" Burh-bote and bryc-gewcorc,** 



Cade, Jack, rebellion of, L 272- 

Campden Hill, ii. 254. 

House, ii. 249; owners, 

250 ; burnt down, 253 ; re- 
built, ib. 

Canonbury and lord Compton, 
ii. 180. 

Canons, owned by duke of 
Chandos, ii. 23. 

Canute, his canal, i. 70 ; he ob- 
tains London by treason of 
Edric, 71. 

Carlton House, ii. 117. 

Caroline, queen of George 1 1., 
ii. 116, 126. 

queen of George IV., i. 440. 

Caxton's house, ii. 44 ; life, 46 ; 
books, 47. 

Celts, probable site of London 
in time of the, i. 16. 

" Century of Inventions," ii. 72. 

Chancery Lane and old Black- 
friars, ii. 73. 

Charing Cross, the old, ii. 86; 
execution of the regicides on 
the site, ib. 

Charles I., ill-feeling between 
him and the city, i. 341 ; writs 
for shipmoney, 342 ; arrest of 
the five members, 343 ; his 
execution, 348 ; ii. 113. 

Charles 1 1., his reception by Lon- 
don, i. 349-35 X ; his plunder of 
the goldsmiths, 396 ; his en- 
mity to the city, 397. 



Charterhouse site, ii. 169; ill- 
treatment of Carthusian 
monks, 170; subsequent his- 
tory of the house, 171 ; 
Charterhouse school removed 
to Godalming, 172. 

Chaucer, ii. 44. 

Cheap, the, ^^selds" in, i. no, 
177 ; the '* clearing of Cheap,** 
178-180 ; tournaments in, 
2 1 1-2 12; buildings on, 241. 

Chelsea, ii. 259 ; history of, 260 ; 
More's house, 262 ; parish 
church, 263; Chelsea Hos- 
pital, 264. 

Child, Sir Francis, banker, i. 
393; Robert, anecdote of his 
daughter's marriage, 414. 

Chiswick, ii. 25 ; residence of 
lord Burlington, the "archi- 
tect,** 26 ; rooms of Fox and of 
Canning, 27; garden laid out by 
Kent, and improved by Paxton, 
28 ; gate by Inigo Jones, 28. 

Churches, absence of Christian, 
in the Roman times, i. 45; 
dedications of London, 46, 
60; parish, in the fourteenth 
century, 227 ; Wren's, 373. 

City, ancient rights of the, i. 
405 ; fully restored under 
William and Mary, ib^ present 
danger, ib,\ possible reforms, 
442 ; original liberty of, 444. 

Qerkenwell, ii. 172; hospitallers, 
173; nunnery, 174. 

Clitherows of Boston, near 
Brentford, ii. 15. 

Cornish, Henry, alderman, i. 
397 ; his arrest, 400 ; execu- 
tion in Cheapside, 401 ; head 
set up over Guildhall, 402. 

Colechurch, Sir Peter of, curate 
and architect, i. 1 14. 

Colet, Dean, ii. 155. 

Common Council, how it is 
elected, i. 446. 

Companies, the rise of the, i. 
156. See Guilds. 

CornhiU, early mention of, i. 
164 ; the battle of, 347. 

Comhills, the, landowners of 
the city, i. 160. 

Cowper, connection with West* 
minster of, ii. 50. 

Cotters, the king's thirty, L 85. 

Covent Garden, origin of name, 
ii. 83. 

Craven, the good earl of, ii. 
242 ; history of, 244. 

Cromwell, Thomas, state of 
London at his time, i. 305 ; 
his tyranny in building his 
mansion, 309 ; his brother-in- 
law Williams obtains St 
St. Helen's Priory, 31a 

Crosby Place, i. 290-294. 

"Crown property," meaning of, 
iL 165. 



Danegeld," i. 68. 

Danes, irruption of the, L 64; 
ii. 71. 

Danish occupation, relic of, L 

Deorman, ancient grant of land 
to, i. 87 ; family of, ii. 180. 

Docwra, Thomas, prior of St. 
John of Jerusalem, iL 176. 

Domesday Book, exemption of 
London from, i. 85. 

Dowgate, ancient remains found 
by Sir C. Wren at, i. 14. 

Duket, Lawrence, death of, anec- 
dote of city usages in the 
thirteenth century, i. 93-95. 




Early Christianity in London, i, 
55 ; finally established, 59. 

East Saxon Sy i. 52. 

Edward I., rule of, in the city, i. 

Edward II., his dealings with 
the city, i. 200. 

Edward III., birth of, notified 
to the city, i. 199; reign 
begins, 209; his marriage and 
wedding-gifts from the city, 
210-21 1 ; his war with France, 
215 ; his welcome on his re- 
turn, 225 ; enrolled as a linen- 
armourer, ib. 

Edward IV., election by Lon- 
doners of, i. 281. 

Eia, manor of, history of, ii. 

Elephants, remains of, found 
along the Thames and Lea 
rivers, i. 11. 

Elizabeth, entry of queen, i. 325 ; 
her great-grandfather mayor 
of London, ib. ; thanksgiving 
at defeat of the Armada, 328 ; 
lamentation at her death, 329; 
pauperism in her reign, ib, 

Elsing Hospital, blind asylum 
under Henry VI IL, i. 303, 306. 

Ely Place, see Holborn. 

Enfield, manor of, ii. 9. 

Environs of London, places of 
interest, ii. 30. 

" Evecheping" in Soper Lane, 
i. 194. 

" Evil May Day," account of, 
i. 297. 


Farringdon Without and With- 
in, wards named after the 
Farringdons, i. 159. 

Finsbury, or Holywell manor, ii. 

Fire, the great, i. 332, 358-361. 
Fitz Peter, Joce,i. 159,231 ; ii.70. 
Fitz Stephen's account of Lon- 
don in his life of St. Thomas, 

i. 104. 
Fitz Thedmar, Amald, his 

chronicle in Richard I.'s reign, 

i. 122. 
Fitz Thomas, Thomas, defender 

of city rights, i. 140-151. 
Fleet, the course of the, i. 9-13 ; 

first called Hole-bourne, 10; 

covered over, 418. 
Flegge, Henry de, death of, i. 96, 
Franciscans, house in Comhill 

of the, i. 236. See Grey Friars. 
Frowyk, fictitious story of 

Simon, i. 166. 
Frowyks, history of the family 

of, ii. 12. 
Fickett*s field, where jousts were 

held, ii. 76 ; site of the new 

law courts, 77, 20 v 
Fulham, bishop's palace at, ii. 16. 
Fumivairs Inn, ii. 7$. 

Geological features of London, 
i. 18-24. 

George III., behaviour towards 
the city, i. 423 ; quarrels with 
it, 426 ; Gordon riots, 432 ; 
refuses petitions, 433 ; his uni- 
form contempt towards the 
corporation, 434. 

George IV., early popularity', 
i. 434 ; his coronation, 440. 

Gibbon, Edward, houseof,ii. 227. 

Glasgow, population compared 
with London, i. i. 

Gloucester, the little duke of, ii. 
24.3 ; his life, 250. 



Godfrey, Michael, helped to 
begin the Bank, i. 409 ; pam- 
phlet by him, 410; killed at 
Namur, 411. 

Gosfrith the Portreeve, i. 78. 

Gospel Oak, i. 10. 

Grey Friars, tombs in the 
church of the, i. 235, 312; its 
suppression, 307 ; its church 
reopened, 311. 

Guildhall, museum of Roman 
antiquities at, i. 47; rebuilt, 
259; trial of lady Jane Grey 
at, 316. 

Guilds, beginning of, in the reign 
of Athelstan, i. 68 ; dissolu- 
tion of the knighten-guild by 
Henry I., 98 ; weavers first 
mentioned, 99 ; mercers, 115: 
saddlers, 118, 173; "craft" 
guilds, 128; new trade guilds 
under Henry III., 143 ; seven 
brothers of the knighten-guild, 
163; account of guilds, 165 : 
*'frith"guild,/A; " town '' guild, 
ib,\ mercantile, 166; "com- 
munal," 167; "adulterine,** ib.\ 
goldsmiths, ib,\ ix2:<f between 
goldsmiths, tailors, cloth- 
merchants and tanners, 168; 
wealth of the weavers, lA; 
division of weavers into 
drapers and tailors, &c., 169 ; 
"merchant taylors " under 
Henry VII., 170; "mister>'" 
or trade guild, 171 ; localisa- 
tion of the trades, ib,\ German 
merchants in the Steelyard, 
172; livery companies, 197 j 
fishmongers, 19S ; incorpora- 
tion of the great companies, 
220; their halls, 221; their 
regulations, 223. 


Hackney, ii. 159; death of the 
earl of Northumberland there, 
160; fine old houses, 161 ; ac- 
coimt of the beautiful Susanna 
Perwich at, 161. 

Handel, G. F., ii. 23 ; his organ 
in Little Stanmore church, 25 ; 
anecdote of, 226. 

Hampstead, height of hill, i. 3. 

Hampton Court, palace at, ii. 
16; Honour of Hampton, 18 ; 
part of palace built by Wren, 


Harleian MSS., history of, ii. 


Hatton, Sir Christopher, ii. 186. 

Hawksmoor, pupil of Wren, 
churches by, ii. 151. 

Henry I., his grants and remis- 
sions, i. 89 ; grants Middlesex 
to the city to farm, ib, 

Henry III., anecdote of party 
power, i. 131 ; his rapacity, 
132; his plotting against the 
citizens, 136; the roll with 
the green seal, 1 37-141 ; his 
contest with the mayor Fitz 
Thomas, 144-15 1 ; his death, 
154; buildings at West- 
minster, ii. 52. 

Henry VI., his visit to St. Paul's 
in his childhood, i. 268 ; state 
of London in his time, 271 ; 
his death, 282. 

Henry VIII., his popularity in 
the city, i. 297. 

Htrvey, Walter, pupil and suc- 
cessor to FitzThomas, i. 153, 
174; his arrest under his suc- 
cessor, 1 76 ; his " wordy strife *' 
with the mayor, 178; last 
notice of him, 180. 



Hicks Hall, where the regicides 
were tried, ii. 17S. 

Highgate, height of hill, i. 3. 

Holborn, ii. 183 ; Wren's restora- 
tion of the church, ib. ; via- 
duct, tb,\ Ely Place, 184; 
contest for precedence at a 
feast, 185; mention by Shake- 
speare, 186; Sir Christopher 
Hatton and queen Elizabeth, 
187 ; account of bishop Wren, 
187-192 ; garden of Ely Place 
built over, 193 ; house in Dover 
Street bought for the see of 
Ely instead, 194 ; present state 
of former chapel of Ely palace, 
195 ; history of the manor, 

HoUand House, celebrities at, 
ii. 247; Lady Sarah Lennox, 
ib.\ Addison's death, 248 ; the 
house enlarged, 249. 

Hospitals, i. 232 ; their suppres- 
sion with the monasteries, 
306 ; their restoration, 30/. 

Houses, condition of, in the time 
of Erasmus, i 354. 

Hyde Park, origin of name, ii. 
101 ; account of houses at 
Hyde Park Comer, 104. 


*' Infangrthief," anecdote illustra- 
ting right of, i. 96. 

Islington, history of, ii. 178; 
local names, 180; elopement 
of Sir John Spencer's daugh- 
ter, lA 

James L, religious differences 

in the reign of, i. 337. 
James II., accession, i. 400 ; his 

vengeance on Cornish, ib.\ 

his flight, 403. 

Jeffreys, judge, i. 399- 

Jews, treatment of, L 196. 

Jones, Inigo, his designs, i. 363 ; 
anecdote of, ii. 84. 

John, his charters, i. 128 ; annul- 
ling of Magna Charta by pope 
Innocent III., 130. 


Kensal Green, cemetery at, illus- 
trious graves, ii. 241. 

Kensington, gardens, iL 123; 
palace formerly Nottingham 
House, 124; Albert Memorial, 
125 ; birthplace of queen Vic- 
toria, 126; parish, 244; origin 
of name, 24s; manor house, 
246 ; eminent inhabitants, 254; 
old square, 255 ; the Gore, 
256; CromweU Road, origin 
of name, ib.\ old church of 
St. Mary Abbot's, 258 ; new 
church, 259. 

Kennington or Chcnintun, ii 
267 ; history of, 277 ; strange 
scene at the manor-house, 
278 ; mummers, 279 ; survey 
made, 280 ; pulled down, ib. ; 
the Oval, ib. 


Lambeth, ii. 268 ; given to Ro- 
chester, 269; the bishops, 
270; archbishops, ib.\ public 
ceremonials at, 271 ; first 
called a palace, 272 ; library, 
273; part of first printed 
Bible, 274 ; chapel, ib. ; chapel 
windows, 275 ; history of Lam- 
beth, ib.y 276. 

Laindon hills, in Saxon times, L 

Langbourne, originally called 

Langford, i. 32. 



•* Lawworthy " citizens, i. 79. 

Levels from Shepherd's Bush to 
Mile End, list of, i. 23 ; from 
Regent's Park to Crystal 
Palace, 24; Panyer Alley 
stone, 1$. 

Lewes, battle of, i. 146. 

"Liber Albus," compiled by 
John Carpenter, executor of 
Whittington, i. 267. 

Lincoln's Inn, ii. 74; fields, ii. 
205 ; square partly built by 
Inigo Jones, ib, ; executions 
of eminent persons, ib, 

Lisson or Lylleston Green, ii. 

"Lithsmen," from "lithan," i. 

Liverpool, population compared 

with London, i. i. 

London, population in 1881, i. 
I ; growth of suburbs, 2 ; 
size of, 3; original site of, 
ib,\ lagoon in ancient times, 
ib, ; low-lying districts, 5 ; 
central hill of modern, 8, 18. 

first divided into estates or 

holdings, and later into wards, 
i. 157; its sokes or liberties, 
161 ; first members of parlia- 
ment for, 182 ; disorderly state 
under Edward II., 200, 203; 
riots, 204, 207 ; charter of 
Edward III., 208; list of 
munitions of war, 216 ; over- 
crowding in, 333 ; fortifications 
made by the citizens during 
the Civil War, 344-345 ; final 
removal of defences under 
George II., 419. 

election of English kings 

by, i. 75» 99» 281, 290, 403. 
picture of, in the latter part 

of the twelfth century, i. 103 ; 

government, 106 ; gates, 107- 
109; markets, no; op«n 
spaces, III; houses, ib. ; 
churches and monasteries, 
112; struggle for liberty, 121. 
appearance in the thirteenth 

century, i. 104. 
— appearance of, in the four- 
teenth centiuy, i. 227. 

its appearance in the fif- 

teenth century according to 
Stow, i. 256. 

its appearance in the six- 

teenth century according to 
the Grey Friars' Chronicler, i. 
31 1 ; misdemeanours and their 
punishment, 313. 
— state of, according to Izaak 
Walton, in the seventeenth 
century, i. 335. 

early in the nineteenth cen- 

tury, ii. 6, 7. 

— always on the winning side 
in contests with kings, i. 346. 

— when named Augusta, i. 49. 

— after the Conquest, i. 76. 

— constitution of, i. 446. 

— date of first historical 
notice of, i. 24, 

— " in demesne," i. 102. 
derivation of name from 

the Celtic, i. 17. 

mention of a great fog in 

the third century at, i. 36. 

— gates of, i. 42. 

— gifts of the city to the 
suburbs, i. 442. 

first great fire of, in the 

twelfth century, i. loi. 

number of houses and 

churches destroyed in the 
Great Fire, i. 359. 
— curious account of houses 
built without leave, ii, 93. 



London under James II., i. 402, 

liberties of, not founded on 

charters, i. 444. 

under kings of Mercia, 

i. 63. 

— parishes, peculiar features 
of their subdivision, i. 157. 
population in the city 

itself, i. 441. 

compared in population to 

other cities, i. i. 

— not populous during Roman 
occupation till late on, i. 55. 

— prisons in, i. 436. 

— Roman, i, 25, 35, 48. 

— Roman buildings in, i. 30, 


— Roman suburbs of, i. 33. 

— Saxon, i. 50. 

— site of, i. I. 

— compulsory lighting of the 
streets, i. 268. 

— departure of Suetonius 

from, i. 29. 

— Bridge, building in Roman 
times of, i. 28 ; its present 
maintenance, 321 ; old, 420; 
built bv Peter of Colechurch, 
ib. ; appearance in fifteenth 
century, 421 ; rebuilt by Ren- 
nie, 422 ; traffic over, ib. 
Wall, i. 32 ; building of, 40 ; 

fosse round, 333. 

note on wards and parishes, 

App)endix F. 
" London Fen," the, ii. 68. 
Londonderry, grant by James I. 

of, i. 406. 
Ludgate pulled down, i. 419; 

probable origin of the name, 

ii. 69. 
Lylleston, ii. 228. 


Manors, prebendal, ii. 167-9. 

Marlborough House, ii. 117. 

Mary I. received in state by the 
mayor, i. 314 ; mass per- 
formed, 315 ; persecutions of 
the Protestants, 318. 

Mayor, first on record, i. 90, 
122 ; Serlo le Mercer, in the 
year of Magna Charta, 129 ; in 
reign of Henry III., 131-133 ; 
Thomas Fitz-Thomas, 141 ; 
Walter Hervey, 153 ; rank of 
the mayor, 161 ; Henry le 
Waleys or Galeys, loss of 
guild - charters under his 
mayoralty, 175, 177 ; benefac- 
tions, 184; Gregory Rokesley, 
ib,\ his behaviour to the judges 
at assizes held in the Tower, 
1 86 ; suspension of the mayor- 
alty, 188 ; its restoration, 195 ; 
title of "lord" mayor first 
used, 208; trial of Chigwell, 
214 ; Walter Turk, his Latin 
epitaph, 217 ; curious petition 
of Richard de Bettoyne, ib.\ 
list of occupations of city wor- 
thies, 218; silver maces first 
used, 224; the worthless Sir 
Nicholas Brember, 247-249; 
the celebrated Sir Richard 
Whittington, 252 ; anecdote 
of James I.'s anger and the 
lord mayor, 334 ; imprison- 
ment of royalist mayor by his 
own sheriffs, 344 ; another 
sent to the Tower, 348 ; pro- 
clamation by the mayor and 
aldermen of the abolition of 
royalty, 349 ; mayor and alder- 
men bullied by Charles IL, 
398 ; Beckford, courage of. 



towards George IIL, 426 ; 
Brass Crosby sent to the 
Tower, 429 ; John Wilkes, the 
" friend of liberty," 430 ; 
Matthew Wood, twice mayor, 
befriended queen Caroline, 
441 ; how lord mayors are 
elected, 446 ; mayors and 
sheriffs of London, calendar 
of, see Appendix A. 

Members of Parliament for Lon- 
don, see App. h ; Middlesex, 
j^^App. I ; Southwark, j^^App. 
H ; Westminster, see App. G. 

Merchants, prosperity of, in 
Danish times in London, i. 67. 

Mercia, kings of, state of London 
under, i. 63. 

Metropolis, London not a, i. 76. 

** Metropolitan Area," the, ii. 
266, 292 ; use of the word 
** metropolis," ih, ; the three 
metropolitan areas, 293 ; police 
district, ib, ; postal districts 
explained, 294 ; parliamentary 
bopughs, ib. ; streets, 295 ; 
nationalities of the population, 
ib, ; ratable value, ib, ; sta- 
tistics of drainage, ib,\ Em- 
bankment, ib,\ Fire Brigade, 
ib, : statistics of food, 296 ; 
supply of coal and water, i3. ; 
Metropolitan Board, working 
of the, 297 ; underground 
railway, 298; how the city 
and the suburbs originated, 
ib, ; cause of the present con- 
dition of, 299. 

Middlesex, its ancient divisions, 
ii. 2; pannage, 3; no old 
castle or manor house, 4; 
oldest landowners, ib^ 

Millbank, former house on site, 
ii. 105. 

Milton, John, i. 338-340. 
Minories, the, original site of 
the house of the Minoresses.l. 


Minims, South, history of,ii. 10. 

Monasteries, date of their sup- 
pression under Henry VIII., 
i. 303 ; list of the names of 
those suppressed in London, 

Montfichett's Castle, i. 234. 
Moorgate, uncertain date of its 

erection, i. 65. 
Myddelton, Sir Hugh, canal by, 

1. 357. 


National debt, a, invented by 

Henry VII., i. 294. 
National Gallery, account of, ii. 

88 ; its contents, 89-92. 
Newgate prison, condition of, i. 

437 ; destroyed by the rioters, 

439 J present building, 440. 
Newington Butts, ii. 285. 
New Law Courts, ii. 78. 
New York, population compared 

with London, i, i. 
Neyt, boundaries of the manor 

of, ii. 38, 123; present state, 

Norden, map of Shakespeare's 

London by, i. 285. 
Northampton, result of Yorkist 

victory at, i. 280. 
Northumberland, earl of, anec- 
dote, ii. 160. 


Ossulston, or Oswulfs Town, ii. 


Osterley, house at, ii. 22 ; anec- 
dote of Elizabeth's visit, 23. 




Paddington, iL 236 ; history of, 
238; church, ib.\ view from 
the Serpentine bridge, 239; 
eminent inhabitants, ib. 

Palaces, royal, ii. 108; White- 
hall, ib,\ St James's, 114; 
Buckingham, 119; Kensing- 
ton, 124 ; Lambeth, 272. 

Panyer Alley stone, i. 15. 

Paris, population compared with 
London, i. i. 

Parishes in London, list of, 
App. C. 

Parliament, present houses of, 
ii. 54. 

Parks, the^ ii. 108 ; Hyde, loi ; 
St. James's, 117; Green, 120; 
entrance to Hyde Park, 121 ; 
gate formerly on the site of 
the Marble Arch, ib, ; size of 
Hyde Park, 123; "Mary- 
bone Park," built over, 127 ; 
Regent's, 129; St Dunstan's 
Villa in, ib,\ Zoological Gar- 
dens in, 130; St. Katherine's 
hospital removed to, 131 ; 
Victoria and other parks, 134 ; 
original sites of the parks, 166 ; 
Battersea, 282. 

Paterson, William, founder of 
the Bank of England, i. 407. 

•« Paul's Walk," i. 247. 

Peter of Colechurch, curate and 
architect, i. 420. 

Plague, the, L 332 ; in reign of 
James L, ib.\ of Charles L, 
340; several occurrences, 
352; the black death, 353 ; 
the sweating sickness, ib.\ 
the great plague in 1665, 355 ; 
cause of its cessation, 357. 

Pont-de-rarche, knight of the 

twelfth century, whose pro- 
perty forms part of the Bridge 
House Estate, i. 321. 

Portreeve, see Sheriffs. 

Portsoken, history of the ward 
of, i. 162. 

Potter, Gilbert, his ill-treatment* 

i- 313. 
Powell, William, the " Har- 

monious Blacksmith," iL 23. 
Powis Place, ii. 198. 
Priests, the behaviour of, in the 

reigns of Henry VI L and 

VIIL, i. 300. 
Primrose Hill, view from, ii. 134. 
Prison reform, i. 435, 439. 
" Prudhommes," the, or 

" barons " of the city, i. 1 28. 


Queen Square, iL 197 ; Queen 
Anne houses, 197 ; Blue Boetr 
inn, ib. ; Red Lion inn, ib, ; 
hospitals, 198; Powis Place, 

'' Quia Emptoresy^ influence of 
this statute on civic institu- 
tions, L 183, 189. 


Reformation in England, the, 
first sermon showing the com- 
ing of, i. 299. 

Richard L, goes to Palestine, 
123; tumults in his absence, 
124 ; riot of FiuOsbert after 
his return, 125; charters cC 

Richard IL, his lack of faith with 
the city, L 247 ; his extortions, 
250; "Lollanlry'* appears, 
25 1 ; the king's marriage, 252 ; 
his death, 253. 



Richard III. elected by London, 
i. 289, 290. 

Roads, convergence of ancient, 
to a ford over the Thames, i. 
26, 28. 

RoUs Court, the, origin of, i. 197 ; 
its chapel, 230. 

Rotherhithe, ii. 29a 

Rugmere, prebendal manor of, 
now Bloomsbury, ii. 201 ; pro- 
bable site of the " mere," 202 ; 
mere drained in King John's 
reign, ib, 

Runnymead, London interests 
at, i. 129. 

Rye House plot, i. 399. 


St. Albans, battle of, result of, 
i. 278. 

St. Anne's, Soho, ii. 98. 

St. Bartholomew, Smithfield, 
church of, i. 115; prior Ra- 
here, ib. ; fair in the ^ smooth 
field," 116; renewing of the 
hospital, 308 ; present state of 
church, 312. 

St. Botolph of East Anglia, 
churches dedicated to, i. 61. 

St. Giles's hospital, ii. 204; 
manor, ib. ; streets in the 
parish of, 206; place where 
the Great Plague began, ib. 

St. George's-in-the-£ast, ii. 151. 

Hanover Square, ii. 10 1 ; 

description of, 106; sub- 
division of its parish, ib. ; 
burial ground, 240; Mrs. 
Malony, ib. 

St. James's palace, iL 114; royal 
residents, 115; became the 
seat of the court, 116; Ger- 
man chapel, 117 ; park, ib. 

St James's square, history of, 
ii. 94 ; church by Wren, 95 ; 
street of clubs, 96. 

St. John, Knights of, ii. 175; 
crusade preached in their 
church, 176 ; their wealth, ib. ; 
present gate built by Thomas 
Docwra, prior, ib. ; revenues, 
177 ; crypt, ib. ; St. John's 
Square, ib. ; eminent residents 
near, 177 ; St. John's Gate, 

St. Katharine's Hospital, ii. 131 ; 
history of, ib. 

St. Margaret's, Westminster, ii. 


St. Martin's-le-Grand, old mon- 
astery, i. 117. 

St. Martin's, history of, ii. 85 ; 
church described, 87. 

St. Martin Outwich, history of 
an old city church, i. 369-370. 

St. Mary-le-Strand, ii. 8i, 

St Marylebone, parish church, 
ii. 231 ; indefatigable clergy- 
man, ib. ; Hogarth's print, 232; 
new church, ib. ; list of other 
churches, ib.^ 233; eminent 
inhabitants, 234. 

St. Osyth, her life, i. 62. 

St Pancras, ii. 213 ; manor, ib, ; 
church, ib. ; traditions respect- 
ing old St Pancras church, 
214; incongruities of new St 
Pancras church, 215. 

St. Peter's, ancient name of 
Westminster, ii. 32. 

St Paul's, no Roman temple on 
site, i. 44 ; aspect of, in twelfth 
century, 117 ; building of first 
cathedral, 239; number of 
priests, 242 ; bells lost at dice 
by Henry VIII., 310; burnt 
in the Great Fire, 360; de- 



scription of old St. Paul's, 367, 
385 ; fitness of the present 
building for service, 386 
Wren's earlier designs, 387 
construction of the dome, 388 
dimensions of St. Paul's, ib, 
first stone laid, 389; first 
service held there, ib, ; Wren's 
epitaph in the crypt, 390 ; list 
of manors belonging to the 
church, ii. 8, and App. £. ; 
alienation of their estates by 
the canons, 167. 

St. Saviour's, in Southwark, i. 

St. Stephen's, Wallbrook, rebuilt 
by Wren, L 382-384, 

St. Thomas's hospital, re-found- 
ing of, i. 307-308. 

Sandwich, Sir Ralph de, warden 
in place of mayor, i. 188. 

Savoy, the, ii. 79; history of, 

Sawtree, William, first heretic 
burnt, i. 261. 

Saxon London, i. 50. 

names of streets, i. 54. 

Saxons, various tribes of, i. 52. 

villages named by the 

Middle, ii. i. 

Schot, Adam, death of, i. 92. 

Scotte, John, an actor, anecdote 
of his ill-treatment, i. 301. 

Scotland Yard, ii. 1 1 1. 

Sebbi, king of Essex, his signa- 
ture to earliest Middlesex 
document granting land, i. 

Serpentine, source of the, ii. 

Seven Dials, evidence of former 

fashion in, ii. 99. 
Shakespeare, London in the time 

of, i. 283 ; his property, 285 ; 

Bridewell, appearance of, scene 
in 'Henry VIII.,' 309; his 
house in Southwark, 323 ; the 
Globe theatre, ib'\ places con- 
nected with him in Southwark, 
ib\ loses his friends, Essex 
and Pembroke, 330; his last 
plays, 331. 

Sheriffs, or portreeves, origin of, 
i. 90-92 ; probable suppression 
of portreeves, 99; anecdote 
about a sherifTs clerk, 193. 

Sheriffwicks, rent of, i. 208-209. 

** Small beam," keeper of the« i. 
192, 199. 

Smith field, burning of Protes- 
tants at, i. 300, 318. 

Soho, ii. 97 ; square, 98 ; histori- 
cal associations with, 99, 100. 

Somerset House, ii. 81, 119. 

Somers Town, iL 213. 

South Kensington Museum, ii. 

South London districts, origin of 

names in, i. 4. 
South Sea Bubble, i. 415. 

Fund, origin of, i. 407. 

Southwark, charter relating to, 

i. 209; it becomes a ward, 

Stanwell House, history of, ii. 

Staples Inn, ii. 75. 

Stapleton, Walter, bishop of 
Exeter, killed by the mob, i. 
204, 206. 

Stephen, election at St Paul's 
Cross of, i. 100. 

Stepney, history of the manor 
of, ii. 148 ; divided by degr ees 
into seven parishes, 149; old 
epitaphs in Stepney church, 
150; old gothic church at 
Stratford, ib,\ Domesday Book, 



mention of Stepney in, 152; 
bishop's house, 153; Bethnal 
Green, ib»\ Columbia Market, 
ib,\ museum, 154; the Colet 
family, 155; Wapping, i$6; 
the docks, 157; present lord 
of the manor of Stepney, 

Stoke Newington, ii. 181 ; 
manor where Thomas Sutton 
lived, 182 ; curious monu- 
ments in St. Mary's church, 
ib»\ Isaac Watts at Abney 
Park, ib. 

Stow, his monument, i. 255 ; his 
appearance, 284. 

Strand, significance of local 
names in the, ii. 81. 

Streets, origin of names of, i. 

** Suther Rige," the, ii. 268. 

" Sweating sickness," the, i. 294, 

Syon Abbey, its foundation, ii. 
20; suppression, 21 ; vicissi- 
tudes afterwards, ib, 


Temple, the, i. 228 ; scene in the 
gardens, 278; alterations in, 
336 ; church, 337. 

Temple Bar, in the fourteenth 
century, i. 231. 

Templars, the, i. 228. 

Thames, former bed, i. 4. 

Thorney, ancient name for 
Westminster, ii. 33; island, 
34 ; abbey on the island, ib, 

Tottenhall manor, ii. 216. 

Trade, increase of trade in six* 
teenth century, i. 327. 

Tower, the, built by William the 
Conqueror to overawe London, 
i. 81 ; Wren*s restorations, 82 ; 

records kept there, 83 ; situa- 
tion of, ii. 1 36 ; city boundaries 
in, ib^ ; gradual growth of the 
buildings forming it, 137; 
Henry 1 1 L's fortifications, 1 38; 
history of Traitors' Gate, 139 ; 
robbers' skins nailed on 
doors, 140 ; additions by Ed- 
ward III., ib,\ restorations by 
Wren, 141 : modem restora- 
tions, 142 ; position of the 
Tower chaplain, 143; Stow's 
notice of St. Peter's church 
within the Tower walls, ib,\ 
keepers of the records, 145 ; 
history of the menagerie, 146 ; 
its removal to Regent's Park, 
148 ; filling in of the moat, ib, 

Tudor, Owen, imprisoned in 
Newgate, i. 269. 

Tyburn, course of the, i. 7 ; 
traces of its course across 
Oxford street, ii. 217 ; old 
form of name, 219; gallows, 
ib, ; conduits at, 220 ; district 
of, 221 ; cisterns discovered, 
222 ; history of estate, 
ib,\ under queen Elizabeth, 
223 ; duke of Newcastle's 
wealth, 224; recent altera- 
tions, 225 ; great families own- 
ing the estate, 226 ; names of 
fields, 229; Portman family, 
ib.\ Tybumia, 235 ; account of 
Tyburn gate, ib^ 


Ulster estate, belonging to Lon- 
don city, i. 405. 


Vauxhall Gardens, ii. 280. 
Vyel, Margery, case of, i 133- 

2 £ 




Waithman, Robert, sheriff and 

alderman, obelisk to, i. 441. 
Wall, building of London, date 

of, i. 40 ; gates of London, i. 

42 ; removed, 419 
Wall-brook, origin of the name, 

i. 13; its course, 16; its 

bridge, 191. 
Walls, the fosse round the, i. 

Wapping, origin of name, ii. 156. 

Wards, how formed, i. 157, 161 ; 
sometimes called ** sokes," 
182, ib, ; no longer owned by 
their aldermen, 164 ; the 
wards and the companies, 
182; "wards without," how 
formed, ii. 72. 

Weever, antiquary, ii. 175. 

Westbourne, the, i. 6 ; manor, ii. 
237, 241 ; Mrs. Siddons at the 
Farm, 242 ; Pest Field, ib. 

West Cheap in the Saxon time, 

West End, the, i. 6. 

Westminster, the city of, ii. 32 ; its 
three names, ib. \ estates given 
to the abbot, i. 136, ii. 38; 
Poets* comer, 41 ; Edward the 
Confessor's work, ib.\ the 
•* Jesus altar," 42; wooUen- 
market house, 47; domestic 
buildings, alterations of, 50; 
Little Dean's Yard buildings, 
5 1 ; chapel of St. Stephen, ib, ; 
Westminster Hall built by 
Richard II., 52; palace built 
by Henry III., ib,\ law courts, 
53 ; houses of parliament, 54 ; 
present hall, 55 ; history of the 
P^ce, 57 ; tombs of kings in 
abbey, 58 ; Edward L, 59 ; 

Richard II., ib,\ chantry of 
Henry V., ib,\ monuments 
60 ; triforium, 62 ; waxworks 
in I slip chapel chantry, ib,\ 
history of the suppression of 
the old monastery, 63 ; West- 
minster school, 64 ; Ashbum- 
ham House, 65 ; first called 
" city^" 66 ; present govern- 
ment of Westminster, 67 ; 
hamlets of Westminster, full 
account of, 68; Roman re- 
mains, 70. 

Whitefield's chapel, celebrities 
buried there, ii. 217. 

Whitehall, or York Place, u. 
108 ; its chapel, ib, \ Henty 
VIII.'s proclamation, 109; first 
called the New Palace, 1 1 1 ; 
banqueting hall by Inigo 
Jones, ib,\ spot where Charles 
I. was executed, 113; demo- 
lition of Holbein's gateway, 

Whittington, notice of his con- 
duct in guild affairs, i. 223 ; 
builds library of Franciscans, 
236 ; appointed mayor by king 
Richaid II., 252 ; his boy- 
hood, 257 ; second election as 
mayor, 260 ; his wealth, 265 ; 
founded the first city library, 


Wilkes, John, i. 423 ; life of, 424 ; 
•North Briton,* No. 45, ib,\ 
' arrest of, 425 ; popularity of, 
f^.; alderman, 426; mayor, 
430; his opinion on the 
American War of Indepen- 
dence, ib, ; chamberlain, 432 ; 
epitaph, 433. 

William the Conqueror, elected 
by the Londoners, L 75 ; eariy 
charter of, . 77 ; his small 



personal interest in London, 
85 ; his tenants, 85-87. 

William II., his charter, i. 88. 

William of Orange, landing of, 
i. 403 ; election of William 
and Mary, 404 ; restoration of 
city rights, 405. 

Wool-staplers fair, ii. 48. 

Wren, Sir Christopher, i. 362 ; 
method of work, 364 ; parent- 
age, 365 ; plan for the re- 
building of London, 371 ; ac- 
count of his way of building 
churches, 373 ; beauty of his 
towers, 374 ; number of his 
steeples, 376 ; last work, 379 ; 
small cost of his works, 380 ; 
St. Stephen's, 383 ; St. Paul's, 
385-390 ; comparison with 
other churches, 385 ; its fit- 
ness for service, 386 ; his 
earlier designs for St Paul's, 
387 ; the construction of the 

dome, 388 ; dimensions of St. 
Paul's, ib.\ Wren's genius con- 
sidered, 389; his epitaph, 
390 ; St. James'Sy ii. 95 ; his 
churches and public buildings, 
App. D. 

Wren, Dr. Matthew, bishop of 
Ely, uncle of Sir Christopher 
Wren, ii. 187 ; his action 
against Lady Elizabeth Hat- 
ton, 189 ; his imprisonment in 
the Tower, 190; anecdote of, 
191 ; release, 192 ; employs his 
nephew to build a chapel, 193. 

Wyatt, rebellion of, i. 316-318. 


" Ya, ya," ancient cries of, i. 138. 
York House, ii. 87. 

Zoological Gardens, Regent's 
Park, ii. 130. 








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WOBI<D, The— On Mercator*f Prqjectlon. In fonr sheeta ; lise. 5 ftet by 3 feet. 
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Utest PoUtical BoundAries, tbe Rallwaya, tbe Sobmarine Telegraphs. Jtc Scale, 
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ATJSTBIAK EMPIRE. By J. Arbowsmith. Sc«le, 28 mUes to sn inch; 
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DEKlffABK and ICEIiANB. By J. Assowsvitr. Scale, 13 mllet to 
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FRANCE, in DEPARTMENTS. With a Supplementary Map. divided 
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ITAIjT, including Sicily snd tbe Maltese Islands. By J. Arbowsvith. Scale. 
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NETHERLANDS and BELGIUM, including Luxembourg and the 
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RT7SSIA and POLAND, including Finland. By J. ARRowsurrs. Scmie, 
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TURKEY in EUROPE, Including tbe ArchlpeUgo. Greece, the Ionian 
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BBinSH Z8I«B8.— NEW WALL MAP. Goufenicted on «1m hulb of the 
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Oonscmcted to show the Correct Relation ct the Physical Features. Sise, 
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MAP of ENGLAND and WALES. In 24 sheets (sold separately). Con- 
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WAT and STATION MAP of ENGLAND and WALES. Scale, 10 miles 
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ENGLAND and WALES.— WALL MAP. Scale, 8 miles to an inch; 
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LAND, with the Railways, SUtions, Ik. Scale. T*69 miles to an incn; size, 
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SCOTLAND.— NEW WALL MAP, showing the Divisions of the Counties, 
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SCOTLAND, in COUNTIES. With the PuMds, Rivera, Ax. By J. 
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^.uAA.^.^ in COUNTIES and BABONIES, on the basis of the 
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IBBLAND.— NEW WALL MAP, showing the dlvUfons of the CounUes, all 
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lEELAND, in COUNTIES. With the Roads, Rivers, kc Bj J. 
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jur ±UM IjONDON and Ita SUBT7BBS. «xteiidinK from HnnpatoMl 
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COLLINS' STAKBABB ICAP of LONBON. Admirably adapted 
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Price, plain, in case, l«.; coloured, U. 6d.; moomted on linen, ditto, 3c 6d.; 
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MlirrKOPOLiS. Scale, 3 Inches to a mile ; slae, 36 inches by 3fti. Price, 
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varnished, 10s. 6d. With oonttnoAtion southward beyond the Crystal Palace, 
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MAP of the BRITISH METROPOLIS and SUBURBS. Scal^ 3 inches to a 
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ENVIRONS. Scale, 1 inch to a mile; sise, 34 inches by 26. Prloe, coloured 
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ENVIRONS, showing the boundary of the JurisdicUon of the Metropolitan 
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on roller, varnished, 12t. 

ENVIRONS. Scale, 2 Inches to a mile ; sise, 36 inches by 28. The main roads 
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completed and in progress, are carefully defined. Price, sheet, 4s. ; coloured, 
6«. id. ; mounted on linen, in case. Si. ; or on roller, varnished, 14«. 

tocltuUng twenty-five miles from the Metropolis. Scale, f of an inch to a mile ; 
site, 36 inches by 36. This Map includes the whole of the County of Middlesex, 
with parts of the Counties of Surrey, Kent, Essex, Herts, Bucks, and Berksi 
Price, on one large sheet, ortoured, 8s. ; mounted, in case, lot. ; on roller, varw 
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LON IX)N. Scale, 1 inch to a mile ; sise, 43 inches by 32. Price;, sheet, plain. 4s. ; 
coloured, 6s. 6d. ; mounted on linen, in case, 8s. ; or on roller, vamiahed, 14s. 

TWELVE MILES round LONDON. Scale, 1 Inch to a mile; siae, 26 Indtea 
by 26. Price, plain, folded in case, 2s. 6c(.; ooloored, ditto, 3s. 6dL; moontad on 
linen, diAo, 6«. 6d. 

Edward Stanford, 65, Ohanzig CroM, London. 



OENEBAIi KAP OF ASIA.~B7 J. Abbovbhith. Scale, 800 miles to 
an inch ; slie, 26 indies by 22. Sheet, oolonred, 3i. ; mounted. In case, bt, 

Teheran, Khiva, Bokhara, Kokan, Yarkand, Kabul, Herat, Ike Scale, 110 miles 
to an inch ; sixe, 22 indies by 1?. Goloored sheet, 2c. 6d. ; moonted, in case, 6«. 

ASIA MINOB. Ao. (TURKET In ASIA). With portions of Persia, the 
Caspian Sea, and the Caucasian Moontalns. By J. Arbowsmith. Scale, 66 
miles to an inch ; slxe, 26 inches by 22. Sheet, coloured, 3s. ; In case, 6i. 

Present Divisions of the Country according to the most Recent Surveys. Scale, 
86 miles to an inch ; size, 29 inches by 33. Coloured, 6i. ; mounted on linen, in 
case, 8«.; on roller, varnished, 14«. 

INDIA.— MAP of INDIA. By J. Auowsmtr. Scale. 90 mfles to an inch; 
size, 22 inches by 26. Sheet, coloured, 3t. ; mounted in case, 6s. 

OE7LON.— MAP of CETLON. By MiOor-Oeneral Jobs Fbaskb. late Deputy- 
Quartermaater-Oenezal. Reconstructed by Johv ABBOWSicrrB. Scale, < 
miles to an inch ; size, 62 inches by 78. Eight sheets, coloured, 22. 6f. ; in case, 
32. 13«. 6d. ; on roller, varnished, 41. U. ; spring roller, 61. 16«. 6d. 

CQSYIjON.— The LONDON ATLAS MAP of CEYLON. Scale, 11 miles to an 
inch ; alze, 26 Inches by 22. Coloured sheets, 3f . ; in case, 6«. 

OSTLON.— COFFEE ESTATES of CEYLON. Map showing the PosKIon of tbe 
CoflTee Estates in the Central Province of Ceylon. By J. Abbowsxxth. Size. 
16 inches by 20. Sheet, coloured, 3s. ; mounted, in case, 6i. 

BTTIlKASs fto.^A Map diowlng tbe various Routes proposed for connecting 
China with India and Europe through Bunnah. Prepared under the direction 
of JoHX OoiLVT Hat, F.K.G.S. Scale, 33 miles to an inch; size^ 27 inches 
by 32. Coloured, 3s.; mounted, in case, 6«. 

and ADJACENT COTTNTBISS.— Compiled from 
various MSS., and other Documenta. By J. Arbowsmith. Scale, n miles to 
an Inch ; size, 26 inches by 22. Sheets coloured, 3«. ; mounted, in case, 6«. 


Sired for and iaeued under tbe direction of, tbe Royal AsUtic Society, Straits 
ranch. Scale, 8 miles to an inch; size, 60 inches by 60. Coloured, in {>iz 
Sheets* 12«. ; mounted. In case 26i. ; on roller, vamiabed. 3U. 6<i. 

CHINA.— MAP of CHINA. By J. Abbowsmith. Scale, 90 miles to an inch ; 
size, 26 inches by 22. Sheet, coloured, 3i. ; mounted, in caae, 6i. 

and JAPAN, with the Aci^aoent Parts of British India, Aaiatic Russia, Burmah, 
Ac Scale, 110 miles to an inch ; size, 38 hicbee by 24. One sheet, full coloured, 
8s. ; mounted on linen. In case, lOs. 6d. ; on roller, varnished, I4s. 

JAPAN.— LIBRARY MAP of JAPAN. Compiled by E. KMTPpnro, Esq. 
Size, 4 feet 6 inches by 6 f^ 6 inches; scale, 17 miles to an inch. Coloured, 
in sheets, 21. 2s. ; mounted, on rollers, or in case, 31. 3«. ; on spring rollers, 62. 

Edward Stanford, 56, Charing CrosB, London. 

C 2 



GBNERAL MAP of AFBIO A.— By J. AwtoimrrH. Scale. 360 milet 
to ao inch ; siie. 22 incfaet by S6. Sheet, ooloored, 3$. ; mounted, in caae, bi. 

EQYPT.'MAP of EOTFT. OompIl<^ from the most aathentic materiiOi, and 
founded on the beat Aatronomical Obeervationa. By Oolonel W. U. Lbaks, 
R. A., LL.D., F.ItS. Scale. 10 mUea to an inch ; slie, 34 inches by 62. Two 
•beets, coloured, 21«. ; mounted, in ease, 28«. ; on roller, yamiahed, 3Ct. 

EGhYPT.'MAP of EGTPT: including the Peninsula of Mount Sinai By 
J. ARKowBMrrH. New Edition. Scale, 26 miles to an inch; size, 22 inches by 
26. Sheet, coloured. 3«.; mounted, in caae, bi. 

cluding the Coast of Ouinea, and the Isle of Fernando Po^ on the South, and the 
Western parts of Egypt and Darfiir, on the East. By J. AaBOwaaiiTa. Scak^ 
130 miles to an inch ; aiae, 26 Inches by 22. Sheet, oolonred, 3«. ; in case, 6s. 

AFBICA (80T7TH).— MAP of SOUTH AFRICA to 16 deg. South UUitode. 
By Hknht Hall, Draughtsman to the Royal Engineers. Cape Town. Scale, 60 
mtles to an inch ; size, 34 Inches by 28. Two sheets, coloured. lOt. id. ; 
mounted on linen, in case. 13i; 6d. ; on roller, vainiahed, 16s. 

TRANSVAAL. Scale, 80 miies to an inch. Size, 19 inches by 17. Golonxed. 
2s. ; in caae, 3«. 6d. 

AFRICA. Compiled by Hbkbt Hall. Scale, 26 miles to an inch; aiao, M 
inchea by 22. Sheet, 4s. ; mounted on linen, in ease, 6s. 

ComprUting Guinea and tbe Brtttah Possessions at Sierra Leone, on the Gambia, 
and the Gold Coast, ko. By J. ABBOwaMrrH. Scale, 60 miles to an inch. Two 
coloured sheets ; alxe of each, 22 inches by 26, 6s. Mounted, in caas^ lOi. 

AFRICA. Gape Colony, Natal, 4e. By Hbkbt Hall. Scale, 60 miles to ao 
inch ; size, 29 inches by 17. Sheet, price 4«. 6d. ; mounted, in case. 6s. 9d. 

FRONTIER of the CAPE COiiONY. Compiled 1^ Hbvet Hall. ScaIo, 
8 mllea to an inch ; size. 40 inchea by 38. Sheets, 18s. 6d. ; mounted oo linen, 
in case, 26i. ; on roller. Tamiahed. 3ls. 6d. 

NATAIi.— A MAP of the COLONY of NATAL. By Alexavdeb Maib, Land 
Surveyor, NataL Compiled from the Dlagrama and General Plans in the 
Surveyor-Genemrs Office, and from Data furnished by P. C. Sutbcblaiti). Esq., 
M.D., P.U.S., Surveyor^Gcneral. Scale, 4 milea to an inch ; size. 64 inches by 80. 
Coloured, Four Sheets, 22. 6s. ; mounted, in case, or on rollers. Tarnished, Sri. 

NAT AX.— MAP of the COLONY of NATAL. Compiled in the Surreyor- 
Geueral'B Office. Size, Hi Inchea by 14 1. Sheet, coloured. Is. 64. ; in caae. 3s. 

NUBIA and ABYSSINIA, including Darfur, Kordofan. and part of Arabia. 
By J. Abhowsm iTH. Scale, 65 miles to an inch ; size, 2§ inchea by 22. 
coloured, 3s. ; mounted, hi caae, 5s. 

Edwaxd Stanford, 06, Charing Cross, London. 

66th Parallel North LaUtode, showing the New Gold Fields of Omineca, he 
Scale, 25 miles to an Inch ; sixe, 39 Inches by 27. Price, in sheet, coloured, 
It. 6d, i or moanted on linen, in case, 10<. 6<i. 

CANADA.— MAP of UPPER and LOWER CANADA, New Bmnswick, Nova 
Scotia, Prinoe Edward's Island, Gape Breton Island, Newfoundland, and a large 
portion of the United States. ^ J. Arbowsmith. Scale, 36 miles to an inch ; 
size, 40 inches by 26. Two sheets, coloured, 6f.; mounted, in case, lOt.; on 
roller, varnished, 16«. 

with Canada, New Brunswick, Jtc. Scale, 64i miles to an inch ; size, 67 inches 
by 36. Two sheets, coloured, 2U. ; case, 26t. ; on rollers. Tarnished, 30s. 

STAri!:S. Scale. 90 miles to an inch ; size, 40 Inches by 25. Coloured sheet, 
7«. 6d. ; mounted, in case, 10s. 9d. ; on roller. Tarnished, l&s. 

UNI I'ED STATES. Scale, 120 miles to an inch ; size, 29 inches by 17i. Two 
sheets* coloured, 4«. 6d. ; mounted on linen. In case, 6s. 6(L 

UANITOBA.— MAP of MANITOBA. Scale, 33 milea to an inch; size, 26 
inches by 22. Coloured sheet, 3f . ; mounted, in case, 5t. 

including the States of Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa 
Rica. Scale, 8 miles to an inch ; size, 40 inches by 27. Sheet, 7s. 6d. ; mounted 
on linen, in case, lOs. 6d. ; on roller, Tsmlshed, 14s. 

Brigadier-Qeneral Pedro Gahcia Cokds. Engraved from the Original Surrey 
made by order of the Mexican Government. Size, 50 Inches by 37. Sheets, 
price, 10*. 9d. ; mounted on linen, in case, 18c. 

BEEMUDAS.— MAP of the BERMUDAS. Published by directloD of His 
Excellency MflJor<Oeneral J. H. Ixnor, C.B., R.A., Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief of tlie BermadAS. Scale, 24 miles to an inch; size, 62 Indies by 63. 
Mounted, in cose, or on roller, vanusbed, 21s. 

8XITB. Scale, 90 miles to an Indi ; size, 26 inches by 22. Sheet, coloured, 3s. ; 
mounted. In case. 6s. 

Tbom AS Mabkison, Gtovemment Surveyor, Kingston, Jamaica, under the dlreo> 
tion of MiOoi'*'}^oo^ J* K. Makv, KE., Director of Roads and Surveyor-Geneml. 
Scale, 2^ milf s to an inch ; sixe, 64 inches by 27. Mounted, in case, or on roller, 
vamiBhed, 2ls. 

BAEBADOES.— Topographical Map, based upon Maya's Original Surrey In 
1721, and corrected to the year 1846. By Sir Robbrt H. Schombitboh, K.R.E. 
Scale, 2 miles to an Inch ; size, 40 inches by 60. Two sheets, coloured, 21«. ; 
mounted, in case, 2M. ; on roller. Tarnished, 37s. 

Edward Stanford, 65, Charing Cross, London. 


AXTSTBAIiASIA.— This Map inclndet Anttnlla. TaBaanU, New Zaalasd. 
Borneo, and the Malay Archipelago. The Natural Featorea are aocorately and 
distinctly represenU d. and the Tracka of all the Australian Travellers up to the 

f resent time are laid down. The Dtviaiona of the British Posaeniuna Into 
tovincea and Counties are ahown. Scale, 86 milea to an Inch; aiie, 68 ioches 
by 60. Price, mounted on linen, on roller, yamiahed, 13«. 

AUSTBAIilA. — With all the Recent Kzplorationa, Tracks of the Prlndpsa 
Explorers, the Roads. Railways, Telticrapha, and Altitude. Originally Drawn 
by. and Engraved under the immediate supertntendenoe ot the late J<aa 
ARBOwaMriH. Revised and Corrected to preeent date. Scale, 80 miles to an 
inch ; slxe, 4i inches by 26. Sheets, ooloured, U. ; mounted in caae^ lOf . 

WESTERN ATJSTRALIA.~With Plans of Perth, Fremantle, and QuUd- 
ford. From the Surveys of John Septimus Roe, Esq., Surveyor-Genenl, and from 
other Official Docnmenta in the Colonial Office and Admiralty. By J. Abbow* 
SHiTH. Scale, 16 mUes to an Inch ; sixe, 40 inches by 23. Two aheeta» ootoored, 
6«. ; In oase, 10«. 

S0T7TK ATJ8TEALIA.— Showing the Divlston Into Counties of the settled 
portions of the Province. With Situation of Mines of Cornier and Lead. From 
the Surveys of Gapt. Frome, R^., Surveyor-Oeneral of the Colony. By J. 
ABBOWsifiTH. Scale, 14 miles to an indi ; else, 32 Inchea by 26. Sheet, 
coloored, 3«. ; In case, 6«. 

gUEENSIJkND (North-Eastem AustralU) : Compiled fhmi the most reli- 
able Authorltiea. Scale, 64 miles to an inch ; sixe, 18 inches by 33. In sheets, 
coloured, 2s. 6cL ; mounted on linen, in case, U. 6d. 

Showing all the Roads, Rivers, Towna, CounUes, Gold Dlgginga, Sheep sad 
Cattle Stations, kc Scale, 20 miles to an inch; siie, 31 Inches hj 31. la 
sheet, 2t. 6d. ; or mounted on linen, in case, 4s. 642. 

NEW ZEAULND.— With aU Recent Topographical Infonnatloo, New Ad- 
ministrative Divisions, Railways, Submarine Telegraphs, he Slse, 34 inches 
by 42; scale, 26 miles to an taich. Price, mounted in case or on roller, vai*- 
nlshed, 9$, 

from the most recent Documents. Scale, 64 miles to an inch ; sise. If inchei 
by 9. Full-coloured, la sheet, 2s. ; mounted on linen, in case, 3f . 6d. 

NEW ZEAUkND.—From Official Documents. By J. Akbowbmitil Scale 
38 milea to an inch; sise^ 22 Inches by 26. Sheet, cokmred. 3s.{ monnfeed, lA 
case, 6s. 

TASMANIA (Van Diemen's Land).— From MS. Surveys in ihm 
Colonial Office, and in the Van Dlemen's LandCompany'a Offiee. By J. Abbow- 
SMITH. Scale, 10^ miles to an inch; siae, 22 Inches by 26. Sheet, colooxed^ 3s. ; 
ffloiinied in case, 6s. 



(^taloffitd plaps* 

Sir A. C. Raxsat, LL.D., K.K.S., Late Director-GenerAl of the Geological 
Surreys of the United Kingdom. Scale, Hi milea to an inch; lixe, 60 Inches 
Ij 68. Mounted on rollers, vamished, 42f. 

ISLES. Compiled under the Superintendence of £. Bkst, HJf. Geological 
Surrey. Scale, 25 milea to an Inch; sise, 23 Inches by 29. 

SNQLAKD and WAI<XtS. By Sir Aitdrkw a Rakbat, LL.D., F.R.S., 
late Director-General of the Geological Surreys of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and Professor of Geology at the Royal School of Mines. This Map shows aU 
the Railways, Roads, Jtc, and when mounted in case, folds into a oontrenient 
pocket size, making an excellent Travelling Map. Scale, 12 miles to an inch ; 
sise, 36 inches by 4X Fourth Edition, with Corrections and Additions. Price, in 
sheet, 11. 6t. s mounted on linen, in case, Ik lOi. ; or on roller, Tamishcd. II. 12«. 

BNOIiAin) and WAIiBS. Showing the Inlsnd NayigaUon, RaUways, 
Roads, Minerals, ftc By J. Abbowsmitb. Scale, 18 miles to an inch ; sixe, 
22 inches by 26. One sheet, 12f . ; mounted in case, 16f . 

EAST of ENGLAND and Pkrt of France; Includhig the Weald and the Baa 
Bonlonnais. By Wiluax Toplbt, F.G.S., Geological Survey of England and 
Wales, and J. B. Johdaw, Mining Record Office. Scale, 4 miles to an inch 
horizontal, and 2,400 feet to an inch vertical. Coloured and varnished in black 
Ihune, to hang up, 6i ; or packed in case for sadTe transit^ U. 6«. 

LONDOfT. Geologically Coloured. By Jambs B. Jordan, from the Maps of 
the Geolc^cal Survey. Scale, 6 Inches to a mile; siie. 66 indies by 76. 
Twenty-four sheeto in a portfolio, 2L 12«. 6<i. ; mounted in morocco case, or on 
roller, varnished, 4t ; spring roller, 6L 6f . 

LONDON and iU ENVIB0N8. Scale, 1 taich to a mile ; else, 24 inches 

ar 26. Compiled ftom various authorities by J. B. Juroan, Esq., of the 
hdng Record Office. Second Edition. Price, folded In cover, 6«. ; mounted 
on linen, in esse, 7«. 6d. ; or on roller, varnished, 9t, 

Founded on the Mans of the Geological Survey of Sir Richard 
Griffith and of Professor J. B. Jukes. By Edward Hum M.A^ F.R.S., 
Director of H.M.'s Geological Survey of Ireland. Scale, 8 miles to an inch ; 
sise, 31 Inches by 39. Price, in sheets, 2&«.; mounted on linen, in case, SOt.; 
on rollers, varnished, 32«. 

OANADA and the ADJACENT BEaiONS, Including Parts of the 
other BRl riSH PKOVINCES and of the UNITED STATES. By Sir W. £. 
Loo AN, F.RJB., to;.. Director of the Geological Survey of Canada. Scale, 26 miles 
to an Inch ; sise, 102 inches by 45. On eight sheets, 3X. 10«. ; mounted <m Unen, 
on roller, varoished, or in two parts to fold in morocoo esse, 6L 6«. 

AuxANDBR MuRRAT. F.G.S., ssslsted by Jamxs p. Howlbt, and Drawn by 
BoBRRT Baklow. Scale, 26 miles to an inch ; sise, 26 inches by 26. One 
sheets 10s. ; mounted in case, 12«. 6d. 

Edward Stanford, 65, Charing Cross, London. 




Prepared under the dlrectioo of the Committee of Oenenl Ltteraiare and EdnoMton 
appointed tar the Sootbtt voh pBoxonKO Chbxbtiax Kvowlsdob, and of tbe 
Kational SocncTT ros Pboxotixq thx EnncATioir op the Poos. 

Used by Her MaJett 7*8 Oonernment for tbe Army and Nary Schools, etc ; The 
CommlsaloDen of National Education (Ireland); Ttae Princli»l School BoerdB. 
incloding those of London, Edinboush, Btrmtngliain, Bradford, Glasgow, Uverpool, 
Manchester, etc^ and the chief Edoeatloaal Eatabliahments of Great Britain and the 


Constmcted npon the principle of combining with Geographical aocmracy and 
systematic arrangement toe bold oaUine and lettering reqnlaite lor tmrhlng 
They also indode all the latent discoveries and political cfaangeSb 

Sixe of each Map, 60 inches by 68. Price, Mounted on BoUer, YanJsbed, 13k . ^ 

The World (Keroator's Pro- 
Bastem Hemisphere. 
Weetem Hesiisphere. 
England and Wales, 

Holy Land. 



North America. 

South America. 


Victoria (Anetralia). 

New South Wales. 

Kew Zealand. 

The Hemispheres can also be had, mounted as one Map; slxe, 100 loebee by B8.* 

Price 26«. 


Seduced from or supplementing the Series Published under the direction of the 
Committee of General Literature and Education appointed t^ tbe SodXTX 
PBOKonxo CBHiSTXAir KxowLKDos, and of the Katioval Socbtt. 

Sise. 34 faicbes by 43. Price, Mounted on Boiler, Yamlshed, 9fc 

The British Isles. 

England and Wales. 



Old Testament (Palestine). 

Kew Testament CPalestlne). 

Acts and Epistles. 

Jonmeylnffs of the OhUd- 
ren of IsraeL 


New Zealand. 

Edward Stanford, 55, Oharing CroM, London. 





Then New Maps retaJn all the characteristic boldness of the larger Serlee^ and ar« 

■pedaUj suitable for Small Classes. 
8iM,2T Inches by 32- Price. MoraHad on Roller, yamlshed, es. 

Bastem HemlBphere. 
Western Hemispliere. 

British Isles. 

Bnffland and Wales. 





Boly ^^ft ^n d f 

Old Testament (Palestine). 

The Hemispheres can also be had. mounted as one Map: slie, 64 Inches bj 8X 
Price, Coloured, on Roller, Varnished, 12i. 

Kew Testament (Pales- 

Acts and Epistles. 

JonmeTinffs of the Ohlld- 
ren of IsraeL i 

India. .Ji 


North America. 

South America. 





Scale, 8 miles to an inch ; sice. 76 inches by 90. Prices Mounted on 

Roller, Varnished, 42*. 
The Map fo oonstracted with the greatest care and accoraey, and has nnderfOiM 
rigid scrutiny. It contains every pl:.<» in Great Britain with 2000 inbaUtanta and 
upwards, snd every place In Ireland with 1600 and upwards; also, the principal 
Tillages, railway Junctions, battle fields, kc. The Outline and Hills are rednoed 
from the Qntnanoe Survey, as far as it has been carried. 

Scak^ 3| miles to an Inch; else, 8 ftet by 9 feet 6 Inches. Price, Momtad oo 

Roller, Vaznisbed, 63f . 
The largest and nandeet Map of England and Wales for school use ever published 
In this country. It is a careful redaction of the Ordnance Survey with the chief 
physical feakorea emphasised to produce a striking picture, retaining at the same 
time the aocuraqr of detail for which our Government maps are funons. 

This map ia also published on the reduced scale of 6 miles to an inch; siss* € fbst 
10 inches bj 8 feet; prioe, mounted on roller, 42«. 



Embntdng. when Mounted, Mans of the Holy Liaod, Illustratlns the Old TesCa- 
ment; the Peninsula of SInal; the Holy Land, Dlustrating the New Testament 
Qcspela; and the Mediterranean Lands, Hlustrating the Acts and Epistles. With 
Eight Supplementary Maps. Biie, 1 feet by T feet ; price, oo roUen^ varnished, 28il 

Edward Stanfbrdi 66, Charing CroM, London. 

26 SK£BOin> UST. 



For 086 la Schools and Oolleges. Edited by A. G. Baxbat, LL.D^ F.KJ3^ te^ 
Dlrectar-Ge&eral of the Geological Sorreya of the United Etatgdom. 

This aeries of Qrographical Maps haa been prepared in order to surolj the want 
long felt In Schools wnere Phyaical Geography Is taught, of good and reliable 
scientific mi^ML 

This aeries alms at exhibiting in the flnt place, and Dromlnently, the foims of 
rdief and of oontoor of the land masees of the globe, and next of the sea bed. At 
once a general idea is gained by the youngest stndoat, on an inspection of the Map^ 
of the relative poaltlxm of the high, diy, and oold table-lands and moontalDoiu 
regions, and the warm, moist, and fertile plalna in eadi great division of the globe. 
For instance. In our own country it is seen at once why the eastern part Is devoted 
to agrlcnltaral purposes, and the western part to mining and manufacturing ; or by 
refe*ence to the Map of Europe we can raullly see how a rise in the level of the sea 
of a few hundreds of feet would suffice to Inundate the whole northern part of 
Europe ; and on the other liand, how the general upheaval of the land of a few hun- 
dreds of feet would alter the whole contour of Europe, ooonecttaig the Britiah Isles 
with the Oontinent, and annihilating the North Sea and the Baltic 

The Mqpe are uniform in scale and size with the Political Series already in uae, 
and which have aocmired so great a popularltv ; and will be found as accurate and 
uaefU in t^ftachlng rhyslcal Geography as the companion series are in PoUUcal 

Some of the series have been adopted by the School Board fhr London. 

BBITISH ISLBS. Moonted (m Unen, on roUers, vanished. Scale, 11^ mlki 
to an inch ; slie, 60 inches by 68. Price SOf . 

ENG-LANI) and WALBS. Mounted on linen, on rollen, Twnished. Scaki, 
8 miles to an inch; siae^ 60 inches by 68. JMoe 30i. 

SOOTIjAKD. Mounted on linen, on rollen, vanished. Scale, 8 miles to an 
inch; else, 84 Inchea by 42. Pltoe ISt, 

IBEIiAND. Mounted on linen, on rolleiSk vanished. Scale, 8 miles to an Inch; 
aiaei 34 inches l^ 42. Price 18«. 

BTJBOPE. Mounted on linen, on roUer% Tanlshed. Scale, 06 miles to an Inch; 
alse, 68 Inches by 60. Price 30«. 

^t^TA Mounted on linen, on roUsrs, vanished. Scale^ 140 miles to an hich; 
sise, 68 Inches by 60. Price 30c 

A7BI0A. Mounted on linen, on rollen, vanished. Scaler 116 miles to an inch; 
slie, 60 inches by 68. Price 30f. 

KOBTH AMEBIO A. Mounted on linen, on rollers. Tarnished. SoalSb 9t 
miles to an inch ; size, 60 inches l^ 68. Price 30f . 

SOUTH AJEEBIOA. Mounted on Unen, on roUen, vanished. Scalsb 9t 
miles to an inch; else, 60 inches by 68. Pries SOs. 

Edward Stanford, 65, Charing Crosa, X«ondoiu 


MAPS, for cJaaa teaching, constructed bj AuowncrrB, Waucsb, Ac Mew 
end reylaed edltiona, ooloored, mounted* end ▼emished. 

The World in Hemispheres. 81m, 51 inches by 26. Prioe I2i. 
The World (Mercator> Sice, ftO Inches by 32. Price 10c 
The British Isles. Slie, 51 inches by 41. Price lOf. 
Also the following, each 6«.. sise, 34 inches by 26 :-~ 


Australia i one 
New Zealand 3 Kap. 


Joumesrinffs of 
the Children of 

8. Paul's Voyaffes 
and Travels. . 


The World (globalar'), 2 feet 3 inches by 4 feet 3 Inches. Price, in ^dsin 
sheet, 2«. 6<i. ; coloured. 3t. ; mounted on rollers. It. 

The World (Mercator), 31 inches by 16 In. Price, in pUdn sheet. It.; 
coloured, 1«. 6(1. 

And the following, plain sheet, l«. 3d.\ ooloured, 2t.; mounted on rollers, ftff.| 
sise, 2 feet 10 inches by 2 feet 2 inches. 






Palestine (O. Test.). 



Palestine (N. Test.}. 

STANPOBD'S OUTUNE MAPS. Sise. IT inches by 14, printid on 
drawing paper. A Series of Qeographlcal Exercises, to be filled in tnaa the 
Uieftal Knowledge Society's Maps and Atlases. Price 6d. each. 

World in Hemi- 
spheres, West. 

World in Hemi- 
spheres, East. 

British Isles. 


Germany, General. 
Italy, General. 
Spain and Portu- 
Denmark. \ 
Sweden. I ^^^ 
Norway. J **»• 
Turkish Empire. 

Asia Minor. 





Egypt. ' 

America, North. 

Canada, and the B. 

United States. 
America, South. 
West India Islands. 
New Zealand. 

STANFOBD'S PBOJECTION SEBIES. Uniform In liaey price, Ac. 
with Stanford's Outline Maps. 

The OZFOBB SEBIES Of OUTLINE MAPS. 8iae,l6lnohesbjU. 
Price Sd. each. 

Edward Stanford, 55, Charixig Cross, London. 

giagrams xrf Ualural history. 

Tbete DIagnuns, compiled by the eminent Sdentlflc Men whoee namet are 
ajypended, are drawn with the atricteat regard to Nature, and engraved In the beat 
atyle of art. The Serlea oonsiata of Eleven Sa^Jecta, eaob arranged ao that it may be 
mounted in one sheet, or be divided into four aeoUona and folded In the form of a 
book, thua rendering them aTailable either for Claaa Exerciaea or lodiridoal Study. 

Frioe of each, mounted on roller and vamiahod. 6t. ; or folded In book form, 4a. 

F.R.G.S. Exhiblta nearly MO of the more prominent forma of Organic remains 
found in Britlah Strata. 


By J. W. LowRT. F.B.OJS. Thia Diagram ia almilarly arranged to No. 1« and 
illuatrates upwaxtb of 800 specimens of the Tertiary Formatioa. 

HL FOSSIL OBUSTAOEA. By J. W. Saltbh, AXJB, F.OjS, and H. 
WooDWuu), F.O.S., F.ZJSw Conaiatlng of about 600 Iliuatrationa of the Orders 
and Snb-Orden, and showing their Range in Geological time. 

IV. The VEQETABLE KINaDOM. By A. Hnmixr. Arranged 
according to tbe Natural System, each Order being illustmted by numerxma 
ezamplea of representative species. 

WooxywASD. Bepreaented in aix dasaea: Cephalopoda, Uluatrafced by 20 
examples; Gasteropoda, 4 Ordera, illastralied ujr 180 ezamplea; Pteropoda, 
fllustrated by 18 examples; Oonchifera, illuatrated by IfiS examples; BrKbk>- 
poda» illustrated by 11 examples ; and Tunicate, illustrated by 20 examplea. 

KEIilD A.— cmd ENTOZOA. By AnAX Whits and Dr. Biinu). The 
nnmeioaa Tribes represented under these Orders are illustrated bj upwards of 
180 examplea, including Gentlpedes, l^iden^ Crabs, SandlMqipets, Seamio^ 
SerpoIaSk LsedMS, &CL 

VIL nrSEOTS. By Adam Whri. Contains nesrly 260 drawing of tlw 
difTerent Orders: Coleoptera; Euplexoptera ; Orthoptera; TbyssBKiptsra— 
Thripldae^ Ac.; Nenroptera; Trlchoptera; Hymenoptera; Strepsipteim— 
Hylechthrus rubls; Lepidoptera; Homoptera-^Heleropteim; Diptera; and 

Till, FISHES. By P. H. Gosss. Showing over 130 of the most conspfcooos 
types, arranged in their Orders and FamiUea. 

K. BEFTHilA and AMPHIBIA. 9y Dfs. Bell and Baib». Oootalni 
106 figures of tbe principal typical forma. 

Z. BIBDS. By Gxosoa Qkax. Contains drawing of 230 of tbe le«liiig Olm- 

tratlve apedmeoa. 
XL •M-A-BnwAT.TA By Dr. Baxu>. Exhibits Itt of the chief lUostratioiis 

selected fhnn the several Ordos. 

Also, uniform in Prioe^ 

A OBOLOOIO AL SBOTION'. Showing the Order of Sopefpc e l U on and 
Approximate Maximum Thickness of Sedimentary Strata in the JBrltlah lalands. 
By Jakxs & JoxDAir. Scale, 3000 feet to 1 inch ; siie, 11 inchea by 40. 

OT7S STBATA. By Ubvrt Wiluam Bustow, F.R^, F.G^ Director 
of tbe Geological Survey of England and Walsa. The Descrlptioo of Life Groups 
and Diatfibntlon by B. EnxBiDoa, F.BA Second Bditton, revtaed. 

Sdward Stanford, 65, Ohftring OroMi London. 




Edited hj the Rev. J. P. Fauktbospk, M.A., Principal of Whltelands Tninlzig 
College. With original lllnetraUunB. Post 8yo, doth. 

Standard 1.— IlluBtrated Short Stories, &o. 84 pp. esL 
„ 2.— niustrated Easy Lessons. 164 pp. i«. 3cL 
„ 8.— Instructive Lessons. Illustrated. 206 pp. u. 6d. 
„ 4.— Original Stories and Selected Poems. 264 pp. u. 9d. 
„ 6.— Domestic Economy and Household Science. 

356 pp. 7a. 9d. 

„ 6.— Litezary Beadlnv Book. 386 pix 3f. 



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ft. ADMIBAIiTY OHABTS.-Oatalogae of Cbaita, PUna, Vleva. and 
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